Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them. The term "essential fatty acid" refers to fatty acids required for biological processes but does not include the fats that only act as fuel. Essential fatty acids should not be confused with essential oils, which are "essential" in the sense of being a concentrated essence. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: linoleic acid; some other fatty acids are sometimes classified as "conditionally essential", meaning that they can become essential under some developmental or disease conditions. When the two EFAs were discovered in 1923, they were designated "vitamin F", but in 1929, research on rats showed that the two EFAs are better classified as fats rather than vitamins; the biological effects of the ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are mediated by their mutual interactions, see Essential fatty acid interactions for detail.
In the body, essential fatty acids serve multiple functions. In each of these, the balance between dietary ω-3 and ω-6 affects function, they are modified to make the classic eicosanoids the endocannabinoids the lipoxins which are a group of eicosanoid derivatives formed via the lipoxygenase pathway from ω-6 EFAs and resolvins from ω-3 the isofurans, isoprostanes, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and Neuroprotectin D They form lipid rafts They act on DNA Fatty acids are straight chain hydrocarbons possessing a carboxyl group group at one end, a methyl group at the other end. The carbon next to the carboxylate is known as α, the next carbon β, so forth. Since biological fatty acids can be of different lengths, the last position is labelled as a "ω", the last letter in the Greek alphabet; the physiological properties of unsaturated fatty acids depend on the position of the first unsaturation relative to the end position. For example, the term ω-3 signifies that the first double bond exists as the third carbon-carbon bond from the terminal end of the carbon chain.
The number of carbons and the number of double bonds are listed in short descriptions of unsaturated fatty acids. For instance, ω-3 18:4, or 18:4 ω-3, or 18:4 n−3 indicates stearidonic acid, an 18-carbon chain with 4 double bonds, with the first double bond in the third position from the CH3 end. Double bonds are separated by a single methylene group unless otherwise noted. In free fatty acid form, the chemical structure of stearidonic acid is: For complete tables of ω-3 and ω-6 essential fatty acids, see Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids with 16-carbon and 18-carbon chains are sometimes classified as short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, as opposed to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have more than 18 carbon atoms. Both the essential fatty acids are SC-PUFA with an 18-carbon chain: ω-3 fatty acid: α-Linolenic acid or ALA ω-6 fatty acid: Linoleic acid or LA These two fatty acids cannot be synthesized by humans because humans lack the desaturase enzymes required for their production.
They form the starting point for the creation of more desaturated fatty acids, most of which have a longer carbon chain: ω-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA docosahexaenoic acid or DHA ω-6 fatty acids: gamma-linolenic acid or GLA dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid or DGLA arachidonic acid or AA Except for GLA, which has a short 18-carbon chain, these fatty acids have more than 18 carbon atoms and are classified as LC-PUFA.ω-9 fatty acids are not essential in humans because they can be synthesized from carbohydrates or other fatty acids. Mammals lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbon 9 and 10, hence the omega-6 linoleic acid, the omega-3 linolenic acid, are essential for humans in the diet. However, humans can convert both LA and ALA to fatty acids with longer carbon chains and a larger number of double bonds, by alternative desaturation and chain elongation. In humans, arachidonic acid can be synthesized from LA. In turn, AA can be converted to an longer fatty acid, the docosapentaenoic acid.
ALA can be converted to docosahexaenoic acid, although the latter conversion is limited, resulting in lower blood levels of DHA than through direct ingestion. This is illustrated by studies in vegetarians. If there is more LA than ALA in the diet it favors the formation of DPA from LA rather than DHA from ALA; this effect can be altered by changing the relative ratio of LA:ALA, but is more effective when total intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids is low. In preterm infants, the capacity to convert LA to AA and ALA to DHA is limited, preformed AA and DHA may be required to meet the needs of the developing brain. Both AA and DHA are present in breastmilk and contribute along with the parent fatty acids LA and ALA to meeting the requirements of the newborn infant. Many infant formulas have AA and DHA added to them with an aim to make them more equivalent to human milk. Essential nutrients are defined as those that cannot be synthesized de novo in sufficient quantities for normal phy
"Days of Future Past" is a two-part storyline from the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series, based on the comic book story of the same name and X-Men vol.2 Issue #8. This episode has Bishop assuming Kitty Pryde's role from the comic version of this tale and his role from the comics to find a traitor within the ranks of the X-Men. Storyboards from the episode have been published. X-Men: Professor X, Wolverine, Rogue, Beast, Jean Grey, Jubilee Supporting Characters Forge, Senator Robert Kelly Villains: Nimrod, Mystique, Pyro, Avalanche The episode begins with an overview of New York City in the year 2055; as two young mutants make their way through the decaying streets, they are ambushed by a group of Sentinels. Though they put up a fight, they are soon cornered. Despite his healing ability, it appears that age has caught up to the mutant; the group are ambushed by a "tracker", or mutant-hunter, named Bishop, who captures the three. He brings them to a mutant extermination camp, only for the Sentinels to declare that Bishop's "quota" has been reached, that they are all to be terminated.
After passing by the graves of the X-Men, all of whom have been dead for decades, the four mutants fight back, only to be approached by Nimrod, a new advanced Sentinel. The two young mutants give their lives so that Bishop can escape. Wolverine brings Bishop to a rebel base, where Forge reveals a working time-portal, explains that he believes that he has pinpointed an event in history, the direct cause for the dystopian world that they live in: an assassination in the early 1990s. Wolverine prepares to travel through the portal, but Bishop argues that he should go instead, as the assassin is one of the X-Men and Bishop's youth makes him a better candidate. Just the Sentinels attack the base, Wolverine is fatally wounded by Nimrod. Bishop leaps into the portal. Bishop emerges in the 1990s. All he remembers is that an X-Man is the killer, he was sent to terminate him. After hijacking a bus, Bishop engages the team, he defeats most of them. Professor X stops Wolverine from killing Bishop, instead the X-Men interrogate him about his mission.
Using Cerebro, the X-Men get a glimpse into Bishop's time period, all the death and destruction that plagues his world. Still, the team Wolverine, are skeptical. Just Bishop's wristband alerts him that something, or someone came back through the portal besides himself; the X-Men accompany him to the site where Bishop emerged in the present, are all ambushed by Nimrod. The robot appears impervious to any of their attacks, fights off the entire group with relative ease. However, Storm uses her powers to freeze Nimrod solid, giving Bishop enough time to target the robot's temporal transceiver, which causes Nimrod to be sent back to its own time; the futuristic capabilities of Nimrod are enough proof for the X-Men to believe Bishop's story, back at the mansion, they ask who the assassin is. Bishop still cannot remember, but when Gambit joins them in the War Room, Bishop accuses him of being the traitor. Before Gambit can protest, Bishop raises his weapon and fires at the Cajun mutant; as Bishop fires his advanced weapon at Gambit, Rogue flies in and takes the blast, her super-strength allowing her to survive.
The rest of the X-Men stop the fighting, but Bishop continues to call the confused Gambit the assassin he was sent back to kill. Bishop explains that after Gambit murders an important person in Washington, an immense wave of anti-mutant hysteria grips the entire country, resulting in the passing of several legislations for mutant-control; the government orders the creation of entire armies of Sentinels, which hunt down every single mutant like animals, who are unable to put up much resistance. Any mutants who survive the initial onslaught are herded into concentration camps, never to leave alive. However, the Sentinels turn on their human masters, become the supreme rulers of the planet. Bishop still cannot remember, supposed to be assassinated; the team travels to Washington, leaving Bishop and Wolverine behind to guard Gambit, who still proclaims his innocence. The X-Men split up to different parts of the capital. Meanwhile, the Brotherhood of Mutants are in Washington, are revealed to be aware of the impending assassination.
Back at the mansion, Gambit uses an exploding card to distract Bishop and Wolverine long enough to escape in one of the mini-jets, which all but confirms Bishop's suspicion that he is the traitor. Back in Washington, the Brotherhood attacks the United States Senate chamber where Professor Xavier is speaking before Senator Robert Kelly, who holds anti-mutant views; the X-Men fight off the Brotherhood while Kelly's aide takes him to a safe room, only for her to take the form of Gambit after Kelly sees the real aide tied up and gagged, so that there can be a witness to the assassination. Before the imposter can pull the trigger, the real Gambit battles the shape-shifter. During the fight, Bishop comes in.
Sanjay Raghunathprasad Gupta is an Indian businessman and civil servant. He is founder of Neesa Group of companies. Sanjay Gupta is a Civil Engineer from Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee and a diploma holder in Finance from Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India and an Indian Administrative Service officer working with the government of Gujarat for 17 years in various departments at top level positions. Sanjay Gupta started his career as Civil servant in Gujarat State. Since he has held top level positions in various departments of government of Gujarat, he was Managing Director of Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation between 1997 and 2002. While there, he helped set up a 160MW gas-based power plant, promoted the largest distributor of internet bandwidth in Gujarat, launched a fuel consultancy business, he worked as Chief Executive Officer for Adani Group from 2002 to 2005. In April 2011, he was appointed as Executive chairman of the Rs 12,000-crore Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad project, but resigned in August 2013.
Gupta announced plans in 2012 to launch a national news channel based in Gujarat. In May 2015 Gupta and several others were arrested for their alleged involvement in a Rs 113 crore fraud in the Metro-Link project, he was released on bail for health reasons in December 2015