A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
A "kilometric point" is a term used in metricated areas in France and Spain, to provide reference points alongside a transport route such as a road, a railway line or a canal. It is calculated according to the distance in kilometres from a fixed commencement point. In the English-speaking world, its equivalent would be milepost or mile marker
Madrid Atocha railway station
Madrid Atocha is the largest railway station in Madrid. It is the primary station serving commuter trains and regional trains from the south, the AVE high speed trains from Barcelona, Sevilla, Málaga and Alicante; these train services are run by Renfe. As of 2018, this station has daily services to Marseille in France; the station is in the Atocha neighborhood of the district of Arganzuela. The original façade faces Plaza del Emperador Carlos V, a site at which a variety of streets converge, including the Calle de Atocha, Paseo del Prado, Paseo de la Infanta Isabel, Avenida de la Ciudad de Barcelona, Calle de Méndez Álvaro, Paseo de las Delicias, Paseo de Santa María de la Cabeza, Ronda de Atocha. Atocha station is a railway complex, formed by the Madrid Atocha Cercanías and Madrid Puerta de Atocha stations of the Spanish national railways and a station of the Madrid underground called Atocha RENFE. At this site, Madrid's first railway station was inaugurated on 9 February 1851 under the name Estación de Mediodía.
After the building was destroyed by fire, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1892. The architect for the replacement, in a wrought iron renewal style was Alberto de Palacio Elissagne, who collaborated with Gustave Eiffel. Engineer Henry Saint James took part in the project; the name Atocha has become attached to the station because of the nearby basilica dedicated to Our Lady of Atocha. The train platforms were covered by a roof in the form of inverted hull with a height of 27 meters and length of 157 meters; the steel and glass roof spreads between two brick flanking buildings. This complex of railway tracks expanded through the years. In 1985, a project of complete remodeling began, based on designs by Rafael Moneo. In 1992, the original building was taken out of service as a terminal, converted into a concourse with shops, cafés, a nightclub. Like the Orsay Museum in Paris, the concourse has been given a new function, this time a stunning 4,000 m2 covered tropical garden. A modern terminal was designed by Moneo, built in adjacent land to serve both the new AVE trains and local commuter lines.
The main lines end in the new terminal. The station is served by two Madrid Metro stations and Atocha Renfe; the latter was added when the new terminal building was constructed and is directly linked to the railway station. On 11 March 2004, packed arriving commuter trains were bombed in a series of coordinated bombings, killing 191 people and wounding 1,800; the official investigation by the Spanish Judiciary determined the attacks were directed by a terrorist cell. On 10 June 2004, a somber and minimalist Atocha station memorial was dedicated to the victims of the Attack; the monument includes a virtual shrine. Visitors to the attacked stations can leave a hand silhouette and a message through special-purpose consoles. A second monument to this event, known as 11-M in Spain, is the Bosque del Recuerdo in the Parque del Buen Retiro near Atocha; this monument is made up of 192 olive and cypress trees, one for each person who died on that day, with a tree planted in remembrance of the police officer who died on 3 April 2004, along with seven of the perpetrators whose capture was underway.
Inaugurated as the Bosque de los Ausentes, on the first anniversary of the devastating attack, on 11 March 2005, the site was renamed the following year. The forest is surrounded with water as the symbol of life. 1977 Massacre of Atocha Atocha at Google Maps Madrid train services visitor guide The 11-M memorial website |Forest of Remembrance
Alaris is the brand name of the regional rail network run by the Spanish national rail company Renfe Operadora that connects the major cities of Madrid and Valencia, Barcelona and the main cities of the Valencian community. Alaris services use ETR 490 trainsets, as well as S-120 and S-130 units. Midway through the 1990s, RENFE realised that needed to replace its old Talgo III trains which had run on the line for over thirty years; as a replacement, RENFE looked for new railcars. After searching throughout the ideas of multiple companies, RENFE chose a conglomeration of GEC Alsthom and FIAT Ferroviaria as the winners of a bid to develop new trains for the network titled ETR 490, similar to the ETR 470 trains used on the Italian Cisalpino network; the new units were put into service on a new line between Madrid and Valencia via Albacete with emphasis on high speed and comfort. Although known as InterCity 2000, RENFE did not believe that the name was representative of the service, RENFE decided to rename the service "Alaris."
RENFE rebranded and repainted its trainsets and other publicity to show the new logo. Alaris is a medium/high profile rail service similar to aeroplanes business class, with stewardess, restaurant/snack bar, press service, personal multimedia stations, free automobile parking and baby sitter services. Alaris machines were manufactured by Fiat Ferroviaria and by Alstom, can maintain a moderate continuous speed of 200 km/h. Despite its new and modern trains, higher focus on quality and speed, modernity, Alaris has been criticised. Most critics point to a few main details. Alaris only has a thirteen-minute improvement over the previous train. There are only 160 seats on the new Alaris trains, while the InterCity UT-448 trains had 206 seats available in each car; this means that it takes less time for trains to be full and passengers must now make reservations beforehand to ensure that there is a seat available for them. Current prices for the Alaris are more expensive than those of the original rail service and features such as the BonoCity have ceased to exist, therefore increasing the price that one must pay to use the service.
RENFE Alaris website
Valencian Art Nouveau
Valencian Art Nouveau, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the Art Nouveau in the Valencian Community, in Spain. Its main form of expression was in architecture, but many other arts were involved, the design and the decorative arts, which were important in their role as support to architecture. Although Art Nouveau was part of a general trend that emerged in Europe around the turn of the 20th century, in the Valencian Community the trend acquired its own unique personality in the context of spectacular urban and industrial development, it is equivalent to a number of other fin de siècle art movements going by the names of Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Jugendstil in Germany, Sezession in Austria-Hungary, Liberty style in Italy and Modern or Glasgow Style in Scotland. The Valencian Art Nouveau was active in the Valencian Community from 1899 to 1917; the Modernisme movement in the Valencian Community is best known for its architectural expression in the works of the architects Demetrio Ribes Marco and Francisco Mora Berenguer in Valencia or Vicente Pascual Pastor and Timoteo Briet Montaud in Alcoy, but was significant in sculpture and painting.
Notable art nouveau painters include Fernando Cabrera Cantó, Francisco Laporta Valor, Emilio Sala, Adolfo Morrió and Edmundo Jordá. A notable art nouveau sculptor was Lorenzo Ridaura Gosálbez. On the other hand, there are several Valencian populations who form part of the Art Nouveau European Route, an association of local governments and non-governmental institutions for the international promotion and protection of Art Nouveau heritage, it is the case of Alcoy and Sueca. Early 20th century architecture in Valencian Community was influenced by European Art Nouveau; the Valencian Art Nouveau takes place in different cities or areas, inside of a context of great industrial and urban development: Alcoy and Valencia, by number of works, will be the main Valencian cities where much more was developed the art nouveau architecture. Novelda, Burriana, Castellón de la Plana or Sueca are other cities with important examples of Valencian Art Nouveau architecture. With Valencian local architects, all of them formed in Barcelona or Madrid and contemporaries to the Catalan Modernism and to the Art Nouveau of Madrid, but that exercised the main part of his career in the Valencian Community, the Valencian Art Nouveau will receive a special architectural relevancy in different Valencian cities.
The Mercado Central in Valencia, one of the largest in Europe, covers more than 8,000 square metres, over two floors, with a predominantly Valencian Art Nouveau style. Its unusual roof comprises original domes and sloping sections at different heights, while the interior seems to be lined in a range of materials such as iron, wood and polychromed tiles; the beauty of the building stands out on account of the light that enters through the roof at various points, through coloured window panels. The Estación del Norte is the main railway station in Valencia located in the city centre next to the Plaza de Toros de Valencia, it was declared Good of Cultural Heritage in 1987. The Mercado de Colón is a public market located in the city center of Valencia; the building was designed by the Valencian architect Francisco Mora Berenguer between 1914 and 1916. This is a clear example of Valencian Art Nouveau architecture of the early century, it was declared a national monument. It impresses with lavish decor.
Between the works of the Valencian modernisme stand out: City Center Casa del Pavo Casa d'Escaló Circulo Industrial de Alcoy Casa Laporta Campus of Alcoy of the Technical University of Valencia Casa Vilaplana Casa Briet Canalejas Viaduct Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Alcoy Casa Mataix Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 3 Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 5 Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 27 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 4 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 29 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 35 Cocheras en plaza Emili Sala 12 Edificio en avenida País Valencià 30 Edificio en calle Capellà Belloch 9 Edificio en calle Sant Josep 26 Edificios en calle Pintor Casanova 16, 18 y 20 Edificios en calle Bartolomé José Gallardo 1, 3 y 5 La Glorieta de Alcoy Fábricas en calle Sant Joan 43 y 45 Edificio del Parque de Bomberos Kiosk of Art Nouveau style at the Plaza de la ConstituciónEnsanche-Santa Rosa Hydroelectrics substation of Alcoy Taller de carruajes en calle Agres 5 Fábrica en calle Agres 8 Fábrica en calle Alcoleja 4 Slaughterhouse of AlcoyEl Camí-Zona Alta Casa El Camí 1 Fábrica de "El Rosendo" Fábrica en calle Sant Vicent Ferrer 12Outskirts Fuente de El Molinar de Alcoy Alcoy Cemetery, Art nouveau pantheons and sculptures.
Central Market of Alicante Lonja del Pescado Casa Lamaignere Casa Carbonell Casa del Ascensor Edificio Torrent Casa Campos Carrera Casa de las BrujasNovelda: Santuario de Santa María Magdalena Art Nouveau House-Museum Centro Cultural Gómez-Tortosa Sociedad Cultural Casino de Novelda Casa MiraOrihuela: Casa Villaescusa Teatro Circo Lonja de OrihuelaTorrevieja: Casino de TorreviejaVillena: Chapí Theatre Les Alqueries: Chalé de SafontBenicarló: Casa BoschBenicàssim: Villa VictoriaBurriana: Orange Museum Circulo Frutero Burrianense Edificio de Correos de Castellón Casa de les Cigonyes Casa Dávalos Casa Alcón Edificio Academia la Purísima Transformador de Viuda de Estela Quiosco modernista de la plaza de la PazVila-real: Almacén de CabreraVinaròs: Casa Giner Casa Sendra Al
Plaza de Toros de Valencia
Plaza de Toros de Valencia is a bullring in València, Spain. It was built between 1850 and 1859 in the neoclassical style, inspired by civil Roman architecture such as the Colosseum in Rome or the Arena of Nîmes, it was built by the Valencian architect Sebastián Monleón Estellés. Its structure is formed with 384 external arches, it follows the so-called Neo-Mudéjar style. When constructed the bullfighting arena was outside the city walls near the Ruzafa Gate; the architect designed the 17.50 meter-high building with 48 sides. The bullring had an inside diameter of 52 meters, reduced, it is an early example of a building that used cast iron columns that provide remarkable transparency in the boxes. Plaza de Toros is one of the more beautiful bullrings in Spain, with an outside diameter of 108 meters and a capacity of 16,851 seated spectators; these dimensions make it one of the largest bullrings in Spain. As reflected in the media at that time, it was inaugurated on June 20, 1859. Since 1625, the site is owned by the Hospital General and it is administered by the Provincial Council of Valencia and the Simon Casas Productions company.
Over the years, it has been managed both by the Council of Valencia itself. The bullfighting arena is situated in the Centro district of the city, at 28 Calle de Xàtiva Valencia, 46004 Spain, it is located next to the North Station and close to the Plaza del Ayuntamiento. Right in front of the bullring, there is a metro station called "Xàtiva" with the lines number 3, 5 and 9; the bullring holds around 12,000 people. World Stadiums.com Official tickets information Valencia Bullring
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15