Romani people in France
Romani people in France known in spoken French as "gitans", "tsiganes" or "manouches", are an ethnic group which originated in Northern India. The exact numbers of Romani people in France are not known, with estimates varying from 20,000 to 400,000. At least 12,000 Romani are estimated to live in unofficial urban camps throughout the country, with French authorities attempting to close down these encampments. In 2009, the French government sent more than 10,000 foreign Romani back to Bulgaria; the Romani people originated in Northern India from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts or daily routines. More Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi, it shares many phonetic features with Marwari. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group.
According to a genetic study in 2012, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the ancestral populations of modern European Roma. In France the Romani people are classified into three groups: "Roms", referring to Romani who come from territories from eastern Europe "Manouches" known as "Sinté", who have familial ties in Germany and Italy "Gitans", who trace their familial ties to Romani people in SpainThe term "Romanichel" is considered pejorative, "Bohémien" is outdated; the French National Gendarmerie tends to refer to "MENS", an administrative term meaning "Travelling Ethnic Minorities". This term is not considered neutral or correct, because broadly a majority of French Romani have homes like other minorities, are not more "travelling" than others; the exact numbers of Romani people in France are not known, with estimates varying from 20,000 to 400,000. The French Romani rights group FNASAT reports that at least 12,000 Romani, who have immigrated from Romania and Bulgaria, live in unofficial urban camps throughout the country.
French authorities attempt to close down these encampments. In 2009, the government sent more than 10,000 Romani back to Bulgaria. In 2009, the European Committee of Social Rights found France had violated the European Social Charter in respect to Romani population from foreign countries. In 2010 and 2011, the French government organized repatriation flights to send the French Romani to Romania. On 12 April a chartered flight carrying 160 Romani left northern France for Timisoara; as in the 2010 deportations, the French government gave those Romani leaving France €300 each, with €100 for each child. The Romani on the 12 April flight were forced to sign declarations that they would never return to France. On 9 August, the city of Marseille in southern France forcibly evicted 100 Romani people from their makeshift camp near Porte d'Aix, giving them 24 hours to leave. A chartered flight carrying 150 Romani to Romania left the Lyon area on 20 September. France's goal for 2011 was to deport 30,000 Romani to Romania.
As of 2012, France sent about 8,000 Romani to Romania and Bulgaria in 2011, after dismantling camps where they were living on the outskirts of cities. The actions prompted controversy and calls for greater inclusion of Romani people. Prejudiced views of Romani are widespread in France, with a 2014 Pew Research poll indicating that two-thirds of French people have unfavorable views of Romani. According to a report published by the Human Rights League of France and the European Roma Rights Centre, 60 percent of all Romani living in France were forcibly evicted from their homes in 2016, many in cold winter months. Rumors and fake news stories of a white van occupied by Romani attempting to abduct children or young women have spread across the French internet on multiple occasions. A number of violent incidents against Romani occurred in March 2019 after rumors of Romani kidnapping children spread on Facebook and Snapchat. Two people in a white van were attacked by 20 youths in Colombes on March 16.
On 25 March, 50 people attacked a Roma camp in Bobigny with sticks and knives, burning several vans, a separate group of Romani were chased and attacked in Clichy-sous-Bois. Similar incidents occurred in Aubervilliers and Noisy-le-Sec. Cascarots, a group of Romani in the Basque Country Erromintxela, a group of Romani in the Basque Country with their own language Gypsy jazz#France Media related to Roma people in France at Wikimedia Commons
The pillory is a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands used for punishment by public humiliation and further physical abuse. The pillory is related to the stocks; the word is documented in English since 1274, stems from Old French pellori, itself from medieval Latin pilloria, of uncertain origin a diminutive of Latin pila "pillar, stone barrier". Rather like the lesser punishment called the stocks, the pillory consisted of hinged wooden boards forming holes through which the head and/or various limbs were inserted. Pillories were set up to hold people in marketplaces and other public places, they were placed on platforms to increase public visibility of the person. A placard detailing the crime was placed nearby. In being forced to bend forward and stick their head and hands out in front of them, offenders in the pillory would have been uncomfortable during their punishment. However, the main purpose in putting criminals in the pillory was to publicly humiliate them.
On discovering that the pillory was occupied, people would excitedly gather in the marketplace to taunt and laugh at the offender on display. Those who gathered to watch the punishment wanted to make the offender's experience as unpleasant as possible. In addition to being jeered and mocked, those in the pillory might be pelted with rotten food, offal, dead animals, animal excrement. Sometimes people were killed or maimed in the pillory because crowds could get too violent and pelt the offender with stones and other dangerous objects. However, when Daniel Defoe was sentenced to the pillory in 1703 for Seditious libel, he was regarded as a hero by the crowd and was pelted with flowers; the criminal could be sentenced to further punishments while in the pillory: humiliation by shaving off some or all hair or regular corporal punishment, notably flagellation or permanent mutilation such as branding or having an ear cut off, as in the case of John Bastwick. In Protestant cultures, the pillory would be the worldly part of a church punishment.
The delinquent would therefore first serve the ecclesiastical part of his punishment on the pillory bench in the church itself, be handed to the worldly authorities to be bound to the Skampåle for public humiliation. In 1816, use of the pillory was restricted in England to punishment for subornation; the pillory was formally abolished as a form of punishment in England and Wales in 1837, but the stocks remained in use, though infrequently, until 1872. The last person to be pilloried in England was Peter James Bossy, convicted of "wilful and corrupt perjury" in 1830, he was offered the choice of seven years' penal transportation or one hour in the pillory, chose the latter. In France, time in the "pilori" was limited to two hours, it was replaced in 1789 by "exposition", abolished in 1832. Two types of devices were used: The poteau was a simple post with a board around only the neck, was synonymous with the mode of punishment; this was the same as the schandpaal in Dutch. The carcan, an iron ring around the neck to tie a prisoner to such a post, was the name of a similar punishment, abolished in 1832.
A criminal convicted to serve time in a prison or galleys would, prior to his incarceration, be attached for two to six hours to the carcan, with his name and sentence written on a board over his head. A permanent small tower, the upper floor of which had a ring made of wood or iron with holes for the victim's head and arms, on a turntable to expose the condemned to all parts of the crowd. Like other permanent apparatus for physical punishment, the pillory was placed prominently and constructed more elaborately than necessary, it served as a symbol of the power of the judicial authorities, its continual presence was seen as a deterrent, like permanent gallows for authorities endowed with high justice. In Portugal, it is called Pelourinho, there are monuments of great importance because they are known since the Roman times, they are located on the main square of the town, and/or in front of a major church or a palace. They are made of stone with the top carved. Pelourinhos are considered major local monuments, several bearing the coat of arms of a king or queen.
The same is true of its former colonies, notably in Brazil and Africa, always as symbols of royal power. In Spain it was called picota; the pillory was in common use in other western countries and colonies, similar devices were used in other, non-Western cultures. According to one source, the pillory was abolished as a form of punishment in the United States in 1839, but this cannot be true because it was in use in Delaware as as 1901. Governor Preston Lea signed a bill to abolish the pillory in Delaware in March 1905. Punishment by whipping-post remained on the books in Delaware until 1972, when it became the last state to abolish it. Delaware was the last state to sentence someone to whipping in 1963; the last whipping in Delaware was in 1952. There was a variant, called a barrel pillory
The domestic goat or goat is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the goat—antelope subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, have been used for milk, meat and skins across much of the world. Milk from goats is turned into goat cheese. Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats. In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization; the Modern English word goat comes from Old English gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat", itself from a root meaning "jump".
To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans; the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild Bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the original ancestor of all domestic goats today. Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, used as fuel, their bones and sinew for clothing and tools; the earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.
It has been used to produce parchment. Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg for smaller goat does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm at the shoulder as adults. Most goats have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are sterile, their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, are used for defense and territoriality. Goats are ruminants.
They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates; the females have an udder consisting in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat. Goats have slit-shaped pupils; because goats' irises are pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, most horses and many sheep, whose horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Both male and female goats have beards, many types of goat may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck. Goats expressing the tan pattern have coats pigmented with phaeomelanin; the allele which codes for this pattern is located at the agouti locus of the goat genome. It is dominant to all other alleles at this locus. There are multiple modifier genes which control how much tan pigment is expressed, so a tan-patterned goat can have a coat ranging from pure white to deep red. Goats reach puberty depending on breed and nutritional status.
Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding. However, this separation is possible in extensively managed, open-range herds. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat flags her tail stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, may show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat. Bucks of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility
Reims, a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies 129 km east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants in the city of Reims proper, 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, its primary river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire. Reims played a prominent ceremonial role in French monarchical history as the traditional site of the crowning of the kings of France; the Cathedral of Reims housed the Holy Ampulla containing the Saint Chrême brought by a white dove at the baptism of Clovis in 496. It was used for the most important part of the coronation of French kings. Reims functions as a subprefecture of the department of Marne, in the administrative region of Grand Est. Although Reims is by far the largest commune in its department, Châlons-en-Champagne is the prefecture. Before the Roman conquest of northern Gaul, founded circa 80 BC as *Durocorteron, served as the capital of the tribe of the Remi — whose name the town would subsequently echo.
In the course of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, the Remi allied themselves with the Romans, by their fidelity throughout the various Gallic insurrections secured the special favour of the imperial power. At its height in Roman times the city had a population in the range of 30,000 - 50,000 or up to 100,000. Christianity had become established in the city by 260, at which period Saint Sixtus of Reims founded the bishopric of Reims; the consul Jovinus, an influential supporter of the new faith, repelled the Alamanni who invaded Champagne in 336. In 496 – ten years after Clovis, King of the Salian Franks, won his victory at Soissons — Remigius, the bishop of Reims, baptized him using the oil of the sacred phial – purportedly brought from heaven by a dove for the baptism of Clovis and subsequently preserved in the Abbey of Saint-Remi. For centuries the events at the crowning of Clovis I became a symbol used by the monarchy to claim the divine right to rule. Meetings of Pope Stephen II with Pepin the Short, of Pope Leo III with Charlemagne, took place at Reims.
King Louis IV gave the city and countship of Reims to the archbishop Artaldus in 940. King Louis VII gave the title of duke and peer to William of Champagne, archbishop from 1176 to 1202, the archbishops of Reims took precedence over the other ecclesiastical peers of the realm. By the 10th century Reims had become a centre of intellectual culture. Archbishop Adalberon, seconded by the monk Gerbert, founded schools which taught the classical "liberal arts"; the archbishops held the important prerogative of the consecration of the kings of France – a privilege which they exercised from the time of Philippe II Augustus to that of Charles X. Louis VII granted the city a communal charter in 1139; the Treaty of Troyes ceded it to the English, who had made a futile attempt to take it by siege in 1360. Louis XI cruelly suppressed a revolt at Reims, caused in 1461 by the salt tax. During the French Wars of Religion the city sided with the Catholic League, but submitted to King Henri IV after the battle of Ivry.
In the invasions of the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1814, anti-Napoleonic allied armies captured and re-captured Reims. In August 1909 Reims hosted the first international aviation meet, the Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne. Major aviation personages such as Glenn Curtiss, Louis Blériot and Louis Paulhan participated. Hostilities in World War I damaged the city. German bombardment and a subsequent fire in 1914 did severe damage to the cathedral; the ruined cathedral became one of the central images of anti-German propaganda produced in France during the war, which presented it, along with the ruins of the Cloth Hall at Ypres and the University Library in Louvain, as evidence that German aggression targeted cultural landmarks of European civilization. From the end of World War I to the present day an international effort to restore the cathedral from the ruins has continued; the Palace of Tau, St Jacques Church and the Abbey of St Remi were protected and restored. The collection of preserved buildings and Roman ruins remains monumentally impressive.
During World War II the city suffered additional damage. But in Reims, at 2:41 on the morning of 7 May 1945, General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht. General Alfred Jodl, German Chief-of-Staff, signed the surrender at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force as the representative for German President Karl Dönitz; the British statesman Leslie Hore-Belisha died of a cerebral haemorrhage while making a speech at the Reims hôtel de ville in February 1957. The principal squares of Reims include the
The Darling of Paris
The Darling of Paris is a 1917 American silent romantic drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Theda Bara and Glen White, it was a loose film adaptation of the 1831 novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. It was produced by William Fox; the Darling of Paris was re-edited from six to five reels and re-released by Fox on February 16, 1919. The film is now considered lost; the wealthy girl Esmeralda is kidnapped by gypsies at birth and becomes, as one might assume, the darling of Paris. She is loved by the bell ringer and former hunchback Quasimodo, the wicked surgeon who cares for him, an wicked Captain Phoebus. However, the titular hunchback is downplayed in favor of gypsy dancing girl Esmerelda; the surgeon kills the Captain and frames Esmeralda, but after many merry mix-ups, she winds back with her wealthy family wed to Quasimodo. The film was shot at the Fox Studios located in Fort Lee, New Jersey. An elaborate set was constructed on the back lot to recreate Paris; the set included a reproduction of the Notre Dame de Paris.
The release in Brazil was done with the title A Favorita de Paris in September 17, 1917 on the cinemas Ideal and Pathé, both from Rua da Carioca 60-62, Rio de Janeiro. It debuted on Cine Haddock Lobo in September 30, 1917. Cinema Haddock Lobo was located in a street of several theaters. Cine Ideal belonged to the group Severiano Ribeiro, which still holds in its storehouse old silent films. For over a month it grossed a huge box office and was a success of public and critical acclamation on Rio society; the highest-grossing releases in September on Rio: List of lost films The Darling of Paris on IMDb The Darling of Paris at SilentEra The Darling of Paris at AllMovie Theatrical lobby poster
Victor Marie Hugo was a French poet and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo is considered to be one of the best-known French writers. Outside France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, 1831. In France, Hugo is known for his poetry collections, such as Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles. Hugo was at the forefront of the Romantic literary movement with his play Cromwell and drama Hernani. Many of his works have inspired music, both during his lifetime and after his death, including the musicals Notre-Dame de Paris and Les Misérables, he produced more than 4,000 drawings in his lifetime, campaigned for social causes such as the abolition of capital punishment. Though a committed royalist when he was young, Hugo's views changed as the decades passed, he became a passionate supporter of republicanism, he is buried in the Panthéon in Paris. His legacy has been honoured in many ways, including his portrait being placed on French currency.
Victor Hugo was the third son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Sophie Trébuchet. He was born in 1802 in Besançon in the eastern region of Franche-Comté. On 19 November 1821, Léopold Hugo wrote to his son that he had been conceived on one of the highest peaks in the Vosges Mountains, on a journey from Lunéville to Besançon. " This elevated origin, he went on, seems to have had effects on you so that your muse is now continually sublime." Léopold Hugo was a freethinking republican. Hugo's childhood was a period of national political turmoil. Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of the French two years after Hugo's birth, the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his 13th birthday; the opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was a high-ranking officer in Napoleon's army until he failed in Spain. Since Hugo's father was an officer, the family moved and Hugo learned much from these travels. On a childhood family trip to Naples, Hugo saw the vast Alpine passes and the snowy peaks, the magnificently blue Mediterranean, Rome during its festivities.
Though he was only five years old at the time, he remembered the six-month-long trip vividly. They stayed in Naples for a few months and headed back to Paris. At the beginning of her marriage, Hugo's mother Sophie followed her husband to posts in Italy and Spain. Weary of the constant moving required by military life and at odds with her husband's lack of Catholic beliefs, Sophie separated temporarily from Léopold in 1803 and settled in Paris with her children. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's upbringing; as a result, Hugo's early work in poetry and fiction reflect her passionate devotion to both King and Faith. It was only during the events leading up to France's 1848 Revolution, that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism and Freethought. Young Victor fell in love with and became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher, against his mother's wishes; because of his close relationship with his mother, Hugo waited until after her death to marry Adèle in 1822.
Adèle and Victor Hugo had their first child, Léopold, in 1823. On 28 August 1824, the couple's second child, Léopoldine was born, followed by Charles on 4 November 1826, François-Victor on 28 October 1828, Adèle on 28 July 1830. Hugo's eldest and favourite daughter, Léopoldine, died aged 19 in 1843, shortly after her marriage to Charles Vacquerie. On 4 September, she drowned in the Seine at Villequier, pulled down by her heavy skirts when a boat overturned, her young husband died trying to save her. The death left, he describes his shock and grief in his famous poem À Villequier: He wrote many poems afterwards about his daughter's life and death, at least one biographer claims he never recovered from it. His most famous poem is Demain, dès l'aube, in which he describes visiting her grave. Hugo decided to live in exile after Napoleon III's coup d'état at the end of 1851. After leaving France, Hugo lived in Brussels in 1851, before moving to the Channel Islands, first to Jersey and to the smaller island of Guernsey in 1855, where he stayed until Napoleon III's fall from power in 1870.
Although Napoleon III proclaimed a general amnesty in 1859, under which Hugo could have safely returned to France, the author stayed in exile, only returning when Napoleon III was forced from power as a result of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. After the Siege of Paris from 1870 to 1871, Hugo lived again in Guernsey from 1872 to 1873, before returning to France for the remainder of his life. Hugo published his first novel the year following his marriage, his secon