In religion, a prophet is an individual, regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy. Claims of prophethood have existed in many cultures throughout history, including Judaism, Islam, in ancient Greek religion, Zoroastrianism and many others; the English word prophet is a compound Greek word, from the verb phesein. In Hebrew, the word נָבִיא, "spokesperson", traditionally translates as "prophet"; the second subdivision of the Hebrew Bible, TaNaKh, is devoted to the Hebrew prophets. The meaning of navi is described in Deuteronomy 18:18, where God said, "...and I will put My words in his mouth, he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." Thus, the navi was thought to be the "mouth" of God. The root nun-bet-alef is based on the two-letter root nun-bet. Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7.
In addition to writing and speaking messages from God, Israelite or Jewish nevi'im acted out prophetic parables in their life. For example, in order to contrast the people’s disobedience with the obedience of the Rechabites, God has Jeremiah invite the Rechabites to drink wine, in disobedience to their ancestor’s command; the Rechabites refuse, wherefore God commends them. Other prophetic parables acted out by Jeremiah include burying a linen belt so that it gets ruined to illustrate how God intends to ruin Judah's pride. Jeremiah buys a clay jar and smashes it in the Valley of Ben Hinnom in front of elders and priests to illustrate that God will smash the nation of Judah and the city of Judah beyond repair. God instructs Jeremiah to make a yoke from wood and leather straps and to put it on his own neck to demonstrate how God will put the nation under the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In a similar way, the prophet Isaiah had to walk stripped and barefoot for three years to illustrate the coming captivity, the prophet Ezekiel had to lie on his side for 390 days and eat measured food to illustrate the coming siege.
The prophetic assignment is not always portrayed as positive in the Hebrew Bible, prophets were the target of persecution and opposition. God’s personal prediction for Jeremiah, "Attack you they will, overcome you they can't," was performed many times in the biblical narrative as Jeremiah warned of destruction of those who continued to refuse repentance and accept more moderate consequences. In return for his adherence to God’s discipline and speaking God’s words, Jeremiah was attacked by his own brothers and put into the stocks by a priest and false prophet, imprisoned by the king, threatened with death, thrown into a cistern by Judah’s officials, opposed by a false prophet. Isaiah was told by his hearers who rejected his message, "Leave the way! Get off the path! Let us hear no more about the Holy One of Israel!" The life of Moses being threatened by Pharaoh is another example. According to I Samuel 9:9, the old name for navi is ro'eh, רֹאֶה, which means "Seer"; that could document an ancient shift, from viewing prophets as seers for hire to viewing them as moral teachers.
Allen comments that in the First Temple Era, there were seer-priests, who formed a guild, performed rituals and sacrifices, were scribes, there were canonical prophets, who did none of these and had instead a message to deliver. The seer-priests were attached to a local shrine or temple, such as Shiloh, initiated others as priests in that priesthood: it was a mystical craft-guild with apprentices and recruitment. Canonical prophets were not organised this way; some examples of prophets in the Tanakh include Abraham, Miriam, Samuel, Ezekiel and Job. In Jewish tradition Daniel is not counted in the list of prophets. A Jewish tradition suggests that there were twice as many prophets as the number which left Egypt, which would make 1,200,000 prophets; the Talmud recognizes the existence of 48 male prophets who bequeathed permanent messages to mankind. According to the Talmud there were seven women who are counted as prophetesses whose message bears relevance for all generations: Sarah, Devorah, Abigail and Esther.
The Talmudic and Biblical commentator Rashi points out that Rebecca and Leah were prophets. Isaiah 8:3-4refers he married "the prophetess", which conceived and gave to him a son, named by God Mahèr-salàl-cash-baz, her name isn't elsewhere specified. Prophets in Tanakh are not always Jews; the story of Balaam in Numbers 22 describes a non-Jewish prophet. According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism; the last nevi'im mentioned in the Jewish Bible are Haggai and Malachi, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. The Talmud states that Haggai and Malachi were the last prophets, nowadays only the "Bath Kol" exists. In Christianity, a prophet is one inspired by God through the Holy Spirit to deliver a message; some Christian denominations limit a prophet's message to words int
In Christian theology, Jesus is sometimes referred to as a Redeemer. This refers to the salvation he is believed to have accomplished, is based on the metaphor of redemption, or "buying back". Although the Gospels do not use the title "Redeemer", the word "redemption" is used in several of Paul's letters. Leon Morris says that "Paul uses the concept of redemption to speak of the saving significance of the death of Christ." The English word redemption means "repurchase" or "buy back", in the Old Testament referred to the ransom of slaves. In the New Testament the redemption word group is used to refer both to deliverance from sin and freedom from captivity; the concept of the redeemer is used in the Book of Ruth to refer to the kinsman-redeemer, in the Book of Isaiah to refer to God, the "Redeemer of Israel". Many Christian churches are named "Redeemer", such as Redeemer Presbyterian Church and the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem. Other institutions which carry the name are the Roman Catholic Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer and Redeemer University College in Ancaster, Ontario.
The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is a famous landmark. In Job 19:25, Job makes the statement, "I know that my Redeemer liveth." This has been used in Christian hymnody, such as Charles Wesley's I Know That My Redeemer Lives, the first words to the song "Antioch 277" in the shape note song book The Sacred Harp are "I know that my Redeemer lives, Glory Hallelujah!". It appears as an aria, I know that my Redeemer liveth, in Handel's Messiah; the New Testament speaks of Christ as the one Saviour for all people. The First Epistle of John says that Jesus is "the propitiation for our sins and not for ours only but for the sins of the world". Adherents of unlimited atonement interpret this to mean that Jesus' redemptive role is for all people without exception, while adherents of limited atonement interpret it as being for all people without distinction—for Gentiles as well as Jews; the first Christians recognized Jesus' redemptive role to be unique and definitive. In particular, his universal role means that through him the deadly forces of evil are overcome, sin is forgiven, their contamination purified, the new existence as God's beloved, adopted children has been made available.
This New Testament sense of Christ's indispensable and necessary role for human salvation could be summarized by a new axiom: extra Christum nulla salus. This sense of his all-determining role in the whole redemptive drama is suggested by a fact: unlike the Old Testament, where various human beings could be called "saviour", the New Testament gives the title "Saviour" only to God and to Christ. Christology Jesus as the Logos Jesus in Christianity Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Messiah: Christianity Second Adam
Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms, it focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary; the Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius; the other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition.
It is accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. The poems are in Homeric Greek known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries. Most researchers believe that the poems were transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music and film; the Homeric epics were the greatest influence on education. Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, the Phocais; these claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world.
As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. Many traditions circulated in the ancient world concerning Homer. Modern scholarly consensus is; some claims were repeated often. They include that Homer was blind, that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works, that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, various explanations for the name "Homer"; the two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia; the earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral.
The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures, they were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; as a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, many interpreters the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom; because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so praised that he began to acquire the image of a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries and scholia to Homer in the twelfth century.
Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000. In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems; the earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more read than Homer and Homer was seen through a Virgilian lens. In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a s
Erythrae or Erythrai Litri, was one of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor, situated 22 km north-east of the port of Cyssus, on a small peninsula stretching into the Bay of Erythrae, at an equal distance from the mountains Mimas and Corycus, directly opposite the island of Chios. It is recorded. Erythrae was notable for being the seat of the Erythraean Sibyl; the ruins of the city are found north of the town Ildırı in the Çeşme district of Izmir Province, Turkey. According to Pausanias, Erythrae was founded by Cretan settlers under the leadership of Erythrus, son of Rhadamanthus, at the same time inhabited by Lycians and Pamphylians. At a period came Knopos, son of Codrus, with an Ionian colony, whence the city is sometimes called Cnopopolis; the city did not lie on the coast, but some little distance inland, had a harbor on the coast named Cissus. In the 7th century BC as an Ionian city of Asia Minor, Erythrae was a member of the Pan-Ionian League. Sometime during the 7th century Erythrae fought a war against the neighbouring island of Chios..
The city gained fame as a producer of millstone during the period of tyrannical rule. Erythrae was never a large city, it sent only eight ships to the Battle of Lade; the Erythraeans were for a considerable time subject to the supremacy of Athens, but towards the close of the Peloponnesian War they threw off their allegiance to that city. After the battle of Cnidus, they received Conon, paid him honours in an inscription, still extant. Erythrae was the birthplace of two prophetesses --one of whom, Sibylla, is mentioned by Strabo as living in the early period of the city; the Erythraean Sibyl presided over the Apollonian oracle. About 453 BC Erythrae, refusing to pay tribute, seceded from the Delian League. A garrison and a new government restored the union, but late in the Peloponnesian War it revolted again with Chios and Clazomenae, it was allied alternately with Athens and Persia. About the middle of the 4th century BC the city became friendly with Mausolus: in an inscription found on the site he is called a benefactor of Erythrae.
About the same time the city signed a treaty with Hermias, Tyrant of Assus and Atarneus, based on reciprocal aid in the event of war. In 334 BC the city regained its freedom through Alexander the Great who, according to Pliny and Pausanias, planned to cut a canal through the peninsula of Erythrae to connect Teos bay with the gulf of Smyrna; when Alexander returned to Memphis in April 331 BC, envoys from Greece were waiting for him, saying that the oracles at Didyma and Erythrae, silent for a long time, had spoken and confirmed that Alexander was the son of Zeus. The timing proves that Alexander was thinking that he was of a more than human nature when he entered Greece: after all, the people of Didyma and Erythrae can never have known that Alexander was recognized as the son of Ra and wanted to be called'son of Zeus'. Erythrae was associated with Pergamum and with Rome, after the death of Attalos III in 133 BC, when the Pergamene kingdom was bequeathed to the Romans, it flourished as a free city attached to the Roman province of Asia.
At this time, Erythrae was renowned for its wine, goats and millstones, as well as its prophetic sibyls and Athenais. In the Roman period the city was plundered and its importance faded after the earthquakes of that region in the 1st century AD; the city experienced a revival of some sorts under the Roman Empire and into the Byzantine period. Bishops are attested from 431 to 1292, an archon, a minor governor, was based in the city in the 9th and 10th centuries. Pausanias, at the Description of Greece writes that in the city there was a temple of Athena Polias and a huge wooden image of her sitting on a throne, she holds a distaff in either hand and wears a firmament on her head. From the mid-18th century until the early 20th century, Litri was a considerable place and port, extending from the ancient harbour to the acropolis, it attracted smaller coasting steamers, there was an active trade with Chios and Smyrna. The archaeological site is situated within the settlement zone of the present-day Turkish village of Ildırı.
The site was explored in depth in the 1960s by Professor Ekrem Akurgal, leading to precious discoveries, but has been left somewhat unattended since. The ruins include well-preserved Hellenistic walls with towers; the acropolis has a theatre on its northern slope, eastwards lie many remains of Byzantine buildings. List of traditional Greek place names This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Erythrae". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 758. Some of the text has been found on the website dedicated to the museum of The Temple of Athena in Erythrae which can be found in the external links section of this page. History of Erythrae Created by Dale E. Landon, Professor Emeritus of History, Indiana University of Pennsylvania The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites Encyclopædia Britannica Concise View Erythrai in Google Earth The Temple of Athena Polias at Erythrae
An oracle is a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods. As such it is a form of divination; the word oracle comes from the Latin verb ōrāre, "to speak" and properly refers to the priest or priestess uttering the prediction. In extended use, oracle may refer to the site of the oracle, to the oracular utterances themselves, called khrēsmē in Greek. Oracles were thought to be portals through. In this sense they were different from seers who interpreted signs sent by the gods through bird signs, animal entrails, other various methods; the most important oracles of Greek antiquity were Pythia, priestess to Apollo at Delphi, the oracle of Dione and Zeus at Dodona in Epirus. Other oracles of Apollo were located at Didyma and Mallus on the coast of Anatolia, at Corinth and Bassae in the Peloponnese, at the islands of Delos and Aegina in the Aegean Sea; the Sibylline Oracles are a collection of oracular utterances written in Greek hexameters ascribed to the Sibyls, prophetesses who uttered divine revelations in frenzied states.
Walter Burkert observes that "Frenzied women from whose lips the god speaks" are recorded in the Near East as in Mari in the second millennium BC and in Assyria in the first millennium BC. In Egypt the goddess Wadjet was depicted as a woman with two snake-heads, her oracle was in the renowned temple in Per-Wadjet. The oracle of Wadjet may have been the source for the oracular tradition which spread from Egypt to Greece. Evans linked Wadjet with the "Minoan Snake Goddess". At the oracle of Dodona she is called Diōnē, who represents the earth-fertile soil the chief female goddess of the proto-Indo-European pantheon. Python, daughter of Gaia was the earth dragon of Delphi represented as a serpent and became the chthonic deity, enemy of Apollo, who slew her and possessed the oracle; the Pythia was the mouthpiece of the oracles of the god Apollo, was known as the Oracle of Delphi. The Pythia was not conceived to be infallible and in fact, according to Sourvinou-Inwood in What is Polis Religion?, the ancient Greeks were aware of this and concluded the unknowability of the divine.
In this way, the revelations of the Oracles were not seen as objective truth. The Pythia gave prophecies only on the seventh day of each month, seven being the number most associated with Apollo, during the nine warmer months of the year. Many wealthy individuals bypassed the hordes of people attempting a consultation by making additional animal sacrifices to please the oracle lest their request go unanswered; as a result, seers were the main source of everyday divination. The temple was changed to a centre for the worship of Apollo during the classical period of Greece and priests were added to the temple organization—although the tradition regarding prophecy remained unchanged—and the priestesses continued to provide the services of the oracle exclusively, it is from this institution. The Delphic Oracle exerted considerable influence throughout Hellenic culture. Distinctively, this female was the highest authority both civilly and religiously in male-dominated ancient Greece, she responded to the questions of citizens, foreigners and philosophers on issues of political impact, duty, family, laws—even personal issues.
The semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world, such as Lydia and Egypt respected her and came to Delphi as supplicants. Croesus, king of Lydia beginning in 560 B. C. tested the oracles of the world to discover. He sent out emissaries to seven sites who were all to ask the oracles on the same day what the king was doing at that moment. Croesus proclaimed the oracle at Delphi to be the most accurate, who reported that the king was making a lamb-and-tortoise stew, so he graced her with a magnitude of precious gifts, he consulted Delphi before attacking Persia, according to Herodotus was advised: "If you cross the river, a great empire will be destroyed". Believing the response favourable, Croesus attacked, but it was his own empire, destroyed by the Persians, she also proclaimed that there was no man wiser than Socrates, to which Socrates said that, if so, this was because he alone was aware of his own ignorance. After this confrontation, Socrates dedicated his life to a search for knowledge, one of the founding events of western philosophy.
He claimed that she was "an essential guide to personal and state development." This oracle's last recorded response was given in 362 AD. The oracle's powers were sought after and never doubted. Any inconsistencies between prophecies and events were dismissed as failure to interpret the responses, not an error of the oracle. Prophecies were worded ambiguously, so as to cover all contingencies – so ex post facto. One famous such response to a query about participation in a military campaign was "You will go you will return never in war will you perish"; this gives the recipient liberty to place a comma before or after the word "never", thus covering both possible outcomes. Another was the response to the Athenians when the vast army of king Xerxes I was approaching Athens with the intent of razing the city to the ground. "Only the wooden palisades may save you", answered the oracle aware that there was se
Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit, part of the North Aegean region; the principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios. Locals refer to Chios town as "Chora", it was the site of the Chios massacre in which tens of thousands of Greeks on the island were killed by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822. Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 km long from north to south, 29 km at its widest, covering an area of 842.289 km2. The terrain is arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island; the two largest of these mountains and Epos, are situated in the north of the island.
The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas. Chios can be divided into five regions: Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main town of Chios, the regions of Vrontados and Kambos. Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour and medieval castle; the current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400 m, was principally constructed during the time of Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found dating settlements there back to 2000 B. C; the town was damaged by an earthquake in 1881, only retains its original character. North of Chios Town lies the large suburb of Vrontados; the suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, its connection to the poet is supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's Rock". In the southern region of the island are the Mastichochoria, the seven villages of Mesta, Olympi, Vessa and Elata, which together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area since the Roman period.
The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria lie a large number of historic villages including Armolia and Kalimassia. Along the east coast are the fishing villages to the south, Nenita. Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, after three monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he was in exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822, it was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. In 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni was converted to a convent; the island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate, with modest variation due to the stabilising effect of the surrounding sea.
Average temperatures range from a summer high of 27 °C to a winter low of 11 °C in January, although temperatures of over 40 °C or below freezing can sometimes be encountered. The island experiences steady breezes throughout the year, with wind direction predominantly northerly or southwesterly; the Chios Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the Aegean Sea adjacent to the island of Chios. Known as "Ophioussa" and "Pityoussa" in antiquity, during the Middle Ages the island was ruled by a number of non-Greek powers and was known as Scio and Sakız; the capital during that time was "Kastron". Archaeological research on Chios has found evidence of habitation dating back at least to the Neolithic era; the primary sites of research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio Galas in the north and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern-day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on this period; the size and duration of these settlements have therefore not been well-established.
The British School at Athens under the direction of Sinclair Hood excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, most current information comes from these digs. The Greek Archaeological Service has been excavating periodically on Chios since 1970, though much of its work on the island remains unpublished; the noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction during the Neolithic era on the island. The inhabitants all benefited from agricultural and livestock farming, it is widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied by humans during the Middle Bronze Age, though researchers have suggested that the lack of evidence from this period may o
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia. A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon, it was a small provincial town during the Akkadian Empire but expanded during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called "the country of Akkad", a deliberate archaism in reference to the previous glory of the Akkadian Empire, it was involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria to the north and Elam to the east in Ancient Iran. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi created a short-lived empire, succeeding the earlier Akkadian Empire, Third Dynasty of Ur, Old Assyrian Empire; the Babylonian Empire, however fell apart after the death of Hammurabi and reverted to a small kingdom. Like Assyria, the Babylonian state retained the written Akkadian language for official use, despite its Northwest Semitic-speaking Amorite founders and Kassite successors, who spoke a language isolate, not being native Mesopotamians.
It retained the Sumerian language for religious use, but by the time Babylon was founded, this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian. The earlier Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in Babylonian and Assyrian culture, the region would remain an important cultural center under its protracted periods of outside rule; the earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a clay tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC. Babylon was a religious and cultural centre at this point and neither an independent state nor a large city. After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire, the south Mesopotamian region was dominated by the Gutian people for a few decades before the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which restored order to the region and which, apart from northern Assyria, encompassed the whole of Mesopotamia, including the town of Babylon. Mesopotamia had enjoyed a long history prior to the emergence of Babylon, with Sumerian civilisation emerging in the region c. 3500 BC, the Akkadian-speaking people appearing by the 30th century BC.
During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis occurred between Sumerian and Akkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian and vice versa is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence; this has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the third and the second millennium BC. From c. 3500 BC until the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC, Mesopotamia had been dominated by Sumerian cities and city states, such as Ur, Uruk, Isin, Adab, Gasur, Hamazi, Akshak and Umma, although Semitic Akkadian names began to appear on the king lists of some of these states between the 29th and 25th centuries BC. Traditionally, the major religious center of all Mesopotamia was the city of Nippur where the god Enlil was supreme, it would remain so until replaced by Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi in the mid-18th century BC.
The Akkadian Empire saw the Akkadian Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia unite under one rule, the Akkadians attain ascendancy over the Sumerians and indeed come to dominate much of the ancient Near East. The empire disintegrated due to economic decline, climate change and civil war, followed by attacks by the Gutians from the Zagros Mountains. Sumer rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur in the late 22nd century BC, ejected the Gutians from southern Mesopotamia, they seem to have gained ascendancy over much of the territory of the Akkadian kings of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia for a time. Followed by the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites in 2002 BC, the Amorites, a foreign Northwest Semitic-speaking people, began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia from the northern Levant gaining control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north; the states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite advance, for a time may have relied on their fellow Akkadians in Assyria for protection.
King Ilu-shuma of the Old Assyrian Empire in a known inscription describes his exploits to the south as follows: The freedom of the Akkadians and their children I established. I purified their copper. I established their freedom from the border of the marshes and Ur and Nippur and Kish, Der of the goddess Ishtar, as far as the City of. Past scholars extrapolated from this text that it means he defeated the invading Amorites to the south and Elamites to the east, but there is no explicit record of that, some scholars believe the Assyrian kings were giving preferential trade agreements to the south; these policies were continued by Ikunum. However, when Sargon I s