Ernest Mancoba was an avant-garde artist, born in South Africa, who spent the majority of his life in Europe. He was probably South Africas first professional Black modern artist, born in Johannesburg, the son of a miner, Mancoba grew up on the Rand and was eventually sent to Grace Dieu near Pietersburg for his secondary schooling by his uncle, an Anglican minister. After graduating, he was hired at Grace Dieu as a teacher in 1924. Mancobas interest in art began in 1925 with the arrival of a teacher named Ned Paterson at Grace Dieu. Paterson, a recent art school graduate preparing for the ministry, introduced wood carving, Mancoba took up woodcarving, which he would specialize in until moving to France in 1938. Initially Mancoba produced decorated pieces of furniture in the carpentry shop. In 1929 he decided to move to try freestanding sculpture, African Madonna is probably the first modern sculpture produced by a Black South Africa, and is now on permanent display at the Johannesburg Art Gallery.
Along with other Grace Dieu carvers, Mancoba began exhibiting at the South African Academy annual competitions, by this point he and his friend Gerard Sekoto began to dream of attending art school in Europe, for which they needed a B. A. After leaving Grace Dieu to attend the South African Native College at Fort Hare on scholarship, when his funds ran out, he dropped out of Fort Hare and survived by producing religious sculptures on commission, operating out of the Rhodes University Art Department. In 1937, Grace Dieu rehired Mancoba to teach English at an affiliate, the goal was for Mancoba to earn a living while completing received his undergraduate degree from the University of South Africa by correspondence. With encouragement from Gerard Sekoto, Mancoba succeeded and he left South Africa for Europe in 1938 when he received a scholarship to continue his studies in Paris, where he enrolled at the École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs. While in Paris he met fellow student Sonja Ferlov, whom he married, when the Germans occupied Paris during the Second World War, Mancoba was arrested and sent to a camp as a British subject.
Mancoba moved with Ferlov to Denmark after the end of the war and its members coming from former Danish group Linien in which Ferlov participated and Høst in which both Ernest Mancoba as Sonja Ferlov Mancoba participated. In the 1950s, Mancoba returned to Paris, where he became a French citizen and he died near Paris in 2002, aged 98. Once in Europe, Mancoba consciously abandoned the religious artistic tradition he had started out in, increasingly he turned to painting, and gave up sculpture entirely in 1950. His increasing interest in abstraction has been interpreted by Elizabeth Morton as an attempt to negate the paternalistic approach to art he had learned as an Anglican student. As Morton notes, Mancoba was one of the few mission-trained African artists to have eliminated all traces of his mission style from his work. Themba ka Mathe, The artist who died far from home
A spandrel, less often spandril or splaundrel, is the space between two arches or between an arch and a rectangular enclosure. Also included is the space under a flight of stairs, if it is not occupied by another flight of stairs and this is a common location to find storage space in residential structures. In a building more than one floor, the term spandrel is used to indicate the space between the top of the window in one story and the sill of the window in the story above. In concrete or steel construction, a beam extending from column to column usually carrying an exterior wall load is known as a spandrel beam. The spandrels over doorways in Perpendicular work are generally richly decorated, at Magdalen College, Oxford is one which is perforated. The spandrel of doors is sometimes ornamented in the Decorated period, spandrels can occur in the construction of domes and are typical in grand architecture from the medieval period onwards. Cathedral architecture Spandrel This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th century, underpinned by the logic of perspective, the arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology and philosophy. The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, Abstract art, non-figurative art, non-objective art, and nonrepresentational art are loosely related terms. They are similar, but perhaps not of identical meaning, Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. This departure from accurate representation can be slight, partial, or complete, even art that aims for verisimilitude of the highest degree can be said to be abstract, at least theoretically, since perfect representation is likely to be exceedingly elusive.
Artwork which takes liberties, altering for instance color and form in ways that are conspicuous, total abstraction bears no trace of any reference to anything recognizable. In geometric abstraction, for instance, one is unlikely to find references to naturalistic entities, Figurative art and total abstraction are almost mutually exclusive. But figurative and representational art often contains partial abstraction, both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract. It is at level of visual meaning that abstract art communicates. One can enjoy the beauty of Chinese calligraphy or Islamic calligraphy without being able to read it, in Chinese painting, abstraction can be traced to the Tang dynasty painter Wang Mo, who is credited to have invented the splashed-ink painting style. While none of his paintings remain, this style is seen in some Song Dynasty Paintings. A late Song painter named Yu Jian, adept to Tiantai buddhism and his paintings show heavily misty mountains in which the shapes of the objects are barely visible and extremely simplified.
This type of painting was continued by Sesshu Toyo in his years, another instance of abstraction in Chinese painting is seen in Zhu Deruns Cosmic Circle. The painting is a reflection of the Daoist metaphysics in which chaos, in Tokugawa Japan some zen monk-painters created Enso, a circle who represents the absolute enlightenment. Usually made in one spontaneous brush stroke, it became the paradigm of the minimalist aesthetic that guided part of the zen painting, three art movements which contributed to the development of abstract art were Romanticism and Expressionism. Artistic independence for artists was advanced during the 19th century, patronage from the church diminished and private patronage from the public became more capable of providing a livelihood for artists. Expressionist painters explored the use of paint surface, drawing distortions and exaggerations
Esbjerg Performing Arts Centre
The Esbjerg Performing Arts Centre is a concert hall with theatrical facilities in the centre of Esberg in southwest Jutland, Denmark. Completed in 1997 to designs by the Utzons, it part of a complex which contains the Esbjerg Art Museum. Its two auditoriums host classical concerts and drama productions, designed by Jan Utzon in close collaboration with his father Jørn Utzon, the building is located in Esbjergs City Park next to the Art Museum where it overlooks the harbour and the sea beyond. It nevertheless lacks the sophistication of the Utzons, no doubt as Esbjerg Municipality wanted to save on construction costs. Clad with white tiles, it takes the form of a truncated pyramid housing the main hall which is attached to a spacious foyer with octagonal pillars resembling mushrooms. The foyer provides access to the theatre and concert hall on one side and to the cafeteria, with seating for over 1,100, the main auditorium is designed for classical music with a ceiling that can be lowered in accordance with the required acoustical level.
For theatrical performances with a ceiling, it seats 850. The size of the stage—up to 400 m2 —and the positioning of the pit can be adjusted. The smaller hall which is suitable for music or childrens theatre has seating for 233. The building contains a theatre and meeting rooms. The Esbjerg Ensemble performs chamber music concerts while opera is produced by Den Nye Opera, the annual programme includes musicals, family shows, revues and drama
Harald Giersing, a Danish painter, was instrumental in developing the classic modernism movement in Denmark around 1910-1920. He is remembered as one of Denmarks most important 20th-century artists both for his portraits and landscapes, who died at the early arge of 45, was driven by a desire to concentrate on change and beauty. Unable to find support in religion, he adopted modernism as an approach as to how art could fill the void for those without faith in God. By 1907, he had begun to show interest in the Fauvists, including Derain, Othon Friesz, Manguin and Puy and especially Braque. All this experience helped him to attain his own way of thinking and he soon adopted a heavy, rather rough style with rough colours, partly inspired by Ernst Ludvig Kirchner. His painting The Judgment of Paris presents three female figures with dark blue outlines and rather confusing proportions. After a period during which he concentrated on portraits and on the female figure and he developed a wilder, more spontaneous style using a palette knife rather than brush strokes as can be seen in his Forest Path Sorø, one of his many successful forest works.
Open landscapes followed, especially the Furesø pictures from 1918 on, in 1914, unhappy with the lack of success of Ung Dansk Kunst, Giersing formed a new association called Grønningen, in which he took a leading role. This provided him with a basis for contributing to the issues of a young artists new periodical Klingen. He was soon recognised as the authority answering those who refused to accept new ideas, encouraging his disciples to fight, for many years, Giersing had taken a special interest in painting football scenes. However, it was not until 1917 that he adapted his approach to a rather aggressive, the football paintings, like his ballet scenes, were based on photographs as starting points. In these vivid pictures, the dancers have no eyes or their faces are covered by masks, soon afterwards, Besses father Fritz Syberg gave her a small cottage at Svanninge in the south of Funen where Giersing spend several summers painting some 40 pictures. Here the landscapes became constructed pictures where the countryside was expressed in a few lush green colours, another favourite motif of the period was the churchyard near Svanninge church.
For Giersing, the 1920s did not bring the level of success he might have hoped for, after the war, Copenhagen lost many of its attractions for artists who moved to other parts of Europe. At the 1922 Grønningen exhibition in Copenhagen, Giersing exhibited almost exclusively black and grey pictures such as the Three Ladies in Black, finally, in his latter years he returned to more colourful still lifes. He died of pneumonia on 15 January 1927
Jutland, known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and the northern portion of Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, jutlands terrain is relatively flat, with open lands, heaths and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north and historically, Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. There are several subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still occasionally encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydvestjylland and Slesvig, Jutland was regulated by the Law Code of Jutland. This civic code covered the Jutland Peninsula from the north of the River Eider to Funen as well as the North Jutlandic Island. The Danish part of Jutland is currently divided into three regions, North Denmark Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark.
These three regions have an area of 29,775 km2, a population of 2,599,104. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord and this area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord, it is only partly co-terminous with the North Jutland region. Inhabitants of Als would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders, the Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight. Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c.450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England and this is thought by some to be related to the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the part of the Christian era.
Old Saxony was on referred to as Holstein, during the First World War, the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea west of Jutland was one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the British Royal Navy engaged the Imperial German Navy, the British fleet sustained greater losses, but remained in control of the North Sea, so in strategic terms, most historians regard Jutland either as a British victory or as indecisive. The distinctive Jutish dialects differ substantially from standard Danish, especially West Jutlandic, dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark, and Jutlander speech remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmarks five regions, namely the Region Nordjylland, Region Midtjylland and the half of Region of Southern Denmark
Concrete art is an art movement with a strong emphasis on abstraction. Carlsund, Jean Hélion and Leon Tutundjian, the manifesto explained that the resultant art should be non-referential insofar as its components should not refer to, or allude to, the entities normally encountered in the natural, visible world. This is a distinction from abstraction generally, in a more general sense abstract art could and often does include the abstraction of forms in nature. But concrete art was intended to directly from the mind. Concrete art is composed of basic visual features such as planes, colors. Sentiment tends to be absent from concrete art, the hand of the artist may be difficult to detect in finished works of concrete art, concrete art may appear, in some instances, to have been made by a machine. Concrete art often has a visual reference to geometry whereas more general abstract art may find its basis in the components of the natural world. A formulation of a description of concrete art might include a considerable reliance on the qualities of an artwork.
Theo Van Doesburgs manifesto stated that art should receive nothing from natures formal properties or from sensuality or sentimentality and we want to exclude lyricism, symbolism, etc…. In concrete art a mathematical equation can serve as a starting point, Concrete art can include painting and sculpture. The term was popularized by the artist Josef Albers, and the artist Max Bill further promoted the ideas associated with concrete art, the movement came to fruition in Northern Italy and France in the 1940s and 1950s through the work of the groups Movimento darte concreta and Espace. In 1960 Max Bill organized an exhibition of Concrete Art in Zürich illustrating 50 years of its development. Concrete art, optical art, kinetic art and programmatic art bring together groups around the world characterized by similar concerns, museum am Kulturspeicher, Concrete Art in Europe after 1945 - The Peter C. Art in the Modern Era, A Guide to Styles, Schools & Movements, michael Delahoyde, commentary on Concrete art Monolith on the Water—Max Bill’s Continuity in a New Location, Deutsche Bank Art works
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in part a matter of technique and training. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the depiction of lifeforms, perspective. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of realism, regionalism. There have been various movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the appearance of scenes. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism, realistic art was created in many periods, and it is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
It becomes especially marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Jan van Eyck, however such realism is often used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had ever seen in real life. It is the choice and treatment of matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting. The development of increasingly accurate representation of the appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy. Pliny the Elders famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects. The art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy and gradually spread across Europe, and accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art.
As in classical times, idealism remained the norm, having led the development of illusionic painting, still life was to be equally significant in its abandonment in Cubism. The depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects in art has a history, though it was often squeezed into the edges of compositions. However these objects are at least largely there because they carry layers of complex significance, pieter Bruegel the Elder pioneered large panoramic scenes of peasant life
In 1995 he established Studio Olafur Eliasson in Berlin, a laboratory for spatial research. Olafur represented Denmark at the 50th Venice Biennale in 2003 and that year installed The Weather Project in the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern, London. He was a professor at the Berlin University of the Arts from 2009 to 2014 and is a professor at the Alle School of Fine Arts. Olafur Eliasson was born in Copenhagen in 1967 to Elías Hjörleifsson and his parents had emigrated to Copenhagen from Iceland in 1966, he to find work as a cook, and she as a seamstress. He was 8 when his parents separated, he lived with his mother and his stepfather and his father, an artist, moved back to Iceland, where their family spent summers and holidays. At 15 he had his first solo show, exhibiting landscape drawings, Olafur considered his break-dancing during the mid-1980s to be his first artworks. With two school friends, he formed a group — they called themselves the Harlem Gun Crew — and they performed at clubs and dance halls for four years, Olafur studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1989 to 1995.
Olafur received his degree from the academy in 1995, after having moved in 1993 to Cologne for a year, and to Berlin, where he has since maintained a studio. First located in a former train depot right next door to the Hamburger Bahnhof. In 1996, Olafur started working with Einar Thorsteinn, an architect, the first piece they created called 8900054, was a stainless-steel dome 30 feet wide and 7 feet high, designed to be seen as if it were growing from the ground. Though the effect is an illusion, the mind has a hard time believing that the structure is not part of a grander one developing from deep below the surface. Thorsteinns knowledge of geometry and space has been integrated into Olafurs artistic production, often seen in his lamp works as well as his pavilions, tunnels. As professor at the Berlin University of the Arts, Olafur Eliasson founded the Institute for Spatial Experiments, early works by Olafur consist of oscillating electric fans hanging from the ceiling. Ventilator swings back and forth and around, rotating on its axis, quadrible light ventilator mobile is a rotating electrically powered mobile comprising a searchlight and four fans blowing air around the exhibition room and scanning it with the light cone.
The weather project was installed at the Londons Tate Modern in 2003 as part of the popular Unilever series, the installation filled the open space of the gallerys Turbine Hall. Olafur used humidifiers to create a fine mist in the air via a mixture of sugar and water, the ceiling of the hall was covered with a huge mirror, in which visitors could see themselves as tiny black shadows against a mass of orange light. Many visitors responded to this exhibition by lying on their backs and waving their hands, open for six months, the work reportedly attracted two million visitors, many of whom were repeat visitors. Olafur has been developing various experiments with atmospheric density in exhibition spaces, in Room For One Colour, a corridor lit by yellow monofrequency tubes, the participants find themselves in a room filled with light that affects the perception of all other colours
Asger Oluf Jorn was a Danish painter, ceramic artist, and author. He was a member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International. He was born in Vejrum, in the northwest corner of Jutland, the largest collection of Asger Jorns works—including his major work Stalingrad—can be seen in the Museum Jorn, Denmark. He was the second oldest of six children, a brother to Jørgen Nash. Both of his parents were teachers and his father, Lars Peter Jørgensen, was a fundamentalist Christian who died in a car crash when Asger was 12 years old. His mother, Maren, née Nielsen, was more liberal and this early heavy Christian influence had a negative effect on Asger who began progressively to inwardly rebel against it, and more generally against other forms of authority. In 1929, aged 15, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis although he made a recovery from it after spending three months on the west coast of Jutland, by the age of 16 he was influenced by N. F. S. Also at about this time Jorn became the subject of a number of oil paintings by the painter Martin Kaalund-Jørgensen, in 1936 he traveled to Paris to become a student of Kandinsky.
In 1937 he joined Le Corbusier in working on the Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux at the 1937 Paris Exhibition and he returned again to Denmark in the summer of 1937. He again traveled to Paris in the summer of 1938, before returning to Denmark, traveling to Løkken, Asger Jorn was a good friend of the Danish art dealer Børge Birch, owner of Galerie Birch, who sold his art as early as the 1930s. Later on Jorn held many exhibitions and solo exhibitions in different galleries. From 1937 to 1942, he studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, the occupation of Denmark by Nazi Germany was a time of deep crisis for Jorn, who had been deeply inculcated with pacifism, initially sinking him into deep depression. He subsequently became active in the communist resistance movement, during the war he co-founded with the architect Robert Dahlmann Olsen the underground art group, Helhesten or hell-horse, and was a contributor to its journal. He was the first person to translate Franz Kafka into Danish and he traveled again to France where he, together with Christian Dotremont and Constant, founded COBRA, and edited monographs of the Bibliothèque Cobra.
He returned and seriously ill with tuberculosis, to Silkeborg in 1951, the following year he traveled to Albissola Marina in Italy where he became involved with an offshoot of COBRA, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus. In 1954 he met Guy Debord, who was to become a close friend, the two men collaborated on two artists books, Fin de Copenhagen and Mémoires, along with prints, and forewords to each others work. Here he applied his scientific and mathematical knowledge drawn from Henri Poincaré, Jorn never believed in a conception of the Situationist ideas as exclusively artistic and separated from political involvement. He was at the root and at the core of the Situationist International project, such general principles were applied by Jorn to painting