Cannizzaro is a lunar impact crater, located on the Moon's far side as seen from the Earth, just beyond the northwestern limb. It lies in a region of the surface, sometimes brought into view due to the effects of libration, but not much detail can be seen since this feature is viewed from the side; the crater lies across the southwestern rim of the much larger-walled plain Poczobutt. It is a worn crater with a rim, eroded by impacts. Several of these impacts form deep incisions in the side of the rim, forming indentations several kilometers across; the most prominent of these impacts is a fresh small crater lying across the northeastern rim. The interior floor is nearly level, with a small central ridge offset just to the east of the midpoint. There are numerous small craterlets across the floor
Lacus Bonitatis is a small lunar mare that lies to the northwest of the prominent crater Macrobius. Further to the north of Lacus Bonitatis is the Montes Taurus mountain range; this mare is an irregular region of basaltic lava with uneven borders. The mare lies within a diameter of 122 km and the longest dimension trends from the southwest to the northeast; the centre coordinates of Lacus Bonitatis are 23.2°N 44.3°E / 23.2.
An impact crater is an circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body. In contrast to volcanic craters, which result from explosion or internal collapse, impact craters have raised rims and floors that are lower in elevation than the surrounding terrain. Impact craters range from small, bowl-shaped depressions to large, multi-ringed impact basins. Meteor Crater is a well-known example of a small impact crater on Earth. Impact craters are the dominant geographic features on many solid Solar System objects including the Moon, Callisto and most small moons and asteroids. On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time. Where such processes have destroyed most of the original crater topography, the terms impact structure or astrobleme are more used.
In early literature, before the significance of impact cratering was recognised, the terms cryptoexplosion or cryptovolcanic structure were used to describe what are now recognised as impact-related features on Earth. The cratering records of old surfaces, such as Mercury, the Moon, the southern highlands of Mars, record a period of intense early bombardment in the inner Solar System around 3.9 billion years ago. The rate of crater production on Earth has since been lower, but it is appreciable nonetheless; this indicates that there should be far more young craters on the planet than have been discovered so far. The cratering rate in the inner solar system fluctuates as a consequence of collisions in the asteroid belt that create a family of fragments that are sent cascading into the inner solar system. Formed in a collision 160 million years ago, the Baptistina family of asteroids is thought to have caused a large spike in the impact rate causing the Chicxulub impact that may have triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago.
Note that the rate of impact cratering in the outer Solar System could be different from the inner Solar System. Although Earth's active surface processes destroy the impact record, about 190 terrestrial impact craters have been identified; these range in diameter from a few tens of meters up to about 300 km, they range in age from recent times to more than two billion years, though most are less than 500 million years old because geological processes tend to obliterate older craters. They are selectively found in the stable interior regions of continents. Few undersea craters have been discovered because of the difficulty of surveying the sea floor, the rapid rate of change of the ocean bottom, the subduction of the ocean floor into Earth's interior by processes of plate tectonics. Impact craters are not to be confused with landforms that may appear similar, including calderas, glacial cirques, ring dikes, salt domes, others. Daniel M. Barringer, a mining engineer, was convinced that the crater he owned, Meteor Crater, was of cosmic origin.
Yet, most geologists at the time assumed. In the 1920s, the American geologist Walter H. Bucher studied a number of sites now recognized as impact craters in the United States, he concluded they had been created by some great explosive event, but believed that this force was volcanic in origin. However, in 1936, the geologists John D. Boon and Claude C. Albritton Jr. revisited Bucher's studies and concluded that the craters that he studied were formed by impacts. Grove Karl Gilbert suggested in 1893. Ralph Baldwin in 1949 wrote that the Moon's craters were of impact origin. Around 1960, Gene Shoemaker revived the idea. According to David H. Levy, Gene "saw the craters on the Moon as logical impact sites that were formed not in eons, but explosively, in seconds." For his Ph. D. degree at Princeton, under the guidance of Harry Hammond Hess, Shoemaker studied the impact dynamics of Barringer Meteor Crater. Shoemaker noted Meteor Crater had the same form and structure as two explosion craters created from atomic bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site, notably Jangle U in 1951 and Teapot Ess in 1955.
In 1960, Edward C. T. Chao and Shoemaker identified at Meteor Crater, proving the crater was formed from an impact generating high temperatures and pressures, they followed this discovery with the identification of coesite within suevite at Nördlinger Ries, proving its impact origin. Armed with the knowledge of shock-metamorphic features, Carlyle S. Beals and colleagues at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, British Columbia and Wolf von Engelhardt of the University of Tübingen in Germany began a methodical search for impact craters. By 1970, they had tentatively identified more than 50. Although their work was controversial, the American Apollo Moon landings, which were in progress at the time, provided supportive evidence by recognizing the rate of impact cratering on the Moon; because the processes of erosion on the Moon are minimal, craters persist. Since the Earth could be expected to have the same cratering rate as the Moon, it became clear that the Earth had suffered far more impacts than could be seen by counting evident craters.
Impact cratering invo
Hill is a small lunar impact crater, located to the west of the prominent crater Macrobius, near the eastern edge of the Sinus Amoris. Its diameter is 16 km, it was named after American astronomer George William Hill. It was designated Macrobius B, it lies just to the north-northeast of Carmichael, another renamed satellite crater of Macrobius. This is a circular, bowl-shaped crater with an inner wall that has a high albedo compared to the surrounding terrain; the inner walls are symmetrical in form, slope down to the small floor at the midpoint, a surface about one-fourth the diameter of the crater. This formation is not eroded, is otherwise indistinguishable from many similar craters on the Moon. LTO-43C1 Hill — L&PI topographic map
Cannon is a lunar impact crater, located near the east-northeastern limb of the Moon's near side. It lies just to the northwest of the Mare Marginis, south-southeast of the crater Plutarch. Farther to the east-northeast is Hubble; this is a worn and eroded formation with an interior floor, resurfaced by lava. A small crater overlies the north rim. Tiny craters lie across the rim northeast and at the southern edge; the interior is level and nearly featureless, with only a few tiny scattered craterlets to mark the surface. This floor has the same albedo as the surrounding terrain; the crater is named after an astronomer who classified 300,000 stellar bodies. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Cannon. 1120 Cannonia, main-belt asteroid
Cameron is a small lunar impact crater that lies across the northwest rim of the crater Taruntius. It is named after American astronomer Robert Curry Cameron; this formation is cup-shaped, with no particular distinguishing features. It was designated Taruntius C
Sinus Amoris extends northward from the northeast end of the Mare Tranquillitatis. It is located at selenographic coordinates 19.9° N, 37.3° E, lies within a diameter of 190 km. To the north of the bay are the jumbled Montes Taurus peaks. Near the southern end of the bay where it outlets into the Mare Tranquillitatis lies the crater Theophrastus. Along the western side is the flooded crater Maraldi and Mons Maraldi. Bordering the east side of the bay are the craters Carmichael and Hill. There are some low ridges in the central part of the bay, but otherwise it is featureless. At the southern egress where the bay joins the mare lies Mons Esam, a minor rise that lies among several small lunar domes. Sinus Amoris at Chuck. "Is It Love or a Sinus Infection?". Lunar Photo of the Day. Wood, Chuck. "Is It Love or a Sinus Infection?". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017