Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
The Republic of Love
The Republic of Love is a 2003 romantic comedy-drama film directed by Deepa Mehta. It is based on the novel of the same name by stars Bruce Greenwood and Emilia Fox, it premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2003. It was released publicly on February 13, 2004; the plot centers on a charismatic radio talk show host, Tom Avery, his "mermaid researcher" girlfriend Fay. Tom has had a turbulent past with relationships and has had three divorces before the age of 40. Many of Tom's ex-wives turn out to be friends of Fay's. Fay is the opposite from Tom and has an overly high expectation of the men she dates. One day, it turns out that Fay's parents' marriage is not as perfect as it seemed and it breaks down after 40 years of "wedded bliss". Fay panics and feels insecure in her own relationship and forces Tom to go to great efforts to convince the woman who has become his fiancée that their relationship is different and that they are meant for each other. Bruce Greenwood... Tom Avery Emilia Fox... Fay Kate Lynch...
Dr. French Kate Kelton... Mother #1 Sunday Muse... Mother #2 Brooke D'Orsay... Mother #3 Jackie Burroughs... Betty Alec Stockwell... Mike Lloyd Owen... Peter Gary Farmer... Ted Claire Bloom... Onion Edward Fox... Richard Kenneth Wickes... Mr. Duff David Huband... Sammy Rebecca Jenkins... Maeve Connor Price... Gary Woloschuc The film is based on the novel The Republic of Love by Carol Shields and the characters of Tom and Fay were created by her; the Republic of Love was conceived as a film adaptation in 1996, when Triptych Media producer, Anna Stratton read the book and was impressed with its humour and diversity of characters, confessed to being a fan of Shields's writing. She said, “It was the characters that offered up a delicious cast for a film. I was drawn in by the humour –characters and events that made me laugh out loud and the interweaving of the magical elements – the mermaid myth and Tom’s middle of the night radio life – with the love story; the story itself is classic – rapture, reconciliation – and love stories are one of the most popular filmic forms."
Once Stratton had decided to produce the film, she looked to the United Kingdom to provide sufficient resources and for a co-producer, given the popularity of Shield's work in the UK. Stratton met British producer Julie Baines in 1998 in San Francisco in 1998 and discussed a collaboration with Baines's Dan Films company and Triptych Media. In the summer of 2000, Stratton approached director Deepa Mehta, who fell in love with the story and commented, "The book, a treatise on the nature of love, attracted me, as it is complex and yet accessible, it is about different aspects of love – mature love, familial love, sibling love and the nature of love and how elusive it is”. Mehta recommended Bruce Greenwood to play the role of Tom and subsequently attracted him to the role. Meanwhile and Baines had remained in contact and met once again in early 2002 to discuss financing the project together and to find the female lead in Emilia Fox. Fox was enticed by the character of Fay and said of the plot, “It mixes the idealistic with the realistic which I thought was clever, there’s a strong balance, there’s something we can hold onto.”
Producers Chris Auty, Bruce Duggan, Sarah Green, Bruce Greenwood, Mehernaz Lentin, Neil Peplow, Sarah Sulick and Claire Welland would join the production team. According to Carol Shields, her basis for plot was that she loved stories that place lovers in isolation and wanted to " position my pair of lovers in the midst of their community where the networks of family and friends form the real street maps." Shields's perception of love is a mythical one, she has said, " Love is, in the end, a magic and mythical force, indecipherable. Its arrival cannot be arranged nor its properties deconstructed. We can only marvel, as I hope the audience of this film will marvel, despite our fear and cynicism, it enters our lives and transforms us." This mysticism is intended to be reflected in the occupations of the characters with Fay’s involvement with mermaids intended to accentuate her existence with a mythic quality while Tom's charisma over the air waves and his impact on other people's lives is intended to give a magical dimension.
In adapting the script for the screen, Mehta mused over possible techniques that would capture the elusive nature of love on film and compared it to cooking an exotic dish where love is the main ingredient. In the end she collaborated with Esta Spalding to produce the final script for the film version of the book. Carol Shields was unable to write for the film adaption because of her declining health, she was never able to see the final result, as she died on July 16, 2003, but during pre-production she would visit, with her husband, to approve of design drawings and photographs of the cast and costumes to be employed. The Republic of Love was shot on location in and around Toronto between November and December 2002. In selecting filming location, producer Anna Stratton felt it important to encapture the atmosphere of the novel by filming in a cold city during the winter, she was influenced by the line that Tom says to Fay in the film, "geography is destiny" and believed the screen provided a rich visual opportunity to reflect this element of Shields's storytelling.
The novel itself was set in Winnipeg but in filming in Toronto, Mehta attempted to recreate the "Republic" and to provide a paradigm where the characters’ paths could criss cross and they would meet each other. Frequent collaborators, production designer Sandra Kybartas, cinematographer Doug
19-2 (2014 TV series)
19-2 is a Canadian police procedural crime drama television series developed by Bruce M. Smith, based on the Canadian French-language series of the same name created by Réal Bossé and Claude Legault, it was produced in association with Bell Media. The series premiered on Bravo in Canada on January 29, 2014, aired for three seasons, before it moved to CTV for its fourth and final season, it finished its four-year run on September 2017, with 38 episodes. Set in Montreal, 19-2 follows the professional and personal lives of patrol officers from Station 19 of the Montreal Police Department; the series' name comes from the callsign of the patrol car of the two main characters. Adrian Holmes and Jared Keeso star as Ben Chartier; the two are joined by principal cast members Benz Antoine, Mylène Dinh-Robic, Laurence Leboeuf, Dan Petronijevic, Conrad Pla, Bruce Ramsay, Sarah Allen, Victor Cornfoot, Tyler Hynes and Maxim Roy, with Richard Chevolleau, Lisa Berry, Tattiawna Jones, Alexander De Jordy, Krista Bridges, Joe Pingue, Darcy Laurie joining them in seasons.
19-2 has received positive reviews from critics, with particular praise for its characterization, pacing and acting. The series has been nominated for 37 Canadian Screen Awards, winning 5, including Best Dramatic Series and Best Performance by an Actor for both Holmes and Keeso, was nominated for Best Drama Series at the 44th International Emmy Awards. Nick Barron and his partner Jean-Pierre Harvey are shot responding to a burglary. While Barron is spared by his body armour, Harvey is shot in the head and left hospitalized for life. Replacing Harvey is Ben Chartier, a veteran constable from the Sûreté du Québec, who transferred to Montreal to escape troubles in his hometown; as officers from Station 19 deal with the challenges of police work, they struggle with their own personal challenges as well. Chartier is estranged from his family after he arrests his own father for drunk driving. Barron struggles with his continuing feelings for his estranged wife, colleague Detective Isabelle Latendresse.
Tyler Joseph struggles with alcoholism. Jean-Marc Brouillard abuses his wife. Commander Marcel Gendron struggles to protect the station's image in the face of pressure from the public and his superiors alike. By the end of the first season, Chartier's former employer, the SQ, assigns him to find a mole within the station; the second season begins with Barron and Chartier responding to reports of a snake at a daycare centre. Chartier encounters an armed civilian: Barron's cousin Cassius Clemont. Barron's unsavoury relationship with Clemont makes Barron the prime suspect of the SQ's investigation into the mole in 19; when Chartier brings Barron into the investigation and Clemont burgle a suspect's house and make a rash decision that endangers both of them. The third season starts in the aftermath of the mole's suicide; the reputation of Station 19 has been destroyed by the revelation of the mole, along with other incidents such as the arrest of Brouillard for domestic violence. Cassie Clemont is discovered having been brutally tortured for days.
Barron and Chartier must deal with the fallout of Barron's actions, as the station is scrutinized by an inspector from Internal Affairs. In July 2012, CBC Television ordered a pilot for an English-language adaptation of the popular French-language television series 19-2 created by and starring Réal Bossé and Claude Legault, to be adapted by Bruce M. Smith and directed by Louis Choquette. CBC Television did not pick up the series for its 2013 season; the series was renewed for a second season in April 2014, a third in April 2015, a fourth in May 2016. On September 23, 2016, Bell Media announced; the series had a $500,000 per episode budget bump over the original series. In August 2012, Adrian Holmes and Jared Keeso were cast as Nick Barron and Ben Chartier, respectively. In September 2013, Bravo announced that Benz Antoine would reprise his role as Tyler Joseph from the original series, with Maxim Roy, Laurence Leboeuf, Dan Petronijevic, Mylène Dinh-Robic, Conrad Pla, Bruce Ramsay cast as Detective Isabelle Latendresse, Audrey Pouliot, J.
M. Brouillard, Beatrice Hamelin, Sergeant Julien Houle, District Commander Marcel Gendron, respectively. Additional cast include Sarah Allen as Catherine Lariviere, Victor Cornfoot as Jean-Pierre Harvey, Tyler Hynes as Vince Legare. In July 2014, Richard Chevolleau and Lisa Berry joined the cast for the second season as Cassius "Kaz" Clemont and Rita George, respectively. Tattiawna Jones, who recurred as Amelie de Grace, throughout the first season, was subsequently promoted to the principal cast in the second season. In August 2015, Alexander De Jordy was announced to be cast as Richard Dulac, while Krista Bridges was announced as Inspector Elise Roberge, Joe Pingue as Charlie Figo. Darcy Laurie joined the cast for the fourth season as Sergeant Roy Suarez. Filming for the series took place in Montreal at a decommissioned police station. On the show filming in Montreal, executive producer Jocelyn Deschênes stated, "CBC said –'We want to see Montreal', they asked for it. Montreal hasn't been shown that much on English-Canadian TV and it's a cinematic city.
They want us to show Montreal from angles that we've never seen." Production on the pilot took place at the end of September 2012, for ten days, while production on the remaining episodes began in September 2013, concluded in December. Production on the second season began in July 2014 until October; the season two pre
Deepa Mehta, is an Indo-Canadian film director and screenwriter, best known for her Elements Trilogy, Fire and Water. Earth was submitted by India as its official entry for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Water was Canada's official entry for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film after Attila Bertalan's 1990 invented-language film A Bullet to the Head and Zacharias Kunuk's 2001 Inuktitut-language feature Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner), Earth was the first to receive an Oscar nomination, she co-founded Hamilton-Mehta Productions, with her husband, producer David Hamilton in 1996. She was awarded a Genie Award in 2003 for the screenplay of Bollywood/Hollywood. In May 2012, Mehta received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts. Mehta was born in Amritsar, Punjab though her family moved to New Delhi while she was still a child, her father worked as a film distributor. Subsequently, Mehta attended Welham Girls High School, boarding school in Dehradun on the foothills of Himalayas She graduated from the Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi with a degree in Philosophy.
After graduating Mehta began working for a production company that made documentary and educational films for the Indian government. During the production of her first feature-length documentary focusing on the working life of a child bride, she met and married Canadian documentary filmmaker Paul Saltzman, in India making a film, she migrated to Toronto to live with her husband in 1973. Once in Canada and Saltzman along with Mehta's brother Dilip started Sunrise Films, a production company producing documentaries but moved into television production creating the television series Spread Your Wings about the creative and artistic work of young people from around the world. Additionally, Mehta directed several episodes of the Saltzman produced CBC drama Danger Bay. Mehta directed the documentaries At 99: A Portrait of Louise Tandy Murch and Traveling Light, the latter focusing on the work of Mehta's brother Dilip as a photojournalist. Traveling Light would go on to be nominated for three Gemini Awards.
In 1987, based on the works of Alice Munro, Cynthia Flood and Betty Lambert, Mehta produced and co-directed Martha and Edie. Screened at the Cannes International Film Festival, it would go on to win the Best Feature Film Award at the 11th International Film Festival in Florence in 1988. In 1991 she made her feature-film directorial debut with Sam & Me, a story of the relationship between a young Indian boy and an elderly Jewish gentleman in the Toronto neighbourhood of Parkdale, it broke the record at the time for the highest-budgeted film directed by a woman in Canada at $11 million. It won Honorable Mention in the Camera d'Or category of the 1991 Cannes Film Festival. Mehta followed this with her film Camilla starring Bridget Fonda and Jessica Tandy in 1994. In 2002, she directed Bollywood/Hollywood, for which she won the Genie Award for Best Original Screenplay. Mehta directed two episodes of George Lucas' television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles; the first episode, "Benares, January 1910", aired in 1993.
The second episode was aired in 1996 as part of a TV movie titled Young Indiana Jones: Travels with Father. Mehta directed several English-language films set in Canada, including The Republic of Love and Heaven on Earth which deals with domestic violence and has Preity Zinta playing the female lead, it premiered at the 2008 Toronto International Film Festival. In 2008 Mehta produced the documentary The Forgotten Woman, directed by her brother Dilip. In 2015, Mehta wrote and directed the crime thriller Beeba Boys, a film starring Randeep Hooda as Jeet Johar, a proud observant Sikh and a ruthless gangster, it premiered at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival. Mehta is best known for her Elements Trilogy — Fire and Water — which won her much critical acclaim; some notable actors who have worked in this trilogy are Aamir Khan, Seema Biswas, Shabana Azmi, Kulbhushan Kharbanda, John Abraham, Rahul Khanna, Lisa Ray, Nandita Das. These films are notable for Mehta's collaborative work with author Bapsi Sidhwa.
Sidhwa's novel Cracking India is the basis for Mehta's 1998 film Earth. Mehta's film Water was published by Sidhwa as the 2006 novel Water: A Novel. All three films have soundtracks composed by A. R. Rahman. Fire follows the love affair between two sisters-in-law whose own torrid marriages bring them together in a passionate romance, it caused controversy upon its release as several Hindutva groups took issue with its central lesbian romance, one, seen to break traditional family and religious value within society, as there were protests in cities across India. Internationally, the film was critically acclaimed and would go on to win the Most Popular Canadian Film at the Vancouver International Film Festival; this was the first feature length dramatic film which Mehta both wrote and directed, a practice which she would continue throughout the rest of her career. Earth focuses on the time before and during the Partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 and how the life of one family was uprooted by this historical event.
The film resembled Mehta's own family history as her parents fled the newly created Pakistan in 1947 whilst Mehta herself was born in Punjab, not far from the Indian/Pakistan border. Water is the story of an eight-year-old
The Bridge (2013 TV series)
The Bridge is an American crime drama television series, developed by Meredith Stiehm and Elwood Reid, broadcast on the FX network, based on the Danish-Swedish series Broen/Bron. The series stars Diane Kruger and Demián Bichir in leading roles, co-stars Ted Levine, Annabeth Gish, Thomas M. Wright, Matthew Lillard and Emily Rios in supporting roles; the complete series consists of two seasons of 13 episodes each. The series debuted on FX in the United States on July 10, 2013, the series finale aired on October 1, 2014; the show was developed both in Spanish languages. The American version takes place on the U. S. and Mexican border where a murdered body on a bridge between El Paso and Juárez bring together El Paso detective Sonya Cross, mentored by Hank Wade and Chihuahua State police detective Marco Ruiz. The story parallels the investigation by Adriana Mendez; the series received positive review throughout its run. After the first season maintained a modest audience that dropped by 42 percent by the second, the series was not renewed for a third season.
The Bridge follows two police detectives – one Mexican, one from the U. S. – and their joint effort to capture a serial killer, operating in both countries when an American judge known for anti-immigration views is found dead on the bridge connecting El Paso, with Juárez, menacing both nations along the Texas–Chihuahua border. Detective Sonya Cross, of the El Paso Police Department, works with Chihuahua State Police Detective Marco Ruiz, who knows about the slippery politics of Mexican law enforcement. Ruiz's whatever-it-takes approach doesn't sit well with Cross, who has undiagnosed Asperger's syndrome or a similar autism spectrum disorder and a by-the-book attitude when it comes to the job, but the two put their differences aside to solve a string of murders on the border, infected with issues that include illegal immigration, drug trafficking and prostitution. Their investigation is complicated by the rampant corruption and general apathy among the Mexican authorities and the violence of the powerful borderland drug cartels.
The show title refers to the Bridge of the Americas that serves as a border crossing between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, where the series is set. FX ordered the series' pilot episode in July 2012. Shooting for the pilot took place on location in the El Paso area and wrapped in December 2012. Critically acclaimed director Gerardo Naranjo, best known for 2011's Miss Bala, directed the pilot. Work on the remaining twelve season one episodes began in early April 2013. Meredith Stiehm, creator of Cold Case, Elwood Reid served as the series' executive producers and head writers; the show is co-produced by Shine America and FX Productions for FX. Alex Plank of Wrong Planet served as the consultant for Sonya's Asperger syndrome. Shine America wanted Stiehm to begin the series on the Ambassador Bridge connecting Detroit and Windsor, Ontario, in order to mirror the original series' winter setting; however and Reid argued to set their version in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez at the Bridge of the Americas. In September 2013, the series was renewed for a second season of 13 episodes.
After the first season, co-developer Meredith Stiehm departed the series to rejoin the writing staff of her previous TV series, leaving Elwood Reid as the sole showrunner for the second season. Matthew Lillard and Emily Rios, who had recurring roles in the first season, were promoted to series regulars for the second season; the series was canceled after two seasons. John Solberg, FX's Executive Vice President of Communications, said, "FX will not be moving forward with a third season of The Bridge. Creatively we're proud of what we done, but this came down to the numbers, they just weren't there." Diane Kruger as Det. Sonya Cross: a member of the El Paso Police Department who has undiagnosed Asperger syndrome, her sister Lisa Cross was killed when Sonya was 15. Sonya still visits her now brain damaged murderer and keeps his drawings on the fridge – maybe to try to find out why he killed her sister. Demián Bichir as Det. Marco Ruiz: a homicide detective for the Policía Estatal of the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
Ted Levine as Lieutenant Hank Wade: a jaded El Paso cop and Cross' supervisor. He finds himself counseling Cross to be more diplomatic in her single-minded determination to catch the killer. Annabeth Gish as Charlotte Millwright: a wealthy widow whose rancher husband suffers a myocardial infarction on the Mexican side of the border and dies back in El Paso. Shocking secrets about his cross-border activities come to light as Ruiz and Cross' investigation commences. Thomas M. Wright as Steven Linder: a "lone wolf" trying to survive in a near-lawless borderland Matthew Lillard as Daniel Frye: an El Paso Times reporter whose once-promising career has been derailed by a life of partying and substance abuse Emily Rios as Adriana Mendez: a young reporter for the Times, a Juárez native. Johnny Dowers as Tim Cooper: an El Paso PD detective Eric Lange as Kenneth Hasting: a colleague of Alma's who becomes her confidante Carlos Pratts as Gus Ruiz: Marco's son Catalina Sandino Moreno as Alma Ruiz: Marco's wife Ramón Franco as Fausto Galvan: a cartel leader, the owner of El Rey Storage Alejandro Patino as Cesar: loyal confidant of Karl Millwright, Charlotte's window into her husband's shady dealings Juan Carlos Cantu as Captain Robles: Detective Ruiz's supervisor in Juárez Diana-Maria Riva as Kitty Conchas: the El Paso PD's desk clerk, of Mexican heritage
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Sundance Film Festival
The Sundance Film Festival, a program of the Sundance Institute, takes place annually in Park City, the largest independent film festival in the United States with more than 46,660 attending in 2016. It is held in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as at the Sundance Resort, it is a showcase for new work from international independent filmmakers. The festival consists of competitive sections for American and international dramatic and documentary films, both feature films and short films, a group of out-of-competition sections, including NEXT, New Frontier, Midnight and Documentary Premieres; the 2019 Sundance Film Festival began January 24 and ran through February 3. Sundance began in Salt Lake City in August 1978, as the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah, it was founded by John Earle. The 1978 festival featured films such as Deliverance, A Streetcar Named Desire, Midnight Cowboy, Mean Streets, The Sweet Smell of Success. With chairman Robert Redford, the help of Utah Governor Scott M. Matheson, the goal of the festival was to showcase American-made films, highlight the potential of independent film, to increase visibility for filmmaking in Utah.
At the time, the main focus of the event was to conduct a competition for independent American films, present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions, to celebrate the Frank Capra Award. The festival highlighted the work of regional filmmakers who worked outside the Hollywood system; the jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, included Verna Fields, Linwood G. Dunn, Katharine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr. Mark Rydell, Anthea Sylbert. In 1979, Sterling Van Wagenen left to head up the first-year pilot program of what was to become the Sundance Institute, James W. Ure took over as executive director, followed by Cirina Hampton Catania as executive director. More than 60 films were screened at the festival that year, panels featured many well-known Hollywood filmmakers; that year, the first Frank Capra Award went to Jimmy Stewart. The festival made a profit for the first time. In 1980, Catania left the festival to pursue a production career in Hollywood. Several factors helped propel the growth of Utah/US Film Festival.
First was the involvement of actor and Utah resident Robert Redford, who became the festival's inaugural chairman. By having Redford's name associated with the festival, it received great attention. Secondly, the country was hungry for more venues that would celebrate American-made films as the only other festival doing so at the time was the USA Film Festival in Dallas. Response in Hollywood was unprecedented, as major studios did all they could to contribute their resources. In 1981, the festival moved to Park City and changed the dates from September to January; the move from late summer to midwinter was done by the executive director Susan Barrell with the cooperation of Hollywood director Sydney Pollack, who suggested that running a film festival in a ski resort during winter would draw more attention from Hollywood. It was called the US Video Festival. In 1984, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival. Gary Beer and Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural US Film Festival presented by Sundance Institute, which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby.
The branding and marketing transition from the US Film Festival to the Sundance Film Festival was managed under the direction of Colleen Allen, Allen Advertising Inc. by appointment of Robert Redford. In 1991, the festival was renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character the Sundance Kid from the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. UK-based publisher C21 Media first revealed in October 2010 that Robert Redford was planning to bring the Sundance Film Festival to London, in March the following year, Redford announced that Sundance London would be held at The O2, in London from 26–29 April 2012. In a press statement, Redford said, "We are excited to partner with AEG Europe to bring a particular slice of American culture to life in the inspired setting of The O2, in this city of such rich cultural history, it is our mutual goal to bring to the UK, the best in current American independent cinema, to introduce the artists responsible for it, in essence help build a picture of our country, broadly reflective of the diversity of voices not always seen in our cultural exports."The majority of the film screenings, including the festival's premieres, would be held within the Cineworld cinema at The O2 entertainment district.
The 2013 Sundance London Festival was held 25–28 April 2013, sponsored by car-maker Jaguar. Sundance London 2014 took place on 25–27 April 2014 at the O2 arena; the Sundance London 2015 Festival was cancelled in an announcement on 16 January 2015. Sundance London returned to London from 2–5 June 2016 and again 1–4 June 2017, both at Picturehouse Cinema in London's West End. Inaugurated in 2014, Sundance Film Festival: Hong Kong took place from 22 September to 2 October 2016 and is scheduled again for 21 September to 1 October 2017, it is held at The Metroplex in Kowloon Bay each year. From 2006 through 2008, Sundance Institute collaborated with the Brooklyn Academy of Music on a special series of film screenings, panel discussions, special events bringing the institute's activities and the festival's programming to New York City. M