Salisbury House (restaurant)
Salisbury House is a restaurant chain based in Winnipeg, Canada. Known locally as "Sals", the chain is considered a Winnipeg institution; the first Salisbury House restaurant was founded in Downtown Winnipeg in 1931 by Ralph Erwin, who named the venture after the salisbury steak. Erwin disliked the term'hamburger' so named his burger a "nip" to market his hamburgers as a small'nip' or bite of Salisbury steak; the restaurant employs over 500 people. In 1979 Erwin sold his majority interest in the chain to a group of investors. In 2001, it was bought from its Montreal owners by a group of local investors. In December 2017, majority owners Earl and Cheryl Barish and their partners sold the chain to a partnership group that includes the Metis Economic Development Fund, David Filmon, several senior managers of Salisbury House. List of Canadian restaurant chains
Side-spar cable-stayed bridge
A side-spar cable-stayed bridge may be an otherwise conventional cable-stayed bridge but its cable support does not span the roadway, rather being cantilevered from one side. The Esplanade Riel illustrated is located in Winnipeg, Canada; this bridge has a restaurant in its base. In the example below the cable paths are aligned with the bridge centerline, so that structurally it differs only in the transfer of stresses through the tower to the foundation; the side-spar principle is not limited to a straight bridge, however. The tower could be offset and the bridge deck wrap around the spar in an arc, e.g. Chords Bridge in Jerusalem; such a bridge would be suited for use in the confines of a canyon, where the road is brought in the upstream direction down one side, crosses a stream, turns back to a downstream direction on the other side. By placing a large portion of the turn on the bridge, rather than on the approaches, the turn may be made more gentle, allowing faster traffic; this would require more torsional rigidity in the roadbed.
A bridge of this type, traveling through a much smaller arc, was one of the original proposals for the eastern span replacement of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. Similar bridges, without the spar, could be supported by cables anchored in the canyon walls; this subtype should not be confused with an asymmetrical single tower cable-stayed bridge, which possesses a single tower on one side of the gap to be crossed, nor with the cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge, which has span supporting cables on only one side of the tower along the direction of the roadbed. Cable-stayed bridge Cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge
Louis David Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, a political leader of the Métis people of the Canadian Prairies. He led two rebellions against the government of Canada and its first post-Confederation prime minister, John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence. Over the decades, he has been made a folk hero by Francophones, Catholic nationalists, native rights activists, the New Left student movement. Arguably, Riel has received more scholarly attention than any other figure in Canadian history; the first resistance led by Riel became known as the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870. The provisional government established by Riel negotiated the terms under which the modern province of Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation. Riel ordered the execution of Thomas Scott, fled to the United States to escape prosecution. Despite this, he is referred to as the "Father of Manitoba".
While a fugitive, he was elected three times to the House of Commons of Canada, although he never assumed his seat. During these years, he was frustrated by having to remain in exile despite his growing belief that he was a divinely chosen leader and prophet, a belief which would resurface and influence his actions; because of this new religious conviction, Catholic leaders who had supported him before repudiated him. He married in 1881 while in exile in Montana in the United States. In 1884 Riel was called upon by the Métis leaders in Saskatchewan to articulate their grievances to the Canadian government. Instead he organized a military resistance that escalated into a military confrontation, the North-West Rebellion of 1885. Ottawa used the new rail lines to send in thousands of combat soldiers, it ended in his conviction for high treason. Despite protests and popular appeals, Prime Minister Macdonald rejected calls for clemency, Riel was executed by hanging. Riel was seen as a heroic victim by French Canadians.
Although only a few hundred people were directly affected by the Rebellion in Saskatchewan, the long-term result was that the Prairie provinces would be controlled by the Anglophones, not the Francophones. An more important long-term impact was the bitter alienation Francophones across Canada felt, anger against the repression by their countrymen. Riel's historical reputation has long been polarized between portrayals as a dangerous half-insane religious fanatic and rebel against the Canadian nation, or by contrast a heroic rebel who fought to protect his Francophone people from the unfair encroachments of an Anglophone national government, he is celebrated as a proponent of multiculturalism, although that downplays his primary commitment to Métis nationalism and political independence. The Red River Settlement was a community in Rupert's Land nominally administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, inhabited by First Nations tribes and the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed Cree, Saulteaux, French-Canadian and English descent.
Louis Riel was born there in 1844, near modern Winnipeg, Manitoba, to Louis Riel, Sr. and Julie Lagimodière. Riel was the eldest of eleven children in a locally well-respected family, his father, of Franco-Ojibwa Métis descent, had gained prominence in this community by organizing a group that supported Guillaume Sayer, a Métis imprisoned for challenging the HBC's historical trade monopoly. Sayer's eventual release due to agitations by Louis Sr.'s group ended the monopoly, the name Riel was therefore well known in the Red River area. His mother was the daughter of Jean-Baptiste Lagimodière and Marie-Anne Gaboury, one of the earliest white families to settle in the Red River Settlement in 1812; the Riels were noted for their devout Catholicism and strong family ties. Riel was first educated by Roman Catholic priests at St. Boniface. At age 13 he came to the attention of Alexandre Taché, the Suffragan Bishop of St. Boniface, eagerly promoting the priesthood for talented young Métis. In 1858 Taché arranged for Riel to attend the Petit Séminaire of the Collège de Montréal, under the direction of the Sulpician order.
Descriptions of him at the time indicate that he was a fine scholar of languages and philosophy, but exhibited a frequent and unpredictable moodiness. Following news of his father's premature death in 1864, Riel lost interest in the priesthood and withdrew from the college in March 1865. For a time, he continued his studies as a day student in the convent of the Grey Nuns, but was soon asked to leave, following breaches of discipline, he remained in Montreal for over a year, living at the home of Lucie Riel. Impoverished by the death of his father, Riel took employment as a law clerk in the Montreal office of Rodolphe Laflamme. During this time he was involved in a failed romance with a young woman named Marie–Julie Guernon; this progressed to the point of Riel having signed a contract of marriage, but his fiancée's family opposed her involvement with a Métis, the engagement was soon broken. Compounding this disappointment, Riel found legal work unpleasant and, by early 1866, he had resolved to leave Canada East.
Some of his friends said that he worked odd jobs in Chicago, while staying with poet Louis-Honoré Fréchette, wrote poems himself in the manner of Lamartine, that he was employed as a clerk in Saint Paul, before returning to the Red River settlement on 26 July 1868. The majority population of the Red Rive
Haute cuisine or grande cuisine is the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. Haute cuisine is characterized by meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food, at a high price level. Haute cuisine developed out of social changes in France; the "high" cuisine represented a hierarchy in 17th century France as only the privileged could eat it. Haute cuisine distinguished itself from regular French cuisine by what was cooked and served such as foods like tongue and caviar, by serving foods such as fruit out of season, by making it difficult and time consuming to cook, by using exotic ingredients not found in France. In addition to, eating haute cuisine and what it consisted of, the term can be defined by, making it and how they were doing so. Professionally trained chefs were quintessential to the birth of haute cuisine in France; the extravagant presentations and complex techniques that these chefs were known for required ingredients, time and therefore money.
For this reason, early haute cuisine was accessible to a small demographic of rich and powerful individuals. Professional French chefs were not only responsible for building and shaping haute cuisine, but their roles in the cuisine were what differentiated it from regular French cuisine. Haute cuisine was characterized by French cuisine in elaborate preparations and presentations served in small and numerous courses that were produced by large and hierarchical staffs at the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe; the cuisine was rich and opulent with decadent sauces made out of butter and flour, the basis for many typical French sauces that are still used today. The 17th century chef and writer La Varenne marked a change from cookery known in the Middle Ages, to somewhat lighter dishes, more modest presentations. In the following century, Antonin Carême published works on cooking, although many of his preparations today seem extravagant, he simplified and codified an earlier and more complex cuisine.
Georges Auguste Escoffier is a central figure in the modernisation of haute cuisine as of about 1900, which became known as cuisine classique. These were simplifications and refinements of the early work of Carême, Jules Gouffé and Urbain Dubois, it was practised in the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe and elsewhere for much of the 20th century. The major developments were to replace service à la française with service à la russe and to develop a system of cookery, based on Escoffier's Le Guide Culinaire, which formalized the preparation of sauces and dishes. In its time, it was considered the pinnacle of haute cuisine, was a style distinct from cuisine bourgeoise, the working-class cuisine of bistros and homes, cuisines of the French provinces; the 1960s were marked by the appearance of nouvelle cuisine, as chefs rebelled from Escoffier's "orthodoxy" and complexity. Although the term nouvelle cuisine had been used in the past, the modern usage can be attributed to authors André Gayot, Henri Gault, Christian Millau, who used nouvelle cuisine to describe the cooking of Paul Bocuse, Alain Chapel and Pierre Troisgros, Michel Guérard, Roger Vergé and Raymond Oliver, many of whom were once students of Fernand Point.
In general, nouvelle cuisine puts an emphasis on natural flavours, so the freshest possible ingredients are used, preparation is simplified, heavy sauces are less common, as are strong marinades for meat, cooking times are reduced. Nouvelle cuisine was a movement towards conceptualism and minimalism and was a direct juxtaposition to earlier haute cuisine styles of cooking, which were much more extravagant. While menus were short, dishes used more inventive pairings and relied on inspiration from regional dishes. Within 20 years, chefs began returning to the earlier style of haute cuisine, although many of the new techniques remained. Cooking and Class, A Study in Comparative Sociology, Jack Goody, University of Cambridge, June 1982, ISBN 978-0-521-28696-1 Food and love: a cultural history of East and West By Jack Goody, Verso, ISBN 978-1-859-84829-6 Tasting food, tasting freedom: excursions into eating and the past by Sidney Wilfred Mintz Beacon Press - ISBN 0-8070-4629-9 Viandier attributed to Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent, medieval manuscript Haute Cuisine: How the French Invented the Culinary Profession By Amy B.
Trubek, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 978-0-8122-1776-6 Food culture in France By Julia Abramson, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-32797-1 Patrick Rambourg, Histoire de la cuisine et de la gastronomie françaises, Paris, Ed. Perrin, 2010, 381 pages. ISBN 978-2-262-03318-7
Winnipeg Free Press
The Winnipeg Free Press is a daily broadsheet newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It provides coverage of local, national, sports and entertainment news. Various consumer-oriented features such as homes and automobiles appear on a weekly basis; the newspaper's main competition is a print daily tabloid. Founded in 1872 as the Manitoba Free Press, it is the oldest newspaper in western Canada, it has the largest readership of any newspaper in the province and is regarded as the newspaper of record for Winnipeg and Manitoba. The newspaper's existence began only two years after Manitoba's joining of Confederation in 1870, predated Winnipeg's incorporation in 1873. November 30, 1872: The "Manitoba Free Press" was launched by William Fisher Luxton and John A. Kenny. Luxton bought a press in New York and he and Kenny rented a shack at 555 Main st, near the present corner of Main Street and James Avenue.1874: The Free Press moved to a new building on Main Street, across from St. Mary Avenue In 1882, control of the Free Press passed to Clifford Sifton,1882: Control of the Free Press was passed to Clifford Sifton, the paper moved to a building on McDermot Avenue.
The organization remained there until 1900, when it moved to a new address on McDermot, at Albert Street.1901: John Wesley Dafoe served as editorial writer, editor-in-chief and president until 1944. 1905: The newspaper moved to a four-storey building at Portage and Garry. 1913: The newspaper moved to 300 Carlton Street and remained there for 78 years.1920: The Free Press took their newsprint supplier before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for violating the World War I War Measures Act. In Fort Frances Pulp and Paper v. Manitoba Free Press, the newspaper won because the court determined that whether the state of national emergency continued after the war was a political matter for Parliament. 1931: The Manitoba Free Press was renamed "Winnipeg Free Press". 1991: The Free Press moved to its current location in the Inkster Industrial Park, a $150 million plant at 1355 Mountain Avenue.. 2001: In December, the Free Press and its sister paper, Brandon Sun, was bought from Thomson Newspapers by FP Canadian Newspapers Limited Partnership.
At noon on Monday, October 13 of 2008, about 1,000 members of the Communications and Paperworkers Union, which represents editorial, advertising and press staff, as well as newspaper carriers, launched a strike action. The strike ended 16 days when the union ratified the final offer on Tuesday, October 28; the contract was ratified by 67 per cent of newspaper carriers, 75 per cent of the pressmen and 91 per cent of the inside workers, including journalists. The recent five-year contract was negotiated and signed in 2013, with no threat of a strike. Workers and managers negotiated directly with great success, without the need of a lawyer as previous contracts required; as of November 1, 2009, the paper ceased publishing a regular Sunday edition. In its place, a Sunday-only tabloid called On 7 was launched. On March 27, 2011, the Sunday newspaper was retooled as a broadsheet format called Winnipeg Free Press SundayXtra, due to the impending arrival of Metro in the Winnipeg market; the Sunday edition is now only available online.
According to Canadian Newspaper Association figures, the newspaper's average weekday circulation for 2013 was 108,583, while on Saturdays it was 144,278. Because of the small population of Manitoba, this means that over ten percent of the population will look at the paper and the ads; the Winnipeg Free Press has seen like most Canadian daily newspapers a decline in circulation. Its total circulation dropped by 17 percent to 106,473 copies daily from 2009 to 2015. Daily average List of newspapers in Canada Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 361–65 Winnipeg Free Press site
University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba is a public research university in Manitoba, Canada. Its main campus is located in the Fort Garry neighbourhood of southern Winnipeg with other campuses throughout the city. Founded in 1877, it is Western Canada's first university; the university maintains a reputation as a top research-intensive post-secondary educational institution and conducts more research annually than any other university in the region. It is the largest university both by total student enrollment and campus area in the province of Manitoba, the 17th-largest in all of Canada; the campus boasts dozens of faculties including the first medical school in Western Canada, hundreds of degree programs. It is a member of the U15 and of Universities Canada while its global affiliations include the International Association of Universities and the Association of Commonwealth Universities, its increased global outreach has resulted in one of the most internationally diverse student bodies in Canada, while its competitive academic and research programs have ranked among the top in the Canadian Prairies.
The Manitoba Bisons represent the team in athletics as a member of Canada West. As of 2018, there have been 98 Rhodes Scholars from the University of Manitoba, more than from any other university in Western Canada; the University of Manitoba has three main locations: the Bannatyne Campus, the Fort Garry Campus and the William Norrie Centre. The downtown Bannatyne campus of the university comprises a complex of ten buildings west of the Health Sciences Centre between McDermot Ave and William Ave in Central Winnipeg; this complex houses the dental instructional units of the university. The Faculty of Dentistry, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Medical Rehabilitation, the School of Dental Hygiene are the major health sciences units on this campus; the Faculty of Pharmacy joined the Bannatyne campus with the opening of the 95,000 sq ft Apotex Centre on October 16, 2008. The Brodie Center is known as the "flagship" which connects all three faculties as well as the Neil John MacLean Health Sciences Library and the Joe Doupe Fitness Centre.
It is at 727 McDermot Avenue. The main Fort Garry campus comprises over 60 teaching and research buildings of the University and sits on 274 hectares of land. In addition, Smartpark is the location of seven buildings leased to research and development organizations involving university-industry partnerships; the address is 66 Chancellors Circle. The William Norrie Centre on Selkirk Avenue is the campus for social work education for inner-city residents; the university operates agricultural research stations near Carman, Manitoba. The Ian N. Morrison Research Farm near Carman is a 406 acres facility 70 km from Winnipeg, while the Glenlea facility is 1,000 acres and is 20 km from Winnipeg; the University of Manitoba provides services to urban and rural Indigenous people. The University of Manitoba's Department of Native Studies is the oldest such unit in Western Canada. Many of the Indigenous Access programs include summer courses that bring new Indigenous students to campus before the start of the school year for campus orientation sessions.
Indigenous Elders are present on campus at University of Manitoba to provide social supports in Migizii Agamik, the Indigenous Centre on campus. Tutoring services are available within the University of Manitoba's Medicine and Social Work ACCESS Programs; the university connects with First Nations communities to talk to potential students at a much younger age through Curry Biz Camp, which fosters entrepreneurship among young First Nations and Métis students. The University of Manitoba is a non-denominational university, founded by Alexander Morris, that received a charter on February 28, 1877, it opened on June 20, 1877 to confer degrees on students graduating from its three founding colleges: St. Boniface College, St John's College and Manitoba College; the University of Manitoba granted its first degrees in 1880. The University was the first to be established in western Canada; the university has added a number of colleges to its associative body. In 1882 the Manitoba Medical College, founded by some physicians and surgeons, became a part of the University.
Architect Charles Henry Wheeler designed the Bacteriological Research Building, part of the Manitoba Medical College. Architect George Creeford Browne designed the Science Building, 1899–1900. Other colleges followed: Methodist Church's Wesley College in 1888 Manitoba College of Pharmacy in 1902 Manitoba Agriculture College in 1906 St. Paul's College in 1931 Brandon College in 1938 St. Andrew's College in 1946In 1901 the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba changed the University Act so the university could do its own teaching, in 1905 a building in downtown Winnipeg became its first teaching facility with a staff of six science professors; the governance was modeled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership.
In the early part of the 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of spe
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv