Amendeuix-Oneix is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Amendüztar. Amendeuix-Oneix is located some 50 km east by south-east of Bayonne and 40 km south-west of Orthez in the Mixe country in the former Basque province of Lower Navarre; the village can be accessed by the D124 road from Garris in the west passing northeast to the village continuing north to join the D29. The D11 road passes through the south of the commune from Garris to Saint-Palais; the small D511 road links the D11 to the D124 within the commune. Located in the Drainage divide of the Adour, the northern part of the eastern border of the commune is the Bidouze which flows north to join the Adour west of Peyrehorade; the southern part of the eastern border consists of the Joyeuse with many tributaries rising in the commune including the Algueruko erreka, the Sallarteko erreka, the Soubiaga erreka. The Aitzeguerris flows into the Bidouze.
The current Basque name is Amendüze-Unaso. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested that Oneix means the'place of abundant hills'. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval however suggested that Oneix came from the Basque Unanu which means the Asphodelus and signifies a "place where the asphodelus is abundant, she suggested that the origin of Amendeuix was Aquitane-Roman to designate a noble domain. The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Pau: Titles of the Chamber of the Counts of Pau Biscay: Martin Biscay In the 16th century, evidence of witchcraft was reported by an admonition to the States of Navarre by the Prosecutor of Mixe, who complained of a lack of prosecution and requesting that each town or district of Lower Navarre elect "two men of good character who are not suspects to find and punish the perpetrators of these crimes of witchcraft and magic: to be joined with the people of Roy and all at the expense of those convicted or, in case of insolvency, to those countries and places which will be instructed".
Part of this admonition followed a request from the inhabitants of Amendeuix dating from 1587 who claimed to have been victims of "spells that were manifested by evil barking". The village of Oneix joined with Amendeuix to form the commune of Amendeuix-Oneix on 27 August 1846. List of Successive Mayors The commune belongs to seven inter-communal structures: the community of communes of Amikuze the AEP Association for Mixe country the sanitation association for Saint-Palais - Luxe-Sumberraute the association for school buses of Amendeuix-Oneix and Gabat the energy association for Pyrénées-Atlantiques; the fiscal census of 1412-1413, made on the orders of Charles III of Navarre, compared with that of 1551 men and weapons that are in this kingdom of Navarre this side of the ports, reveals a demography with strong growth. The first census indicated the presence of 13 fires in Amendeuix with the second showing 40; the same census reported 8 fires in Oneix in 1412-1413 against 17 in 1551. The census of the population of Lower Navarre in 1695 counted 63 fires at 20 at Oneix.
In 2009 the commune had 407 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 From 1793 to 1841 the population includes Oneix although it was still a separate commune at that time; the commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte the dialect of Basque spoken in Amendeuix-Oneix is eastern low Navarrese. Two churches in the commune are registered as historical monuments: The Church of Saint Peter at Oneix; the Church of Saint John the Baptist at Amendeuix. The commune has a kindergarten. Amendeuix, Gabat and Labets-Biscay have partnered to create an inter-educational grouping.
Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Amendeuix-Oneix on Lion1906 Amenduix and Oneix on the 1750 Cassini Map Amendeuix-Oneix on the INSEE website INSEE
Alos-Sibas-Abense is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Soule; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Aloztar-Ziboztar-Oniztar Alos-Sibas-Abense is located some 90 km south-east of Bayonne and 80m km west of Lourdes. The D918 road does not enter. Access to the commune is on road D247 from Alcay-Alcabehety-Sunharette in the southwest which runs through the heart of the commune to the village, it continues to the southeast linking with the D918 at Tardets-Sorholus. Most of the commune is farmland with some forest and it has a network of country roads covering most of the commune. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the Saison river passes along and forms the eastern border of the commune parallel with the D918 road; the Aphoura stream, fed by the Ardounc, the Batasse, the Laritolle, the Jaga, the Uthurrotche erreka, flows near the village and to the Saisson. The commune name in Basque is Aloze-Ziboze-Onizegaine.
The Basque form of Sibas can be Ziborotz. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested that Abense came from a Roman phonetic change to the Basque Oniz > onise > oénse > auénse > abense. The base of the name is the oronym ona present in Bayonne and Oneix; the modern Basque form are equivalent to "Upper". Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggests; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: 1750 Cassini Map EHESS: Abense on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Luntz: Soule: Customs of Soule Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Sibas merged with Alos on 23 October 1843 to form Alos-Sibas. On 16 April 1859, following the annexation of part of the territory of Abense-de-Haut, the commune took the name of Alos-Sibas-Abense. On the same day the commune of Abense-de-Haut disappeared, its territory being divided between Alos-Sibas and Tardets.
Lists of Successive Mayors of Alos-Sibas-Abense AlosSibasAbense-de-Haut Alos-SibasAbense-de-Haut Alos-Sibas-Abense The town is part of six intercommunal structures: the community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the union to support Basque culture SIVOM of the canton of Tardets the municipal association for the gaves of Oloron and Mauleon SIVU for Tourism in Haute-Soule and Barétous the AEP Union for Soule country In 2009 the commune had 274 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is focused on agriculture; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. Etchandia House owned by the Etchandy family. La Salle d'Abense The Church of Abense contains a Processional Cross, registered as an historical object.
The common practices Controlled burns for prevention of forest fires. The town has an Ikastola. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Alos-Sibas-Abense official website Alos-Sibas-Abense personal website ALOZE-ZIBOZE-ONIZEGAINE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alos-Sibas-Abense on Lion1906 Alos-Sibas-Abense on Google Maps Alos-Sibas-Abense on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Alos and Abens on the 1750 Cassini Map Alos-Sibas-Abense on the INSEE website INSEE
Aincille is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aintzildars; the town is part of Cize Country in the former Basque province of Lower Navarre. It is located 5 km southeast of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the commune can be accessed by the D401 road from Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port in the northwest to the village. From the village the D118 road goes north to join the D18 highway. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the northeastern border of the commune is marked by the Laurhibar river, which flows north to join the Nive north of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. A stream flows to the Laurhibar in the north-east; the Urtchipea rises in the south of the commune and flows northwest gathering many tributaries and joins the Nive de Beherobie at Saint-Michel. The Sassitako erreka rises southwest of the village and flows northwest joining the Laurhibar east of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the commune name in basque is Ahintzila meaning Aintzila or Aintzil-Harrieta.
Jean-Baptiste Orpustan wrote the name of the commune in the form Aïncille. He indicated that in Basque the inhabitants are referred to as Aintzildar; the following table details the origins of the commune name. Sources: Mérimée: Presentation of the Commune of Aincille on the Ministry of Culture website Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Intendance: Intendance of Pau Part of Aincille territory next to the communes of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan, Bustince-Iriberry, Çaro, Mendive, Saint-Jean-le-Vieux, Saint-Michel, was taken on 11 June 1842 to form of the commune of Estérençuby. List of Successive Mayors of Aincille The commune belongs to six intercommunal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the AEP association of Ainhice the energy association for Pyrenees-Atlantiques the intercommunal association for the development and management of the slaughterhouse at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association for the watershed of the Nive the association to support Basque culture.
The town is part of the production area of Irouléguy AOC and the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. Economic activity is agricultural. Aincille had long received saline since the 17th century and had the distinction of being a corporation with ownership of twenty-nine old houses of the town and was reunited with the royal domain in 1683. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Aincille is Eastern Low Navarrese; the commune has several sites that are registered as historical monuments: Houses and Farms The Idiondoa Farmhouse The Ahadoberria Farmhouse The commune has several religious sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Croix de Carrefour Wayside Cross A Cemetery Cross The Parish Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint John the Baptist The church contains two items that are registered as historical objects: A Processional Cross A Statue: Virgin and child Church Picture Gallery Stained Glass Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINTZILLA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aincille on Lion1906 Aincille on the 1750 Cassini Map Aincille on the INSEE website INSEE
Anoye is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anoyaises. Anoye is located 15 km west of Vic-en-Bigorre, it can be accessed by the D604 road coming north from the D7 just west of Baleix and continuing through the village and the commune north to Maspie-Lalonquere-Juillacq. The D224 road goes east from the village to Momy and the D207 road forms part of the western border of the commune; the commune is forested in the east and central west however there is a large area of farmland in a central north-south strip and in the west. The Léez river, a tributary of the Adour, flows from south to north in the east of the commune with a tributary forming the north-western border of the commune and another tributary forming part of the southern border. A further tributary flows east just south of the village into the Lees; the commune name in Bearnais is Anoja. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval states that the origin of the name is Latin and refers to a "marshland".
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Marca: Pierre de Marca, History of Béarn. Saint-Pé: Cartulary of the Abbey of Saint-Pé Fors de Béarn Malta: Titles of the Order of St John of Jerusalem Census: Census of Béarn Denombrement: Denombremont of Anoye Pau: Anoye: Titles of Anoye Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicates that the village, a stop on the Way of Saint James of Compostela, was identified in the 11th century. There was a hospital at Anoye run by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem under the responsibility of the Commander of Caubin. In 1385, according to the census demanded by Gaston Phoebus, the village of Anoye had 45 fires and depended on the Bailiwick of Lembeye. There was a market, three to four bakeries, seven shops.
In 1648 the Barony of Lons became a marquisate which included Abitain, Baleix, Juillacq, Le Leu, Lons, Oraàs, Peyrède, Viellepinte. Paul Raymond noted that Anoye was a former archpreisthood of the diocese of Lescar, a member of the Commandery of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Caubin, of Morlaàs. Anoye was the chief town of a district called the Clau of Anoye comprising Anoye, Maspie and Lion. List of Successive Mayors Anoye is a member of four inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of the Canton de Lembeye en Vic-Bilh. In 2009 the commune had 149 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Anoye is part of the urban area of Pau; the commune has many buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The commune has several religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: A Presbytery The Parish Church of Saint-Orens, at a place called Astis until the 18th century.
The Parish Church of Notre Dame was a former chapel from the 12th, 13th, 14th centuries and was rebuilt in 1757, 1764, 1878. The church contains many items which are registered as historical objects: Furniture 7 Stained glass windows 3 Paintings 9 Statues A Cemetery Cross A TombstoneAnoye is a stage on the via Tolosane on the Way of St James. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Anoye on Lion1906 Noye on the 1750 Cassini Map Anoye on the INSEE website INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Ahetze was a village in the traditional Basque province of Labourd and is now a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aheztars; the commune is located some 13 km southwest of Bayonne and 30 km northeast of Donostia-San-Sebastion and only 4 km from the Atlantic beaches of Bidart and Guéthary. Ahetze village is at the intersection of departmental roads D655 from Arbonne to Bidart and D855 from Saint-Pee-sur-Nivelle to Saint-Jean-de-Luz; the commune can be accessed from Exit 3 from the A63 autoroute. The Biarritz–Anglet–Bayonne Airport is 15-minute drive from the village. Located in the watershed of the Adour, the commune is traversed by a tributary of the coastal river Uhabia: the Zirikolatzeko erreka and its tributaries, the streams: Amisolako and Besaingo, as well as the Pemartiko erreka, a tributary of the Besaingo. Paul Raymond stated in his Topographical dictionary of Bearn-Basque Country in 1863 that a tributary of the Alborga: the Haïstéchéhé flows through Ahetze after rising in Saint-Pee-sur-Nivelle.
The commune name in Basque is Ahetze. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested that Ahetze comes from aiz meaning "stone" and by extension "high rock"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Lhande: Pierre Lhande, Basque-French Dictionary 1926Origins: Bayonne: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of BayonneAccording to Eugène Goyheneche: "two houses had medieval names of Akarreta and Haranbillaga". In the Middle Ages the Compostela pilgrims who chose the passage along the Atlantic coast passed near Ahetze and the hospital in Sare. Others preferred to fork through part of Ahetze to reach the chapel Saint-Jacques of Serres and visit Vera by passing by Olhette and the Ibardin Pass. List of Successive Mayors of Ahetze Ahetze is a member of 8 Intercommunal organisations: the Agglomeration of'Sud Pays Basque the union of Ouhabia the intercommunal association of secondary schools of Saint-Jean-de-Luz the intercommunal association Nive-Nivelle the mixed association of Bizi Garbia the association to support Basque culture the joint association for drinking water from the Ura the joint sanitation association of the UraThe commune is a member of the Basque Eurocity Bayonne - San Sebastian.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the urban area of Bayonne. The 2006 classification by INSEE indicated the median household incomes for each commune with more than 50 households classed Ahetze at the rank of 7,693 with an average income of €17,944; the flea market takes place every third Sunday of the month and attracts lovers of antiques from the Paris region, to the Spanish communes all around and contributes to the economic revitalization of the village which has agricultural activity. The commune part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty; the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces established by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte in 1863 indicated that the Basque dialect spoken in Ahetze was Labourdin. Established in 1971, the Committee of Festivals of Ahetze organises the following events: wheat threshing, dance evenings, a gala of Basque rural sports and employers' festivals that take place between 25 October and 11 November.
The Ostalapia farm, now a restaurant, is a former way station on the road to Saint Jacques de Compostela and long before was a haven for the Guethariars and Bidartars when they were attacked by pirates from the ocean or by robbers. There are some boulders once used for walls in the parking area; some old Baserri dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, some of which have been extended over time. New construction follows the Labourdin style; the Church of Saint Martin is registered as an historical monument. The church contains a number of items that are registered as historical objects: A Retable and 7 Paintings A Processional Cross; this cross, whose arms are garnished with bells, was used in witchcraft trials in the year 1609 to the outrage of Councilor Lancre who saw it as an evil object. The carvings on the Cross represent the faces of Christ, the Virgin, Saint John, a pelican, two women's heads. On the back of the cross there is the representation of a bishop, undoubtedly Saint Martin. A Statue: Virgin of the Assumption A Statue: Saint Jacques dressed as a pilgrim Eugène Goyheneche noted that the church quite exceptionally possessed a register of Catholics in Basque.
The Church Picture Gallery On the heights of Ahetze all the Basque mountains near the Atlantic are visible: the Rhune, the Mondarrain, the Artzamendi, the Ursuia in France as well as the Three Crowns in Spain. Ahetze has two Frontons, one is old and built into the wall of the town hall, a second was completed in 2008 as part of the new development of the town. A Trinquet called. A marked fitness trail runs through the south-east of the village. Ahetze has a nursery. Ahetze has several health services: a general practitioner, a dentist, a nurse, a physiotherapist, a speech therapist. Mattin Treku, born on 11 November 1916 in Ahetze and died on 22 July 1981 in th
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona