Mill Valley, California
Mill Valley is a city in Marin County, United States, located about 14 miles north of San Francisco via the Golden Gate Bridge. The population was 13,903 at the 2010 census, Mill Valley is located on the western and northern shores of Richardson Bay, and the eastern slopes of Mount Tamalpais. Beyond the flat area and marshlands, it occupies narrow wooded canyons, mostly of second-growth redwoods. The Mill Valley 94941 ZIP code includes the adjacent unincorporated communities, Alto, Homestead Valley, Tamalpais Valley. The Muir Woods National Monument is located just outside the city limits, the first people known to inhabit Marin County, the Coast Miwok, arrived approximately 6,000 years ago. The territory of the Coast Miwok included all of Marin County, north to Bodega Bay, more than 600 village sites have been identified, including 14 sites in the Mill Valley area. Nearby archaeological discoveries include the rock carvings and grinding sites on Ring Mountain, the pre-Missionization population of the Coast Miwok is estimated to be between 1,500 to 2,000.
The pre-Missionization population of the Coast Miwok may have been as high as 5000, cook speculated that by 1848 their population had decreased to 300, and down to 60 by 1880. The village site was first identified by Nels Nelson in 1907 and his excavation revealed tools, burials, at that time, the mound was 20 feet high. Another famous Mill Valley site was in the Manzanita area underneath the Fireside Inn located near the intersection of U. S. Route 101, built in 1916, the blind pig roadhouse was outside the dry limits of the city itself. Shell mounds have been discovered in areas by streams and along Richardson Bay, including in the Strawberry and they called themselves the Huimen people. At the mission they were taught the Catholic religion, lost their freedom, as a result of the high death rate at Mission Dolores it was decided to build a new Mission San Rafael, built in 1817. Over 200 surviving Coast Miwok were taken there from Mission Dolores and Mission San Jose, by 1834 the Mission era had ended and California was under the control of the Mexican government.
They took Miwok ancestral lands, divided them and gave them to Mexican soldiers or relatives who had connections with the Mexican governor, the huge tracts of land, called ranchos by the Mexican settlers, or Californios, soon covered the area. The Miwoks who had not died or fled were often employed under a state of indentured servitude to the California land grant owners. In 1834, the governor of Alta California José Figueroa awarded to John T. Reed the first land grant in Marin, just west of that, Rancho Saucelito was transferred to William A. Richardson in 1838 after being originally awarded to Nicolas Galindo in 1835. John Reed married Hilarita Sanchez, the daughter of a commandante in the San Francisco Presidio, William Richardson married a well-connected woman, both he and Reed were originally from Europe. Richardsons name was applied to Richardson Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay that brushes up against the eastern edge of Mill Valley
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Marin County, California
Marin County /məˈrɪn/ is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 252,409 and its county seat is San Rafael. Marin County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco, Marin County is one of the wealthiest localities in the United States, known for its affluence. In May 2009, Marin County had the fifth highest income per capita in the United States at about $91,480, the county is governed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors. The county is well known for its natural beauty and liberal politics. San Quentin Prison is located in the county, as is George Lucas Skywalker Ranch, the publisher of AutoCAD, is located there, as well as numerous other high-tech companies. The Marin County Civic Center was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and draws thousands of visitors a year to guided tours of its arch, in 1994, a new county jail facility was embedded into the hillside nearby.
Marin Countys natural sites include the Muir Woods redwood forest, the Marin Headlands, Stinson Beach, the Point Reyes National Seashore, the United States oldest cross country running event, the Dipsea Race, takes place annually in Marin County, attracting thousands of athletes. Mountain biking was invented on the slopes of Mount Tamalpais in Marin, According to General Mariano Vallejo, who headed an 1850 committee to name Californias counties, the county was named for Marin, great chief of the tribe Licatiut. Marin had been named Huicmuse until he was baptized as Marino at about age 20, Marin / Marino was born into the Huimen people, a Coast Miwok tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the San Rafael area. Vallejo believed that Chief Marin had waged several fierce battles against the Spanish, starting in 1817, he served as an alcalde at the San Rafael Mission, where he lived from 1817 off and on until his death. The Coast Miwok Indians were hunters and gatherers whose ancestors had occupied the area for thousands of years, about 600 village sites have been identified in the county.
The Coast Miwok numbered in the thousands, there are few left and even fewer with any knowledge of their Coast Miwok lineage. Efforts are being made so that they are not forgotten, francis Drake and the crew of the Golden Hind was thought to have landed on the Marin coast in 1579 claiming the land as Nova Albion. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drakes claim to the new lands and this so-called Drakes Plate of Brass was revealed as a hoax in 2003. In 1595, Sebastian Cermeno lost his ship, the San Agustin, the Spanish explorer Vizcaíno landed about twenty years after Drake in what is now called Drakes Bay. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 828 square miles. It is the fourth-smallest county in California by land area
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
It is widely considered one of the most difficult one-day sporting events in the world. Most Ironman events have a time limit of 17 hours to complete the race. The race typically starts at 7,00 a. m. the mandatory swim cut off for the 2. 4-mile swim is 9,20 a. m. the mandatory bike cut off time is 5,30 p. m. and the mandatory marathon cut off is midnight. Any participant who manages to complete the triathlon within these timings is designated an Ironman, the name Ironman Triathlon is associated with the original Ironman triathlon which is now the Ironman World Championship. Held in Kailua-Kona, the championship has been held annually in Hawaii since 1978 and is preceded by a series of qualifying Ironman events. The Ironman World Championship has become known for its length, harsh race conditions. Other races exist that are of the distance as an Ironman triathlon but are not produced, owned. Such races include The Challenge Family series Challenge Roth or the Norseman Triathlon, the idea for the original Ironman Triathlon arose during the awards ceremony for the 1977 Oʻahu Perimeter Relay.
Among the participants were representatives of both the Mid-Pacific Road Runners and the Waikiki Swim Club, whose members had long been debating which athletes were more fit, until that point, no one present had ever done the bike race. Prior to racing, each received three sheets of paper listing a few rules and a course description. Handwritten on the last page was this exhortation, Swim 2.4 miles, brag for the rest of your life, now a registered trademark. With a nod to a runner who was notorious for his demanding workouts, Collins said, Whoever finishes first. Each of the racers had their own crew to supply water, food. Of the fifteen men to start off in the morning on February 18,1978. Gordon Haller, a US Navy Communications Specialist, was the first to earn the title Ironman by completing the course with a time of 11 hours,46 minutes,58 seconds. The runner-up John Dunbar, a US Navy SEAL, led after the transition and had a chance to win but ran out of water on the marathon course. With no further marketing efforts, the race gathered as many as 50 athletes in 1979, the race, was postponed a day because of bad weather conditions.
Only fifteen competitors started off the race Sunday morning, san Diegos Tom Warren won in 11 hours,15 minutes,56 seconds
The Marina Green in San Francisco, California, is a 74-acre expanse of grass between Fort Mason and the Presidio. It is adjacent to San Francisco Bay, and this location provides views of the Golden Gate Bridge, Angel Island, Alcatraz Island. Houses built mostly in the 1920s and 1930s line Marina Boulevard, many of these houses have large bay windows, and Herb Caen, the late San Francisco newspaper columnist, often made references to the immaculate furnishings behind these windows. In the past, a track along the southern edge of the Marina Green allowed the San Francisco Belt Railroad to serve the Presidio. Adjacent to the Marina Green is a marina, home to the St. Francis Yacht Club, the San Francisco Bay Trail runs through the green. Prior to the 1906 earthquake, this area was a tidal marsh, after the earthquake, much of the resulting rubble was dumped here. Later, to land for the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, this site. A nearby remnant of the Exposition is the restored Palace of Fine Arts, the San Francisco Parks and Recreation Department currently administers the Marina Green.
49-Mile Scenic Drive San Francisco Marina Guide
Stinson Beach, California
Stinson Beach is a census-designated place in Marin County, California, on the west coast of the United States. Stinson Beach is located 2.5 miles east-southeast of Bolinas, the population of the Stinson Beach CDP was 632 at the 2010 census. Stinson Beach is about a 35-minute drive from the Golden Gate Bridge on Californias Highway 1 and it is near important attractions such as Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, and Mount Tamalpais. It has a beach, where the cold water promotes fog throughout the year. Stinson Beach is a day trip for people in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although most visitors arrive by car, Stinson Beach is linked to Marin City by a daily bus service. The beach is one of the cleanest in the state, and sandy, Nathan H. Stinson bought land at the site in 1866. The Mt. Tamalpais & Muir Woods Railway opened in 1896, visitors could ride the train to West Point Inn and hike or arrange a stagecoach to take them to the beach. In 1906, refugees from the San Francisco earthquake came to the area, Stinson Beach became the official town name in 1916, in honor of the largest landowners and Nathan Stinson.
The first post office opened in 1916, in 1939, the beach was sold to Marin County. It was transferred to the State of California in 1950, and was transferred to the National Park Service in 1977. Stinson Beach is the home for GDTSToo, Inc. the mail order company for the Fare Thee Well Tour. Stinson Beach is located at 37°54′02″N 122°38′40″W, between Bolinas and Muir Beach, the CDP has a total area of 1.46 square miles, of which,1.44 square miles of it is land and 0.02 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Stinson Beach had a population of 632, the population density was 433.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Stinson Beach was 582 White,3 African American,8 Native American,14 Asian,1 Pacific Islander,9 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 33 persons. The Census reported that 629 people lived in households,3 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 26 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 147 households were made up of individuals and 45 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 1.86.
There were 158 families, the family size was 2.54
The Dipsea Race is a trail running event in California, United States. It is the oldest cross-country trail running event and one of the oldest foot races of any kind—in the United States. The 7.5 mile long Dipsea Race has been held annually almost every year since 1905, starting in Mill Valley, the Dipsea celebrated its 106th running on Sunday, June 12th,2016. Since 1983, the race has been held on the second Sunday in June, the Dipsea is well known for its scenic course and challenging trails. The race starts on Throckmorton Avenue in Mill Valley, near Miller Avenue, Stinson Beach is a popular tourist destination, located about a 30-minute drive north of San Francisco on Highway 1, via the Golden Gate Bridge. The ascent over the shoulder of Mount Tam reaches its apex around the top of Cardiac Hill. The Dipseas handicapping system often produces younger or older winners, which adds to the intrigue and suspense created by the races permissible shortcuts, like Suicide. Most participants, with the exception of scratch runners, are given a head based on their age.
Because of the nature of the course, the field of competitors is limited to 1,500 and it is a popular race, and thousands of people apply for entry every year. This makes it difficult for people, particularly those who have never run it before, as of June 2016, the defending champion is 58-year-old Brian Pilcher, who won in 2009 and 2015. The previous eight champions are Diana Fitzpatrick, Hans Schmid, Jamie Rivers, Reilly Johnson, Roy Rivers, Melody-Anne Schultz Russ Kiernan, and Sal Vasquez. Jack Kirk, known as the Dipsea Demon, holds the record of most consecutive competitions in the Dipsea, Kirk finished his last complete race in 2002. He started but did not finish in 2003, but did reach the highest elevation, at the top of Cardiac Hill and he is the oldest person to have competed in the race. Kirk died on January 29,2007, at age 100, despite the use of the Dipsea name, these two races are not officially affiliated with the Dipsea Race. The Double Dipsea is a 13. 7-mile run held on the Saturday thirteen days after the Dipsea, now organized by the Dolphin South End Running Club, San Francisco icon Walt Stack put together the first Double Dipsea race in 1970.
The Quad Dipsea is a 28. 4-mile trail ultra, held annually in November on the Saturday following Thanksgiving. The Quad starts and finishes in Mill Valley, following the Dipsea Trail westward to Stinson Beach, out-and-back twice over the course as the Dipsea Race. The race has 9,276 feet of climb and descent
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21,1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania and it is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U. S. state not located in the Americas, the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast, Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group, it is called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania, Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel.
Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U. S. states. It is the state with an Asian plurality. The states coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska, the state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that was named for Hawaiʻiloa and he is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan. According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the home, but in Hawaii. A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as an official state language.
The title of the constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii, diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the okina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, one-point-seven-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, and it has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed and it opened in 1937 and was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacifics automobile ferries became very profitable, the trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes.
Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County, San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Franciscos City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009 and he asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strausss initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy, Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California.
The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources, the Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs, in May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Another ally was the automobile industry, which supported the development of roads. The bridges name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. M
Mount Tamalpais is a peak in Marin County, United States, often considered symbolic of Marin County. Much of Mount Tamalpais is protected public lands such as Mount Tamalpais State Park, the Marin Municipal Water District watershed. Mount Tamalpais is the highest peak in the Marin Hills, which are part of the Northern California Coast Ranges, the elevation at the West Peak, its highest point, where a radar dome currently stands, is at about 2,576 feet. It stood over 2,600 feet before the summit was flattened for the dome construction. The East Peak, the second highest peak, is 2,572 feet. The mountain is visible from the city of San Francisco. The majority of the mountain is contained in protected public lands, including Mount Tamalpais State Park, Muir Woods National Monument, and it adjoins the Golden Gate National Recreation Area as well as several Marin County Open Space Preserves. This provides nearly 40 miles of publicly accessible open space. Some of the slopes of Mount Tamalpais fall within several cities and unincorporated communities of Marin County, including Mill Valley, Tamalpais-Homestead Valley, Stinson Beach.
These areas are developed, consisting of mostly low-density single-family homes. In 2004 it was suggested by a team of Penn State geoscientists that a blind thrust fault, like the one caused the infamous Northridge earthquake. This idea was based on the steepness of Mount Tamalpais and of nearby Bolinas Ridge. Major Mount Tamalpais rockforms include serpentine, particularly evident in outcroppings near the summit, a number of serpentine endemic plants grow in the serpentine soils in this part of the mountain. The steep southeastern slopes of Mount Tamalpais drain to Arroyo Corte Madera del Presidio, annual precipitation around Mount Tamalpais varies greatly from around 27. 5–31.5 inches in the drier, eastern foothills to about 59 inches near the Bolinas Ridge, close to the Pacific Ocean. The same fact holds for the steep, south-facing bowl canyon that Muir Woods is located in, as in San Francisco, most of the annual precipitation falls during the winter months. During cold, wet winter storms, the mountain regularly gets some snowfall, sometimes as much as 6 inches overnight, as observed in February 2001, March 2006, and February 2011.
The region sometimes gets hit with strong Pacific storms that may topple trees, and bring hurricane-force winds to exposed, barren areas like the Bolinas Ridge and the summit of Mount Tamalpais. In contrast, the foothills, sheltered from the oceanic breezes and fog, are drier
Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay,1.25 miles offshore from San Francisco, United States. The small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a fortification, a military prison. In 1972, Alcatraz became part of a recreation area. Today, the facilities are managed by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Visitors can reach the island by ferry ride from Pier 33, near Fishermans Wharf, hornblower Cruises and Events, operating under the name Alcatraz Cruises, is the official ferry provider to and from the island. According to a 1971 documentary on the history of Alcatraz, the island measures 1,675 feet by 590 feet and is 135 feet at highest point during mean tide, the total area of the island is reported to be 22 acres. Over the years, the Spanish version Alcatraz became popular and is now widely used, in August 1827, French Captain Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly wrote. Covered with a number of these birds. A gun fired over the feathered legions caused them to fly up in a great cloud, the California brown pelican is not known to nest on the island today.
The Spanish built several buildings on the island and other minor structures. Julian Workman is the name of William Workman, co-owner of Rancho La Puente. Later in 1846, acting in his capacity as Military Governor of California, frémont, champion of Manifest Destiny and leader of the Bear Flag Republic, bought the island for $5,000 in the name of the United States government from Francis Temple. Frémont and his heirs sued for compensation during protracted but unsuccessful legal battles that extended into the 1890s. S, Army began studying the suitability of Alcatraz Island for the positioning of coastal batteries to protect the approaches to San Francisco Bay. In 1853, under the direction of Zealous B, the United States Army Corps of Engineers began fortifying the island, work which continued until 1858, eventuating in Fortress Alcatraz. The islands first garrison at Camp Alcatraz, numbering about 200 soldiers and 11 cannons, at this time it served as the San Francisco Arsenal for storage of firearms to prevent them falling into the hands of Confederate sympathizers.
Alcatraz, built as a fortified military site on the West Coast, formed a triangle of defense along with Fort Point and Lime Point. The island was the site of the first operational lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States, Alcatraz never fired its guns offensively, though during the war it was used to imprison Confederate sympathizers and privateers on the west coast. Because of its isolation from the outside by the cold, hazardous currents of the waters of San Francisco Bay, following the war in 1866, the army determined that the fortifications and guns were being rapidly rendered obsolete by advances in military technology