The Dutch colonial empire comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies and subsequently by the Dutch Republic, by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815. It was a trade-based system which derived most of its influence from merchant enterprise and from Dutch control of international maritime shipping routes through strategically placed outposts, rather than from expansive territorial ventures. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the Dutch colonial empire's overseas holdings consisted of coastal forts and port settlements with varying degrees of incorporation of their hinterlands and surrounding regions. Dutch chartered companies dictated that their possessions be kept as confined as possible in order to avoid unnecessary expense, while some such as the Dutch Cape Colony and Dutch East Indies expanded anyway, others remained undeveloped, isolated trading centres dependent on an indigenous host-nation; this reflected the primary purpose of the Dutch colonial empire: commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses.
The imperial ambitions of the Dutch were bolstered by the strength of their existing shipping industry, as well as the key role they played in the expansion of maritime trade between Europe and the Orient. Because small European trading-companies lacked the capital or the manpower for large-scale operations, the States General chartered larger organisations - the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company - in the early seventeenth century; these were considered the largest and most extensive maritime trading companies at the time, once held a virtual monopoly on strategic European shipping-routes westward through the Southern Hemisphere around South America through the Strait of Magellan, eastward around Africa, past the Cape of Good Hope. The companies' domination of global commerce contributed to a commercial revolution and a cultural flowering in the Netherlands of the 17th century, known as the Dutch Golden Age. In their search for new trade passages between Asia and Europe, Dutch navigators explored and charted distant regions such as New Zealand and parts of the eastern coast of North America.
In the 18th century the Dutch colonial empire began to decline as a result of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War of 1780-1784, in which the Netherlands lost a number of its colonial possessions and trade monopolies to the British Empire. Major portions of the empire survived until the advent of global decolonisation following World War II, namely the East Indies and Dutch Guiana. Three former colonial territories in the West Indies islands around the Caribbean Sea—Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten—remain as constituent countries represented within the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the territories that would form the Dutch Republic began as a loose federation known as the Seventeen Provinces, which Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain and brought under his direct rule in 1543. In 1566, a Protestant Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, sparking the Eighty Years' War. Led by William of Orange, independence was declared in the 1581 Act of Abjuration; the revolt resulted in the establishment of an de facto independent Protestant republic in the north by Treaty of Antwerp, although Spain did not recognize Dutch independence until 1648.
The coastal provinces of Holland and Zeeland had been important hubs of the European maritime trade network for centuries prior to Spanish rule. Their geographical location provided convenient access to the markets of France, Germany and the Baltic; the war with Spain led many financiers and traders to emigrate from Antwerp, a major city in Flanders and one of Europe's most important commercial centres, to Dutch cities Amsterdam, which became Europe's foremost centre for shipping and insurance. Efficient access to capital enabled the Dutch in the 1580s to extend their trade routes beyond northern Europe to new markets in the Mediterranean and the Levant. In the 1590s, Dutch ships began to trade with Brazil and the Dutch Gold Coast of Africa, towards the Indian Ocean, the source of the lucrative spice trade; this brought the Dutch into direct competition with Portugal, which had dominated these trade routes for several decades, had established colonial outposts on the coasts of Brazil and the Indian Ocean to facilitate them.
The rivalry with Portugal, was not economic: from 1580, after the death of the King of Portugal, Sebastian I, much of the Portuguese nobility in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir, the Portuguese crown had been joined to that of Spain in an "Iberian Union" under the heir of Emperor Charles V, Philip II of Spain. By attacking Portuguese overseas possessions, the Dutch forced Spain to divert financial and military resources away from its attempt to quell Dutch independence, thus began the several decade-long Dutch-Portuguese War. In 1594, the Compagnie van Verre was founded in Amsterdam, with the aim of sending two fleets to the spice islands of Maluku; the first fleet sailed in 1596 and returned in 1597 with a cargo of pepper, which more than covered the costs of the voyage. The second voyage, returned its investors a 400% profit; the success of these voyages led to the founding of a number of companies competing for the trade. The competition was counterproductive to the companies' interests as it th
Kieft's War known as the Wappinger War, was a conflict between settlers of the nascent colony of New Netherland and the native Lenape population in what would become the New York metropolitan area of the United States. It is named for Director-General of New Netherland Willem Kieft, who had ordered an attack without approval of his advisory council and against the wishes of the colonists. Dutch soldiers attacked Lenape camps and massacred the native inhabitants, which encouraged unification among the regional Algonquian tribes against the Dutch, precipitated waves of attacks on both sides; this was one of European settlers in the region. Displeased with Kieft, the Dutch West India Company recalled him and he died in a shipwreck while returning to the Netherlands. Peter Stuyvesant succeeded him in New Netherland; because of the continuing threat by the Algonquians, numerous Dutch settlers returned to the Netherlands, growth of the colony slowed. Appointed director by the Company, Willem Kieft arrived in New Netherland in April 1638.
Without obvious experience or qualifications for the job, Kieft may have been appointed through family political connections. The year before, the English colonies Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence Plantations, Windsor, allied with the Mohegan and Narragansett nations, had annihilated the Dutch-allied Pequot Nation; the Pequot defeat eased the way for an English takeover of the northern reaches of New Netherland, along the Connecticut River. Two weeks before Kieft's arrival, Peter Minuit, a former director-general of New Netherland, established a rogue Swedish settlement in the poorly developed southern reaches of the colony, along what is now called the Delaware Valley. Along the Hudson, New Netherland had begun to flourish. New Amsterdam and the other settlements of the Hudson Valley had developed beyond company towns into a growing colony. In 1640, the Company surrendered its trade monopoly on the colony and declared New Netherlands a free-trade zone. Kieft was governor of a booming economy.
The directors of the Company were unhappy. Due to their mismanagement, the New Netherlands project had never been profitable; the company's efforts elsewhere, by contrast, had paid handsome returns. The directors were anxious to reduce administrative costs, chief among, providing for defense of the colonies. Within this category were land "purchase" agreements with the Native American nations who inhabited the lands. Kieft's first plan to reduce costs was to solicit tribute payments from the tribes living in the region. Long-time colonists warned him against this course, but he pursued it, to outright rejection by the local sachems, or chiefs. Determined to force deference, Kieft seized on the theft of pigs from the farm of David de Vries as a casus belli to send soldiers to raid a Raritan village on Staten Island, killing several; when the band retaliated by burning down de Vries' farmhouse and killing four of his employees, Kieft "put a price on their heads". He offered bounty payment to rival Native American tribes for the heads of Raritan.
Settlers determined that de Vries' pigs had been stolen by other Dutch colonists. In August 1641, Claes Swits, an elderly Swiss immigrant, was killed by a Weckquaesgeek of his long acquaintance. Swits ran a popular public house, frequented by Europeans and Native Americans in what is today Turtle Bay, Manhattan; the murder was said to be a matter of the native's paying a "blood debt" for the murder of his uncle. He had been the sole survivor of an ambush of Weckquaesgeek traders by Europeans 15 years before. Kieft was determined to use the event as a pretext for a war of extermination against the tribe. Another incident raising tensions occurred at Achter Kol along the banks of the Hackensack River. Settlers to the new factorij, after having plied local Hackensack with alcohol, engaged in a small conflict over the loss of a missing coat, which ended in the death of the post's foreman; as the colonists resisted Kieft's Indian initiatives, he tried to use the Swits incident to build popular support for war.
He created the Council of Twelve Men, the first popularly elected body in the New Netherlands colony, to advise him on retaliation. The Council was alarmed about the consequences of Kieft's proposed crusade, as the colonists had lived in peace with the Native Americans for nearly two decades, becoming friends, business partners, employers, drinking buddies, bed partners; as a result, the council rejected Kieft's proposal to massacre the Weckquaesgeek village if the villagers refused to produce the Swits murderer. The Native Americans were far more numerous than the Europeans and could take reprisals against their lives and property; as the Native Americans supplied the furs and pelts that were the economic lifeblood and the raison d'etre of the colony. With David Pietersz. de Vries as its President, the council sought to dissuade Kieft from war. They began to advise him on other matters, using the new Council to carry the interests of colonists to the corporate rulers, they called for establishing a permanent representative body to manage local affairs.
Kieft responded by issuing a decree forbidding them to meet or assemble. Kieft sent a punitive expedition to attack the fugitive Indian's village, but the militia got
Siege of Galle (1640)
The Siege of the Portuguese fort Santa Cruz de Gale at Galle in 1640, took place during the Dutch–Portuguese and Sinhalese–Portuguese Wars. The Galle fort commanded 282 villages, which contained most fertile cinnamon lands in southern Sri Lanka It was an important strategic coastal defense of Portuguese Ceylon; the Dutch, who were in an alliance with the Kingdom of Kandy, landed an expeditionary force under Commodore Willem Jacobszoon Coster of Akersloot, at the Bay of Galle, on 8 March 1640. After bombarding the fort for four consecutive days, Dutch troops stormed the fort and secured a victory on 13 March 1640; the Portuguese garrison, led by Captain Lourenço Ferreira de Brito, mounted a stiff resistance and unexpectedly high casualty rates among Dutch troops gave rise to the proverb “Gold in Malacca, lead in Galle”. With this victory the Dutch gained access to a large port which they used as a convenient naval base to attack Goa and other South Indian Portuguese defenses, they gained access to the Sri Lankan cinnamon trade and gained a permanent foothold on the island.
The Portuguese arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505 and established trade relations with the kingdom of Kotte. They garrisoned it. In 1521, during events which became known as the “Spoiling of Vijayabahu”, Kotte King Vijayabahu VII’s three sons mutinied and killed their father, they divided the kingdom among themselves giving rise to three minor kingdoms: Kotte and Principality of Raigama. Subsequent rivalries among these kingdoms gave the Portuguese an opportunity to get involved in internal politics. In 1557, the Kingdom of Kotte became a vassal state of Portugal. In 1591, the Jaffna Kingdom was subjugated and in 1594, Sitawaka was annexed to Portuguese territory. By April 1594, only the Kingdom of Kandy stood in the way of the Portuguese completing their conquest of Sri Lanka; the Portuguese invaded the Kingdom of Kandy in 1594, 1602 and 1630, but they were defeated on all three occasions by the Kandyans. Meanwhile, after 1602, Dutch envoys began visiting Kandy, by 1638 negotiations were taking place for a Dutch–Kandyan alliance.
A Portuguese army, led by Diogo de Melo de Castro invaded Kandy in order to capture it before an alliance could take place. However, the Portuguese army was annihilated on 28 March 1638 in a decisive battle at Gannoruwa. Meanwhile, the Dutch fleet made contact with the Kandyans. Priority was given to capture the Trincomalee forts; these forts were situated within Kandyan territory and had been built ten years earlier by the Portuguese in violation of the peace treaty that had existed between the Portuguese and Kandyans. On 18 May, after being besieged for eight days by a combined Dutch-Kandyan army, the Portuguese commander surrendered the Batticaloa fort. Five days on 23 May 1638, a treaty was signed establishing an alliance between the Dutch and the Kandyans. On 2 May 1639, after a siege that lasted for 40 days, the Dutch captured the Trincomalee fort and on 9 February 1640, a combined Dutch–Kandyan army stormed and captured the Negombo fort. By the end of February, preparations were being made for the siege of Galle.
Goa, the headquarters of Portugal's Asian territories, was resupplied annually from Lisbon by Portugal's India armadas. These resources were distributed to the other Portuguese strongholds through further supply convoys and Sri Lanka received supplies and reinforcements twice a year in May and September. However, when a Portuguese stronghold was under threat, reinforcements were rushed to that place disregarding the normal procedures of supply. In 1636, Antonio van Diemen was appointed Governor General of Dutch East India Company. Under his leadership Dutch naval strategy underwent an important change. From 1636, van Diemen annually sent a fleet to blockade Goa, using this opportunity to attack other Portuguese processions as they were deprived of help, he used this strategy in Sri Lanka and after the destruction of powerful Portuguese galleons in the battle of Mormugão on 30 September 1639, the Dutch were able to divert more ships and men to Sri Lanka. On 14 March 1639, issuing a statement, Van Diemen declared that the time had come to drive the Portuguese out of their strongholds and to secure Dutch supremacy in the Indies.
Every year an eastbound fleet from Lisbon to Goa brought volunteers and men forced into service by periodic sweeps of the streets, as recruits. After a short period of basic training, which included parade ground drilling and fighting in formations, they were distributed throughout the empire. Sometimes these raw recruits received their formal military training on the battlefield itself; the rank and file was composed of unmarried regular soldiers who were known as "soldados". They were arranged into companies of 30 to 35 men under a captain with an ensign and a sergeant as non commissioned officers; these regulars were supported by other various fighting elements. "Casados" were retired veterans who had settled locally. In special situations like in expeditions and sieges, they were recalled for active duty. Indigenous fighting men who served under the Portuguese were known as "Lascarins", they fought under their provincial leader, a “Dissawe”, invariably a Portuguese. They hired mercenary soldiers from south India and employed African soldiers to further increase their numbers.
The primary firearm used by the Portuguese was arquebus, while spears and swords with shields were used as the primary melee weapons. Comparing the arquebus with the Dutch muskets, Portuguese author Queiroz wrote “... arquebues, do not do as much damage as theirs from mu
Battle of Elmina (1625)
The Battle of Elmina was a military engagement of the Dutch-Portuguese War, fought off the castle of São Jorge da Mina in the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1625. It was fought between 1,200 soldiers of the Dutch West India Company who landed and assaulted the Portuguese garrison of the castle; the garrison was reinforced by 200 African allies put in service of the governor Sottomayor by the local caciques. The Dutch opened the battle by bombarding the castle; the Dutch began to march to the castle, but they were ambushed by the Portuguese and their African allies from hidden positions and were totally massacred. Among the dead were the commander-in-chief and all his officers; the Portuguese had few casualties and took 15 flags, 15 drums and more than 1,000 muskets, pikes and dresses. The Dutch ships fired over 2,000 cannonballs at the castle. Battle of Elmina Glete, Warfare at Sea, 1500-1650: maritime conflicts and the transformation of Europe. Rodriguez, Junius P; the Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1.
Boxer, C. R. Fidalgos in the Far East. Dei-Anang, Ghana Resurgent. Taylor, Capoeira: the Jogo de Angola from Luanda to cyberspace, Volume 1. Graham Dann, A. V. Seatton, Contested Heritage, Thanatourism. Johannes Postma, V. Enthoven, Riches from Atlantic Commerce: Dutch transatlantic trade and shipping, 1585-1817. Lewis H. Gann, Peter Duignan and the World: an introduction to the history of sub-Saharan Africa
Battle of Blaauwberg
The Battle of Blaauwberg known as the Battle of Cape Town, fought near Cape Town on 8 January 1806, was a small but significant military engagement. Peace was made under the Treaty Tree in Woodstock, it established British rule in South Africa, to have many ramifications for the region during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A bi-centennial commemoration was held in January 2006; the battle was an incident in Europe's Napoleonic Wars. At that time, the Cape Colony belonged to a French vassal; because the sea route around the Cape was important to the British, they decided to seize the colony in order to prevent it—and the sea route—from coming under French control. A British fleet was despatched to the Cape in July 1805, to forestall French troopships which Napoleon had sent to reinforce the Cape garrison; the colony was governed by Lieutenant General Jan Willem Janssens, commander-in-chief of its military forces. The forces were small and of poor quality, included foreign units hired by the Batavian government.
They were backed up by local militia units. The first British warship reached the Cape on Christmas Eve 1805, attacked two supply ships off the Cape Peninsula. Janssens placed his garrison on alert; when the main fleet sailed into Table Bay on 4 January 1806, he mobilised the garrison, declared martial law, called up the militia. After a delay caused by rough seas, two British infantry brigades, under the command of Lt Gen Sir David Baird, landed at Melkbosstrand, north of Cape Town, on 6 and 7 January. Janssens moved his forces to intercept them, he had decided that "victory could be considered impossible, but the honour of the fatherland demanded a fight". His intention was to attack the British on the beach and to withdraw to the interior, where he hoped to hold out until the French troopships arrived. However, on the morning of 8 January, while Janssens's columns were still moving through the veld, Baird's brigades began their march to Cape Town, reached the slopes of the Blaauwberg mountain, a few kilometres ahead of Janssens.
Janssens formed a line across the veld. The battle began with exchanges of artillery fire; these were followed by an advance by Janssens's militia cavalry, volleys of musket fire from both sides. One of Janssens's hired foreign units, in the centre of his line and ran from the field. A British bayonet charge disposed of the units on Janssens's right flank, he ordered his remaining troops to withdraw. Janssens began the battle with 2,049 troops, lost 353 in casualties and desertions. Baird began the battle with 5,399 men, had 212 casualties. From Blaauwberg, Janssens moved inland to a farm in the Tygerberg area, from there his troops moved to the Elands Kloof in the Hottentots Holland Mountains, about 50 km from Cape Town; the British forces reached the outskirts of Cape Town on 9 January. To spare the town and its civilian population from attack, the commandant of Cape Town, Lieutenant-Colonel Hieronymus Casimir von Prophalow, sent out a white flag, he handed over the outer fortifications to Baird, terms of surrender were negotiated in the day.
The formal Articles of Capitulation for the town and the Cape Peninsula were signed the following afternoon, 10 January, at a cottage at Papendorp which became known as "Treaty Cottage." Although the cottage has long since been demolished, Treaty Street still commemorates the event. The tree under which they signed remains to this day. However, the Batavian Governor of the Cape, General Janssens, had not yet surrendered himself and his remaining troops and was following his plan to hold out for as long as he could, in the hope that the French troopships for which he had been waiting for months would arrive and save him, he had only 1,238 men with him, 211 deserted in the days that followed. Janssens held out in the mountains for a further week. Baird sent Brigadier General William Beresford to negotiate with him, the two generals conferred at a farm belonging to Gerhard Croeser near the Hottentots-Holland Mountains on 16 January without reaching agreement. After further consideration, consultation with his senior officers and advisers, Janssens decided that "the bitter cup must be drunk to the bottom".
He agreed to capitulate, the final Articles of Capitulation were signed on 18 January. Uncertainty reigns as to. For many years it has been claimed that it was the Goedeverwachting estate, but more recent research, published in Dr Krynauw's book Beslissing by Blaauwberg suggests that Croeser's farm may have been the venue. An article published in the 1820s by the resident clergyman of the Stellenbosch district, Dr Borcherds points towards Croeser's farm; the terms of the capitulation were reasonably favourable to the Batavian soldiers and citizens of the Cape. Janssens and the Batavian officials and troops were sent back to the Netherlands in March; the British forces occupied the Cape until 13 August 1814, when the Netherlands ceded the colony to Britain as a permanent possession. It remained a British colony until it was incorporated into the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910. Summary of the Articles of Capitulation signed by Lt Col Von Prophalow, Maj Gen Baird and Cdre Popham on 10 January 1806: Cape Town, the Castle, circumjacent fortifications were surrendered to Great Britain.
First Bone War
The First Bone War was a series of punitive expeditions of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army against the Bone state in South Sulawesi in 1824–25. Bone had been an ally of the Dutch East India Company since the Treaty of Bungaya of 1667, but considered itself released from its obligations by the Dutch surrender to the British in 1811. In 1814 and again in 1816, Bone fought against the British. In 1816, the Dutch were restored to their former colonies per the outcome of the Congress of Vienna; when the Governor-General Godert van der Capellen visited South Sulawesi in 1824 to renew the Treaty of Bungaya, Bone was the only native state to refuse. When van der Capellen left, the queen of Bone attacked the Dutch positions, annihilating two garrisons. In 1825, the Dutch and their allies from Gowa counter-attacked; the outbreak of the Java War that year necessitated the withdrawal of most Dutch soldiers. Thus, the war ended without Bone having renewed the Treaty of Bungaya; the stalemate persisted until 1838, when Bone renewed the treaty.
As a result of the Dutch attacks, the port of Bajoe was abandoned by the Sama people, who fled to Luwu. 1900. W. A. Terwogt. Het land van Jan Pieterszoon Coen. Geschiedenis van de Nederlanders in oost-Indië. P. Geerts. Hoorn 1900. G. Kepper. Wapenfeiten van het Nederlands Indische Leger. M. M. Cuvee, Den Haag.' 1876. A. J. A. Gerlach. Nederlandse heldenfeiten in Oost Indë. Drie delen. Gebroeders Belinfante, Den Haag. Menke de Groot, Expedities naar Boni in 1824 en 1825, Der Nederlandse Krijgsmacht
Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company supporters in Java during the 1670s. The rebellion was successful: the rebels defeated the royal army at Gegodog, captured most of the Javanese north coast, took the Mataram capital Plered. King Amangkurat I died during the retreat of the royal court, his son and successor, Amangkurat II, requested help from the VOC in exchange for financial remuneration and geopolitical concessions. The VOC's subsequent involvement turned the tide of the war. VOC and Mataram forces recovered overran Trunajaya's new capital at Kediri. However, the rebellion continued until the capture of Trunajaya at the end of 1679, the defeat, death, or surrender of the other rebel leaders. Trunajaya was killed by Amangkurat II in 1680 while a prisoner of the VOC. After his father's death in 1677, Amangkurat II faced rival claims to the throne.
The most serious rival was his brother Pangeran Puger, who took the capital Plered in 1677 and did not surrender until 1681. Amangkurat I took the throne of Mataram in 1646, succeeding Sultan Agung, who had expanded Mataram's realm to include most of Central and East Java, as well as a few overseas vassals in southern Sumatra and Borneo; the early years of Amangkurat's reign were marked by executions and massacres against his political enemies. In response to the failed coup attempt of his brother Pangeran Alit, he ordered massacres of Islamic men who he believed were complicit in Alit's rebellion. Alit himself was killed during the failed coup. In 1659 Amangkurat suspected that Pangeran Pekik, his father-in-law and the son of the conquered Duke of Surabaya who lived at the Mataram court after Surabaya's defeat, was leading a conspiracy against his life, he ordered his relatives killed. This massacre of East Java's most important princely house created a rift between Amangkurat and his East Javanese subjects and caused a conflict with his son, the crown prince, Pekik's grandson.
Over the next few years, Amangkurat carried out a number of additional killings against members of the nobility who had lost his trust. Raden Trunajaya was a descendant of the rulers of Madura, forced to live in the Mataram court after Madura's defeat and annexation by Mataram in 1624. After his father was executed by Amangkurat I in 1656, he left the court, moved to Kajoran, married the daughter of Raden Kajoran, the head of the ruling family there; the Kajoran family was related by marriage to the royal family. Raden Kajoran was alarmed at the brutality of Amangkurat I's rule, including executions of noblemen at court. In 1670 Kajoran introduced his son-in-law Trunajaya to the crown prince, banished by the king due to a scandal, the two forged a friendship that included a mutual dislike of Amangkurat. In 1671 Trunajaya returned to Madura, where he used the crown prince's support to defeat the local governor and become the master of Madura. Makassar was the principal trading center east of Java.
After the 1669 VOC victory over the Gowa Sultanate in the Makassar War, bands of Makassarese soldiers fled Makassar to seek their fortune elsewhere. They settled in territories of the Banten Sultanate, but in 1674 they were expelled, turned to piracy, raiding coastal towns in Java and Nusa Tenggara; the Mataram crown prince allowed them to settle in Demung, a village in the eastern salient of Java. In 1675 an additional band of Makassarese fighters and pirates arrived in Demung led by the Kraeng of Galesong; these Makassarese itinerant fighters would join the rebellion as Trunajaya's allies. Lacking a standing army, the bulk of Mataram's forces were drawn from troops raised by the king's vassals, who provided the arms and supplies; the majority of the men were peasants. In addition, the army included a small number of professional soldiers drawn from the palace guards; the army used cannons, small firearms including flintlocks and carbines and fortifications. Historian M. C. Ricklefs said the transfer of European military technology to the Javanese was "virtually immediate", with the Javanese manufacturing gunpowder and firearms by 1620 at the latest.
Europeans were hired to train the Javanese troops in weapons handling, military leadership skills, construction techniques, but in spite of this training, the conscripted peasants of the Javanese armies lacked discipline and fled during battle. Mataram's troops numbered "much larger" than the rebel's 9,000 at Gegodog in September 1676, dropped to just "a small retinue" after the fall of the capital in June 1677, grew to over 13,000 during the march to Trunajaya's capital at Kediri in late 1678; the VOC had professional soldiers of its own. Each VOC soldier had a sword, small arms, carrying pouches and belts, smoke bombs, grenades; the majority of VOC regulars were Indonesians, with a small number of European soldiers and marines, all under the command of European officers. While in the technological sense VOC troops were not superior to their indigenous counterparts, they had better training and equipment than indigenous Indonesian armies; the VOC troops differed with regard to logistics: its troops marched in step followed by a long caravan of carts carrying supplies.
This gave them an advantage over Javanese troops, who li