In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls; because carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell carbon has four bonds to make, is only stable if all 4 of these bonds are used. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons found on Earth occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form limitless chains; as defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen; the formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n +2.
Those with one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property. Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers; as given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched hydrocarbons can be chiral. Chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms; those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n; those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2. Aromatic hydrocarbons known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring. Hydrocarbons can be gases, waxes or low melting solids or polymers; because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons.
This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation, allows hydrocarbons to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane, in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene. This ability comes from the fact that the bond character between carbon atoms is non-polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat due to the same electronegativity values of the elements, does not result in the formation of an electrophile. With catenation comes the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and an increase in the amount of energy required for bond cleavage due to strain exerted upon the molecule. In simple chemistry, as per valence bond theory, the carbon atom must follow the 4-hydrogen rule, which states that the maximum number of atoms available to bond with carbon is equal to the number of electrons that are attracted into the outer shell of carbon. In terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding.
Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic like lipids. Some hydrocarbons are abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Hydrocarbons are abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations; the predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt. Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons' impact on the ozone layer. Methane and ethane are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. Propane is however liquefied, exists in'propane bottles' as a liquid. Butane is so liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters. Pentane is a colorless liquid at room temperature used in chemistry and industry as a powerful nearly odorless solvent of waxes and high molecular weight organic compounds, including greases.
Hexane is a used non-polar, non-aromatic solvent, as well as a significant fraction of common gasoline. The C6 through C10 alkanes and isomeric cycloalkanes are the top components of gasoline, jet fuel and specialized industrial solvent mixtures. With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures, deeper color. At the opposite extreme from methane lie the heavy tars that remain as the lowest fraction in a crude oil refining retort, they are collected and utilized as roofing comp
Esso is a trading name for ExxonMobil and its related companies. The company began as Standard Oil of New Jersey following the breakup of Standard Oil. In 1972, the name was replaced in the U. S. by the Exxon brand after the company bought Humble Oil, while the Esso name remained used elsewhere. In most of the world, the Esso brand and the Mobil brand are the primary brand names of ExxonMobil, with the Exxon brand name in use only in the United States alongside Mobil. In 1911, Standard Oil was broken up into 34 companies, some of which were named "Standard Oil" and had the rights to that brand in certain states; the name Esso is the phonetic pronunciation of the initials'S' and'O' in the name Standard Oil. Standard Oil Company had the rights in that state, plus in Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, the District of Columbia. By 1941, it had acquired the rights in Pennsylvania, Arkansas and Louisiana, it used the Esso brand in New York and the six New England states, where the Standard Oil Company of New York had the rights, but did not object to the New Jersey company's use of the trademark.
However, in the other states, the other Standard Oil companies objected and, via a 1937 U. S. federal court injunction, forced Jersey Standard to use other brand names. In most states the company used the trademark Enco, in a few "Humble". Esso Shop Oil Is into car CSP The other Standard companies were "Standard" or some variant on that in their home states, another brand name in other states. Esso ranked 31st among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts. During the years of racial segregation in the United States, some Esso franchises gave out The Negro Motorist Green Book: An International Travel Guide. In 1973, Standard Oil of New Jersey renamed itself "the Exxon Corporation", adopted that trademark throughout the country, it maintained the rights to "Standard" and "Esso" in the states where it held those rights, by a token effort, by selling "Esso Diesel" in those states at stations that sell diesel fuel, thus preventing the trademark from being declared abandoned.
It retained the Esso brand in Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands until 2008, when it sold its stations there to Total S. A; the Enco brand name was used on locations in the Midwest until 1977 when they were sold to Cheker Oil Co.. In February 2016, ExxonMobil asked a U. S. federal court to lift the 1930s trademark injunction that banned it from using the Esso brand in some states. By this time, as a result of numerous mergers and rebranding, the remaining Standard Oil companies that had objected to the Esso name had been acquired by BP. ExxonMobil cited trademark surveys in which there was no longer possible confusion with the Esso name as it was more than seven decades before. BP had no objection to lift the ban. ExxonMobil did not specify whether they would now open new stations in the U. S. under the Esso name. In 1888, the Anglo American Oil Company opened its head office in London, which became a part of Esso. In August 1998, Tesco announced a partnership with Esso, opening chains of Tesco Express stores located within forecourts, which continues today.
In February 2000, the two companies were opening one new store a month. Esso Blue was the brand name of Esso's paraffin oil for domestic heaters in countries such as the United Kingdom, their television advertising song from the 1950s, through to the 1970s, was the famous "Bom, Bom, Esso Blue!" One campaign used the well-known song tune of "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes" reworded as: "They asked me how I knew, it was Esso Blue, I of course replied, with lower grades one buys, smoke gets in your eyes. The non-smoking paraffin"; the track was released as a flexi disk, given away free in hardware stores. In the 1930s, Esso acquired an independent company based in North East England, its founder and principal shareholder, Norman Davis, had spent some of World War I with his brother Manuel in Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland's products included a benzole blend and an alcohol blend called "Discol"; the Esso and Cleveland names continued in use until 1973, when the Cleveland filling stations were re-branded as Esso.
Esso traded in Northern Ireland up until the early 2000s. Their forecourts were re-branded as Maxol and some remained private. 45 of Euro Garages' forecourts were bought from Esso in 2013, are operated under the Esso brand. They plan to roll out partner brands such as Spar, replacing the Esso branded shops. Shop and Drive is an Esso branded convenience store operated in some stations, although many of their locations have franchised shops such as Nisa. In Canada, the Esso brand is used on stations supplied by Imperial Oil, 69.8% owned by ExxonMobil. The stations are owned by third-party retailers such as Alimentation Couche-Tard Inc. 7-Eleven Canada Inc. Parkland Fuel Corp. Harnois Groupe pétrolier and Wilson Fuel Co. Ltd. Esso provides aviation fuel services at 80 airport locations in Canada. In Australia, Esso is an affiliate of ExxonMobil, it operates
Bass Strait is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland the state of Victoria. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of Bass Strait as follows: On the west; the eastern limit of the Great Australian Bight. On the east; the western limit of the Tasman Sea between Gabo Island and Eddystone Point [being a line from Gabo Island to the northeast point of East Sister Island thence along the 148th meridian to Flinders Island. Some authorities consider the strait to be part of the Pacific Ocean as in the never-approved 2002 IHO Limits of Oceans and Seas draft. In the in-force IHO 1953 draft, it is instead listed as part of the Indian Ocean; the Australian Hydrographic Service does not consider it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition, states that it lies with the Tasman Sea. The strait between the Furneaux Islands and Tasmania is a subdivision of Bass Strait. Aboriginal Tasmanians came to Tasmania 40,000 years, ago across a land bridge called the Bassian Plain during the last glacial period.
Sea levels rose to form Bass Strait 8,000 years ago leaving them isolated from the rest of Australia. Based on the recorded language groups, there were at least three successive waves of aboriginal colonisation; the strait was detected by Captain Abel Tasman when he charted Tasmania's coast in 1642. On 5 December, Tasman was following the east coast northward to see; when the land veered to the north-west at Eddystone Point, he tried to keep in with it but his ships were hit by the Roaring Forties howling through Bass Strait. Tasman was on a mission to find the Southern Continent, not more islands, so he abruptly turned away to the east and continued his continent hunting; the next European to enter the strait was Captain James Cook in the Endeavour in April 1770. A talented and diligent hydrographer, Cook identified the strait, but knew he had to conceal it, he was working during the period of intense Anglo-French rivalry that filled the twelve years between Britain's success in the Seven Years' War and France's revanche in the American Revolutionary War.
The Admiralty had issued its usual verbal instructions to hide strategically important discoveries that could become security risks, such as off-shore islands from which operations could be mounted by a hostile power. In his journal Cook disguised his discovery with a riddle. Cook's ploy worked and Tasmania's insularity was suppressed for three more decades; when news of the 1798 discovery of Bass Strait reached Europe, the French government despatched a reconnaissance expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin. This prompted Governor King to send two vessels from Sydney to the island to establish a garrison at Hobart; the strait was named after George Bass, after he and Matthew Flinders passed through it while circumnavigating Van Diemen's Land in the Norfolk in 1798–99. At Flinders' recommendation, the Governor of New South Wales, John Hunter, in 1800 named the stretch of water between the mainland and Van Diemen's Land "Bass's Straits", it became known as Bass Strait. The existence of the strait had been suggested in 1797 by the master of Sydney Cove when he reached Sydney after deliberately grounding his foundering ship and being stranded on Preservation Island.
He reported that the strong south westerly swell and the tides and currents suggested that the island was in a channel linking the Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. Governor Hunter thus wrote to Joseph Banks in August 1797. Strong currents between the Antarctic-driven southeast portions of the Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea's Pacific Ocean waters provide a strait of powerful, wild storm waves; the shipwrecks on the Tasmanian and Victorian coastlines number in the hundreds, although stronger metal ships and modern marine navigation have reduced the danger. Many vessels, some quite large, have disappeared without a trace, or left scant evidence of their passing. Despite myths and legends of piracy and alleged supernatural phenomena akin to those of the Bermuda Triangle, such disappearances can be invariably ascribed to treacherous combinations of wind and sea conditions, the numerous semi-submerged rocks and reefs within the Straits. Despite the strait's difficult waters, it provided a safer and less boisterous passage for ships on the route from Europe or India to Sydney in the early 19th century.
The strait saved 1,300 km on the voyage. Bass Strait is 250 km wide and 500 km long, with an average depth of 60 m; the widest opening is about 350 km between Cape Portland on the North-Eastern tip of Tasmania and Point Hicks on the Australian mainland. Jennings’ study of the submarine topography of Bass Strait described the bathymetric Bass Basin, a shallow depression 120 km wide and 400 km long in the centre of Bass Strait, a maximum depth is the channel between Inner Sister and Flinders, which navigation charts indicate reaches 155 m. Two plateaus, the Bassian Rise and King Island Rise located on the eastern and western margins of Bass Strait are composed of
Supreme Court of Victoria
The Supreme Court of Victoria is the superior court for the State of Victoria, Australia. It was founded in 1852, is a superior court of common law and equity, with unlimited jurisdiction within the state; those courts lying below it include the County Court of Victoria and the Magistrates' Court of Victoria. The Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal, not a court, serves a judicial function. Above it lies the High Court of Australia; this places it around the middle of the Australian court hierarchy. The building itself is on the Victorian Heritage Register; the Supreme Court has the Court of Appeal. The Trial Division sits with one judge, acts as a court of original jurisdiction for serious criminal matters such as murder, attempted murder, corporate offences and certain conspiracy charges, civil matters which are considered to involve greater complexity or amounts of money more than would be appropriate to have determined in the Magistrates' Court or County Court; the Trial Division acts as an appeal court from the Magistrates' Court on questions of law, appeals from the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal on points of law, except against an order of the President or Vice-President of the Tribunal.
It hears federal indictable offences such as treason. The Commercial Court is a sub-division of the Trial Division, composed of specialist judges to deal with commercial disputes; the Court of Appeal hears appeals from the County Court and the Trial Division, as well as appeals on points of law from the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal against the order of the President or Vice-President, consists of a panel of three Judges of Appeal. In rare cases where it is sought to overrule or reconsider the correctness of a previous Court of Appeal decision, it can sit with five judges; the main buildings for the Supreme Court are located at the corner of William and Lonsdale Streets in Melbourne and in nearby buildings. The Supreme Court does circuits to Ballarat, Warrnambool, Horsham, Mildura, Wangaratta, Wodonga and Morwell. In these locations the Court uses the facilities of the local Magistrates' Court.: Anne Ferguson Chris Maxwell Pamela Tate Simon Whelan Phillip Priest David Beach Emilios Kyrou Stephen Kaye Stephen McLeish Richard Niall Kim Hargrave Terry Forrest Karin Emerton Elizabeth Hollingworth Kevin Bell Anthony Cavanough Ross Robson Jack Forrest James Judd Clyde Croft Michael Sifris Peter Almond John Dixon Cameron Macaulay Kate McMillan Gregory Garde Geoffrey John Digby James Dudley Elliott Timothy James Ginnane Melanie Sloss Michael Croucher Joanne Cameron Christopher William Beale Michael Phillip McDonald Rita Zammit Peter Julian Riordan Jane Dixon Andrew John Keogh Peter Barrington Kidd Maree Evelyn Kennedy Michelle Quigley John Champion Matthew Connock Melinda Richards Kevin Lyons Lesley Taylor Steven Moore Andrew Tinney Judiciary of Australia List of Judges of the Supreme Court of Victoria List of Victorian Supreme Court cases Supreme Court of Victoria Official Supreme Court of Victoria website Judges - Historic List Supreme Court Act
Water is a transparent, tasteless and nearly colorless chemical substance, the main constituent of Earth's streams and oceans, the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life though it provides no calories or organic nutrients, its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient pressure, it forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of its solid state; when finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and runoff reaching the sea. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater, in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, in the air as vapor and precipitation.
Water plays an important role in the world economy. 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers and canals. Large quantities of water and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances. Water is central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, sport fishing, diving; the word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar, from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed-. Cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ, Russian вода́, Irish uisce, Albanian ujë; the identification of water as a substance Water is a polar inorganic compound, at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue.
This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances. This allows it to be the "solvent of life", it is the only common substance to exist as a solid and gas in normal terrestrial conditions. Water is a liquid at the pressures that are most adequate for life. At a standard pressure of 1 atm, water is a liquid between 0 and 100 °C. Increasing the pressure lowers the melting point, about −5 °C at 600 atm and −22 °C at 2100 atm; this effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antarctica, to the movement of glaciers. Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, about 374 °C at 220 atm; this effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C. At low pressures, water cannot exist in the liquid state and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food.
At high pressures, the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam. Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes; the maximum density of water in its liquid form is 1,000 kg/m3. The density of ice is 917 kg/m3. Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water; the details of the exact chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood. Pure water is described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths, frogs are known to be able to smell it. However, water from ordinary sources has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water, too salty or putrid; the apparent color of natural bodies of water is determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.
Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless. Thus aquatic plants and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is invisible as a gas. Through a thickness of 10 meters or more, the intrinsic color of water is visibly turquoise, as its absorption spectrum has
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company, was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ExxonMobil's primary brands are Exxon, Mobil and ExxonMobil Chemical; the world's second largest company by revenue, ExxonMobil from 1996 to 2017 varied from the first to sixth largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. The company was ranked ninth globally in the Forbes Global 2000 list in 2016. ExxonMobil was the tenth most profitable company in the Fortune 500 in 2017; as of 2018, the company ranked second in the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. ExxonMobil is one of the largest of the world's Big Oil companies; as of 2007, it had daily production of 3.921 million BOE. In 2008, this was 3% of world production, less than several of the largest state-owned petroleum companies.
When ranked by oil and gas reserves, it is 14th in the world—with less than 1% of the total. ExxonMobil's reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years. With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels, ExxonMobil is the largest refiner in the world, a title, associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870. ExxonMobil has been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels; the company has been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues, influence on American foreign policy, its impact on the future of nations. ExxonMobil was formed in 1999 by the merger of two major oil companies and Mobil.
Both Exxon and Mobil were descendants of Standard Oil, established by John D. Rockefeller and partners in 1870 as the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. In 1882, it together with its affiliated companies was incorporated as the Standard Oil Trust with Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company of New York as its largest companies; the Anglo-American Oil Company was established in the United Kingdom in 1888. In 1890, Standard Oil, together with local ship merchants in Bremen established Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft. In 1891, a sale branch for the Netherlands and Belgium, American Petroleum Company, was established in Rotterdam. At the same year, a sale branch for Italy, Società Italo Americana pel Petrolio, was established in Venice; the Standard Oil Trust was dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1892. In 1893, the Chinese and the whole Asian kerosene market was assigned to Standard Oil Company of New York in order to improve trade with the Asian counterparts.
In 1898, Standard Oil of New Jersey acquired controlling stake in Imperial Oil of Canada. In 1899, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests; the anti-monopoly proceedings against the Standard Oil were launched in 1898. The reputation of Standard Oil in the public eye suffered badly after publication of Ida M. Tarbell's classic exposé The History of the Standard Oil Co. in 1904, leading to a growing outcry for the government to take action against the company. By 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Standard Oil must be dissolved and split into 34 companies. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard, which became Exxon, Socony, which became Mobil. Over the next few decades, Jersey Standard and Socony grew significantly. John Duston Archbold was the first president of Jersey Standard. Archbold was followed by Walter C. Teagle in 1917, who made it the largest oil company in the world. In 1919, Jersey Standard acquired a 50 % share in Humble Refining Co. a Texas oil producer.
In 1920, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In the following years it acquired or established Tropical Oil Company of Colombia, Standard Oil Company of Venezuela, Creole Petroleum Company of Venezuela. Henry Clay Folger was head of Socony until 1923; the growing automotive market inspired the product trademark Mobiloil, registered by Socony in 1920. After dissolution of Standard Oil, Socony had refining and marketing assets but no production activities. For this reason, Socony purchased a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co. a major refiner and pipeline transporter, in 1918. In 1925, Magnolia became wholly owned by Socony. In 1926, Socony purchased General Petroleum Corporation of California. In 1928, Socony joined the Turkish Petroleum Company. In 1931, Socony merged with Vacuum Oil Company, an industry pioneer dating back to 1866, to form Socony-Vacuum. In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard has established through its Dutch subsidiary an exploration and production company Nederlandsche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschappij in 1912.
In 1922, it found oil in Indonesia and in 1927, it built a refinery in Sumatra. It had oil production and refineries but no marketing network. Socony-V
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin