José Vasconcelos Calderón has been called the "cultural caudillo" of the Mexican Revolution. He was an important Mexican writer and politician, he is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico. His philosophy of the "cosmic race" affected all aspects of Mexican sociocultural and economic policies. José Vasconcelos was born in Oaxaca on February 28, 1882, the son of a customs official. José's mother, a pious Catholic, died when José was sixteen; the family moved to the border town of Piedras Negras, where he grew up attending school in Eagle Pass, Texas. He became bilingual in Spanish, which opened doors to the English-speaking world; the family lived in Campeche during a period when the northern border area was unstable. His time in living on the Texas border contributed to fostering his idea of the Mexican "cosmic race" and rejection of Anglo culture, he married Serafina Miranda of Tlaxiaco in the state of Oaxaca in 1906. With her he had children José Carmen.
He had a long-term relationship with Elena Arizmendi Mejia and through life, many other shorter liaisons, including one with Berta Singerman. His troubled relationship with Antonieta Rivas Mercado led to her suicide inside Paris' Notre Dame Cathedral in 1931; when his wife of forty years died in 1942, their daughter Carmen is reported saying "When the coffin was lowered into the ground, Vasconcelos sobbed bitterly. At that moment he must have known and felt who he had as a wife, he remarried pianist Esperanza Cruz and they had a child, Héctor. Although Vasconcelos was interested in studying philosophy, Mexican universities during the Porfiriato focused on the sciences, influenced by French positivism. Vasconcelos attended the National Preparatory School in Mexico City, an elite high school, going on to Escuela de Jurisprudencia in Mexico City. In law school, he became involved with radical students organized as the Ateneo de la Juventud; the Ateneo de Juventud was led by a Dominican citizen, Pedro Henríquez Ureña, who had read Uruguayan essayist José Enrique Rodó's Ariel, an influential work published in 1900, opposed to Anglo U.
S. cultural influence, but emphasized the redemptive power of education. The Ateneo de la Juventud had a diverse membership, composed of university professors, other professionals, students; some other members included Diego Rivera. It was opposed to the Díaz regime and formulated arguments against it and the regime's emphasis on positivism by employing French spiritualism, which articulated "a new vision of the relationship between individual and society."After graduating from law school, he joined a law firm of Warner and Galston in Washington, D. C. Vasconcelos joined the local Anti-Reelection Club in Washington, D. C.. The Anti-Reelectionistas supported the democratic movement to oust long-time President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz 1910, headed by Francisco I. Madero, the presidential candidate of the Anti-Re-electionista Party. Vasconcelos returned to Mexico City to participate more directly in the anti-reelectionist movement, becoming one of the party's secretaries and editing its newspaper, El Antireelectionista.
After Díaz was ousted by revolutionary violence followed by the election of Madero as elected president of Mexico, Vasconcelos led a structural change at the National Preparatory School, where he changed the academic programs, breaking with the positivistic influence of the past. After Madero's assassination in February 1913, Vasconcelos joined the broad based movement to defeat the military regime of Victoriano Huerta. Soon after, Vasconcelos was forced into exile in Paris, where he met Julio Torri, Doctor Atl, Gabriele D'Annunzio, other intellectuals and artists of the time. After Huerta was ousted in July 1914, Vasconcelos returned to Mexico; the Convention of Aguascalientes in 1914, the failed attempt of the factions that defeated the Huerta regime to find a political solution, but which split the factions. Leader of the Constitutionalists, Venustiano Carranza and General Álvaro Obregón split with more radical revolutionaries Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Vasconcelos chose the side of the Convention and served as Minister of Education during the brief presidential period of Eulalio Gutiérrez.
Pancho Villa was defeated by the Constitutionalist Army under Obregón in the Battle of Celaya in 1915 and Vasconcelos went into exile again. Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico, but was ousted and killed by the Sonoran generals that had helped put him in power. Vasconcelos returned to Mexico during the interim presidency of Sonoran Adolfo de la Huerta was named rector the National Autonomous University of Mexico As rector, he had a great deal of power, but he accrued more by ignoring the standard structures, such as the University Council, to govern the institution. Rather, he exercised personalist power, began implementing his vision of the function of the university, he redesigned the logo of the university to show a map of Latin America, with the phrase "Por mi raza hablará el espíritu", an influence of Rodó's arielismo. An eagle and a condor with a background of the volcanic mountains in central Mexico. Vasconcelos is said to have declared "I have not come to govern the University but to ask the University to work for the people."
When Álvaro Obregón became president in 1920, he created the Secretariat of Public Education in 1921 and named Vasconcelos as its head. Under Obregón, the national budget had two key expenditures.
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Venustiano Carranza, Mexico City
Venustiano Carranza is one of the 16 boroughs of Mexico City. The borough was formed in 1970. Venustiano Carranza extends from the far eastern portion of the historic center of Mexico City eastward to the Peñón de los Baños and the border dividing the Federal District from the State of Mexico. Most of the territory was under Lake Texcoco, but over the colonial period into the 20th century, the lake dried up and today the area is urbanized; the borough is home to three of Mexico City's major traditional markets, including La Merced, the National Archives of Mexico, the Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro, the TAPO intercity bus terminal and the Mexico City Airport. The borough is located in the center-east of Mexico City, it borders Gustavo A. Cuauhtémoc and Iztacalco with the State of Mexico to the east; the territory measures 33.42 km2, 2.24% of the total of Mexico City. The borough has 2,290 blocks and eighty designated neighborhoods, it has an average altitude of 2,240 m above sea level with most of the surface flat.
The territory is the bed of the former Lake Texcoco with soils of compressed clay over sand, with the exception of the Peñón de los Baños at 2,290 metres above sea level, made of basalt. Because it is former lakebed and hailstorms in winter, are not uncommon. Flooding is caused or exacerbated by the deteriorated drainage system. Aside from the one elevation, the far west of the borough corresponds to the far east of the former Tenochtitlan island. For this reason, about one quarter of the historic center of Mexico City belongs to the borough, it has a semi dry, temperate climate with an average annual temperature of 16 °C and an average rainfall of 600 mm. In the parks and other green spaces of the borough, trees such as ash, white cedar, cypress and Indian laurel, various scrubs and grasses can be found. Wildlife is limited to birds, rodents and insects. In 2011, reforestation efforts took place in four areas of the borough. One of the notable neighborhoods of the borough is Magdalena Mixhuca.
The community was a small island in Lake Texcoco in the pre Hispanic period and became physically connected to the surrounding areas as the lake dried up. However, the area is still marked by the existence of small one-story houses with look similar painted some shade of orange, making it look like a small town; the kiosk in the community center is painted the same color. Next to the plaza it is on is the church of Santa María Magdalena Mixhuca with an image of Mary Magdalene inside; the name Mixhuca means place of childbirth. The area is dedicated to Mary Magdalene because the first-born daughter of Moctezuma II requested such from Hernán Cortés. Other notable neighborhoods include Colonia Balbuena, named after poet Bernardo de Balbuena, La Candelaria de los Patos, which gets its name from the large flocks of ducks that used to live here when the area was still lake, El Parque, Zaragoza, Romero Rubio and Gómez Fárias; the borough is home to forty two traditional markets, with over 14,000 individual vendors.
This includes three of Mexico City’s large traditional markets, La Merced Market, Mercado de Sonora and Mercado Jamaica. La Merced is and culturally part of the historic center of Mexico City and is the largest retail food market in the city; the main building is 400 meters long with 3,205 stands selling produce and groceries and fish. There is a smaller section devoted to baskets and handcrafts with another building selling leather, storage containers, ornamental plants and prepared food; this market is located in an area, a major market and receiving area since the colonial period. The entire neighborhood was filled in informal stands until the first building was constructed in 1860; until the mid 20th century, La Merced was the main wholesale market, but this function was moved to the new Central de Abastos market in Iztapalapa. Mercado Jamaica is located in the neighborhood of the same name, next to the metro station named after it, it is known for the sale flowers and ornamental plants, but it sells produce, meats and a selection of handcrafts.
Mercado Sonora was opened in 1957. It is best known for the section dedicated to herbal medicine and the occult such as items associated with Santa Muerte; this section in located in the back. Other items include live animals, party favors and plastic items; the National Archives or Archivo General de la Nación contain a significant part of Mexico’s written history. Lecumberri was begun in 1885 as a prison when San Lázaro area was at the city’s periphery. Construction took 15 years and 2.5 million pesos and was inaugurated in 1900 as the most modern prison in Latin America. The prison was the scene of the incarceration and execution of Francisco I. Madero and José María Pino Suárez in 1913. By the 1970s, the prison had as many as 5,000 prisoners in 1,000 cells; the prison was renovated to its current use. The Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro was constructed on the former site of the San Lázaro Railroad Station by José López Portillo in the 1970s, opened in 1981, it was constructed to move the legislative body away from the Donceles Legislative Palace in the historic center of Mexico City.
The building was nearly destroyed by a fire in 1989 but was restored in 1992. The façade is of red tezontle stone with white marble in the center with the seal of the country prominently displayed; the vestibule contains a collection of mu
Historic center of Mexico City
The historic center of Mexico City known as the Centro or Centro Histórico, is the central neighborhood in Mexico City, focused on Zócalo or main plaza and extending in all directions for a number of blocks, with its farthest extent being west to the Alameda Central. The Zocalo is the largest plaza in Latin America, it can hold up to nearly 100,000 people. This section of the capital lies in the municipal borough of Cuauhtémoc, has just over nine square km and occupies 668 blocks, it contains 9,000 buildings. Most of these historic buildings were constructed between the 20th centuries, it is divided into two zones for preservation purposes. Zone A encompasses the pre-Hispanic city and its expansion from the Viceroy period until Independence. Zone B covers the areas all other constructions to the end of the 19th century that are considered indispensable to the preservation of the area's architectural and cultural heritage; this is where the Spaniards began to build what is now modern Mexico City in the 16th century on the ruins of the conquered Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire.
As the centre of the ancient Aztec Empire and the seat of power for the Spanish colony of New Spain, the Centro Historico contains most of the city's historic sites from both eras as well as a large number of museums. This has made it a World Heritage Site. What is now the historic downtown of Mexico City correlates with the ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, founded around 1325. During the prehispanic era, the city developed in a planned fashion, with streets and canals aligned with the cardinal directions, leading to orderly square blocks; the island that the city was founded on was divided into four calpullis or neighborhoods that were divided by the main north-south roads leading to Tepeyac and Iztapalapa and the west-east road that lead to Tacuba and to a dike into the lake, respectively. The calpullis were named Cuepopan, Atzacualco and Zoquipan, which had subdivisions and a "tecpan" or district council each; the intersection of these roads was the center of the city and of the Aztec world.
Here were the Templo Mayor, the palaces of the tlatoani or emperors, palaces of nobles such as the "House of the Demons" and the "House of the Flowers". Located here were the two most renowned Aztec schools: the Telpuchcalli for secular studies and the Calmecac for priestly training; when the Spaniards arrived, the city had aqueducts built by Moctezuma Ilhuicamina and Ahuizotl as well as a large dike constructed to the east of the city. After the Spanish conquest, this design remained intact due to the efforts of Alonso Garcia Bravo, who supervised much of the rebuilding of the city; this reconstruction conserved many of the main thoroughfares such as renamed Vallejo. They kept major divisions of the city adding Christian prefixes to the names such as San Juan Moyotla, Santa María Tlaquechiuacan, San Sebastián Atzacualco and San Pedro Teopan. In fact, most of the centro historicos is built with the rubble of the destroyed Aztec city. A number of people during this time, all Spaniards, accumulated vast wealth through mining and commerce in the 17th and 18th centuries.
This wealth is reflected in the various mansions scattered in the centro such as the Palace of Iturbide and Casa de Azulejos. This house was built in the 16th century in Arab style but its namesake tiles were added in 1747 when the Count of the Valley of Orizaba ordered the Talavera tiles from Puebla. In the early part of the 20th century, as a result of the Latin American posture of then-Minister of Public Education José Vasconcelos, many of the streets to the north and west of the Zocalo were renamed after Latin American countries; the Zócalo, or main plaza, has been a venue for fine and popular cultural events. Some example of events held here are Spencer Tunick's photo shoot, the Ashes and Snow Nomadic museum and a skateboarding/BMX event that drew 50,000 young people on 24 August 2008; the Festival de México is an annual event with programs dedicated to academia. In 2008, was the 24th Festival with 254 performances and shows from over 20 countries.in 65 plazas and other locations in this section of the city.
It is central to national level protests such as those staged by Lopez Obrador after the 2006 Presidential Elections and the nationwide protest against crime held on August 30, 2008. Just off the Zócalo are the Palacio Nacional, the Cathedral Metropolitana, the Templo Mayor with its adjoining museum, Nacional Monte de Piedad building; the Palacio Nacional borders the entire east side of the Zocalo and contains the offices of the President of Mexico, the Federal Treasury, the National Archives as well as murals depicting pre-Hispanic life and a large mural filling the central stairway depicting the entire history of the Mexican nation from the Conquest on. This palace was built on the ruins of Moctezuma II's palace beginning in 1521, using the same tezontle stone used to build the Aztec palace, it was in the Hernán Cortés family until the king of Spain bought it to house the viceroys of New Spain and remained so until Mexican independence. Facing the Zócalo above a central balcony is the Campana of Dolores, rung by the president each 15th of Sept to celebrate Independence.
The Metropolitan Cathedral, dedicated to the Assumption of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, occupies the north end of the Zócalo. The site was part of the Aztec Sacred Precinct and contained the main
President of Mexico
The President of Mexico known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces; the current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018. The office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again; the constitution and the office of the President follow the presidential system of government. Chapter III of Title III of the Constitution deals with the executive branch of government and sets forth the powers of the president, as well as the qualifications for the office, he is vested with the "supreme executive power of the Union".
To be eligible to serve as president, Article 82 of the Constitution specifies that the following requirements must be met: Be a natural-born citizen of Mexico able to exercise full citizenship rights, with at least one parent, a natural-born citizen of Mexico. Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty years. Be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election. Be a resident of Mexico for the entire year prior to the election. Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination. Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not be a secretary of state or under-secretary of state, attorney general, governor of a State, or head of the government of Mexico City, unless "separated from the post" at least six months prior to the election. Not have been president even in a provisional capacity; the ban on any sort of presidential re-election dates back to the aftermath of the Porfiriato and the end of the Mexican Revolution. It is so entrenched in Mexican politics that it has remained in place as it was relaxed for other offices.
In 2014, the constitution was amended to allow Deputies and Senators to run for a second consecutive term. Deputies and Senators were barred from successive re-election. However, the president remained barred from re-election if it is nonsuccessive; the presidential term was set at four years from 1821 until 1904, when President Porfirio Díaz extended it to six years for the first time in Mexico's history, again from 1917 to 1928 after a new constitution reversed the change made by Diaz in 1904. The presidential term was set at six years in 1928 and has remained unchanged since then; the president is elected by direct, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a simple plurality of the national vote is elected. Former President Felipe Calderón won with 36.38% of the votes in the 2006 general election, finishing only 0.56 percent above his nearest rival, Andrés Manuel López Obrador. Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the popular vote, Ernesto Zedillo won 48% of the vote, his predecessor Carlos Salinas won with a majority of 50%.
The most recent former president, Enrique Peña Nieto won 38% of the popular vote. The current President, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was elected in 2018 with a modern-era record of 53% share of the popular vote; the history of Mexico has not been a peaceful one. After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until 1929, when all the revolutionary leaders united in one political party: the National Revolutionary Party, which changed its name to the Party of the Mexican Revolution, is now the Institutional Revolutionary Party. From until 1988, the PRI ruled Mexico as a virtual one-party state. Toward the end of his term, the incumbent president in consultation with party leaders, selected the PRI's candidate in the next election in a procedure known as "the tap of the finger"; until 1988, the PRI's candidate was assured of election, winning by margins well over 70 percent of the vote—results that were obtained by massive electoral fraud.
In 1988, the PRI ruptured and the dissidents formed the National Democratic Front with rival center-left parties. Discontent with the PRI, the popularity of the Front's candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas led to worries that PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari would not come close to a majority, might be defeated. While the votes were being counted, the tabulation system mysteriously shut down; the government declared Salinas the winner, leading to stronger than allegations of electoral fraud. The PRI enacted a strict internal discipline and government presence in the country, electoral fraud became common. After the country regained its peace, this pattern of fraud continued, with the opposition losing every election until the part of the 20th century; the first presidential election broadly considered legitimate was the one held in 1994, when the PRI's Ernesto Zedillo took office, in his term several reforms were enacted to ensure fairness and transparency in elections. As a consequence of these reforms, the 1997 federal congressional election saw the first opposition Chamber of Deputies and the 2000 elections saw Vicente Fox of a P
School of Engineering, UNAM
The School of Engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico is the most prestigious engineering school in Latin America and one of the top engineering schools worldwide. At the undergraduate level, it offers some graduate programs. In fall 2008, the school of engineering had over 10,900 undergraduate students and 1,115 graduate students and postdocs; the School of Engineering offers undergraduate studies in: Biomedical systems engineering Civil engineering Computer engineering Electrical and Electronic engineering Geomatics engineering Geophysical engineering Geotechnical engineering Industrial engineering Mechanical engineering Mechatronics engineering Mining and Metallurgy engineering Petroleum engineering Telecommunications engineeringThe studies on Chemistry, as for chemical engineering, are offered by UNAM's own School of Chemistry. The school of Engineering at the UNAM has its origins as the Real Seminario de Mineria, which building is still standing near the Zocalo in Mexico City.
After the university was closed in 1833, several scientific institutes were established in Mexico, all of them related to some branch of engineering. These merged into a single institution which in 1910 was put under the supervision of the newly created UNAM and renamed to Escuela Nacional de Ingeniería. In 1954 the school changes its location to Ciudad Universitaria. In 1959, with the creation of the Engineering Institute and the availability of its first graduate program, the school changes its name to Facultad de Ingeniería; the history of UNAM indicates that the School of Engineering has been a strong technology innovator, today, student associations focus on creating technological innovations. UNAM's School of Engineering has made great strides to include more women in technology, it organizes several tech events to help its students become innovators and entrepreneurs. The All Latina Hackathon was sponsored by Google and took place in the computer engineering department; the school of engineering is organized in divisions, each under the direct supervision of a Head of division.
These are themselves coordinated and supervised by the faculty dean Carlos Agustín Escalante Sandoval. Fundamental Science Division:Is in charge of subjects such as physics and mathematics, every student has to take one or more subjects of this department, specially during the first 4 semesters; these subjects on fundamental science are common to all students and are regarded as the most difficult among all. Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Division:In charge of the majors in the name, is the contact between the school and the industry, there are some programs for young entrepreneurial and some courses that may resemble a BA program in US Civil and Geomatic Engineering Division The civil Engineering division is one of the oldest divisions and has great prestige. Many famous researchers, business leaders, such as Carlos Slim have studied in this division. Electrical Engineering Division: The Electric Engineering Division is in charge of three different bachelor's degrees: Electric Engineering, Computer Engineering and Telecommunication Engineering.
It is the biggest division by number of students, as the degrees it offers have a high employment rate. This division the computer engineering department, has established many on-going collaborations with industry and academia, such as: Google, Intel, IBM, Telmex, Carnegie Mellon University, UC Berkeley and Wikimedia Foundation; the DIE has a head chair. The current chair is Dr. Boris Escalante; each department has its own chair and coordinator. The department with most students and infrastructure is the Computer Engineering department, whose current coordinator is professor Norma Elva Chavez. Earth Sciences Engineering:This division is organizes the Mining, Petroleum and Geology Engineering bachelor Programs. Is one of the oldest divisions in the school and has some joint programs with PEMEX among other petroleum companies. Distance and Continuing Education Division:As the name implies, this division is in charge of courses and diplomas for active professionals who wish to stay up to date with current technological trends or wish to stay in contact with the academic community in some way other than the conventional graduate programs.
Social Sciences and Humanities Division:In charge of cultural activities and some subjects, such as literature and history. The school of engineering has numerous facilities, most of which are located in Ciudad Universitaria in Mexico City, between Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Administration, it has one for graduate ones. It has some of Mexico's finest laboratories for civil and mechanical engineering,and various laboratories of electronic engineering with cutting-edge technology. Carlos Slim, Jesus Savage, Nabor Carrillo Flores Rodolfo Neri Vela, Daniel Vargas, Jordi Messeguer Gally, Leda Speciale, Enrique Martínez Romero, (Civil Engineer of the Torre Mayor, Mexico City's internationa
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k