1994 FIFA World Cup
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States, from 17 June to 17 July 1994. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on 4 July 1988. Despite the host nation's lack of soccer tradition, the tournament was the most financially successful in World Cup history; the total attendance of nearly 3.6 million for the final tournament remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams, first introduced at the 1998 World Cup and is the current format. Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shoot-out at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time, it was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. There were four new entrants in the tournament: Greece, Saudi Arabia, as well as two countries that were formed at the end of the Cold War: Russia, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, for the first time since 1938, a newly reunified Germany took part in the tournament, following Germany reunification in October 1990, a few months after West Germany's victory in the 1990 World Cup.
Three teams, one African, one Asian, one European, made their debuts at the 1994 tournament. Nigeria qualified from the African zone alongside Cameroon and Morocco as CAF was granted three spots as a result of the strong performances by African teams in 1990. In the Asian zone, Saudi Arabia qualified for the first time by topping the final round group ahead of South Korea as both edged out Japan, who were close to making their own World Cup debut, but were denied by Iraq in what became known as the "Agony of Doha"; the Japanese would not have to wait long though. In the European zone, Greece made their first World Cup appearance after topping a group from which Russia qualified, competing independently for the first time after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the defending champions West Germany were united with their East German counterparts, representing the unified Germany for the first time since the 1938 World Cup. Norway qualified for the first time since 1938, Bolivia for the first time since 1950, Switzerland for the first time since 1966.
Norway's 56-year gap between appearances in the final tournament equaled Egypt's record in the previous tournament as the longest. Mexico had its first successful qualification campaign since 1978, failing to qualify in 1982, qualifying as hosts in 1986 and being banned for the Cachirules scandal in 1990; the qualification campaigns of both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were affected by political events. The nation of Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, completing its qualifying group under the name "Representation of Czechs and Slovaks", but failed to qualify for the finals, having been edged out by Romania and Belgium in Group 4. Yugoslavia was suspended from international competition in 1992 as part of United Nations sanctions against the country as a result of the Yugoslav Wars; the sanctions were not lifted until 1994, by which time it was no longer possible for the team to qualify. Chile's suspension from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, following the forced interruption of their qualification game against Brazil, extended to the 1994 qualifiers as well.
This was the second World Cup for which neither England, Northern Ireland nor Wales qualified, with England missing out after having finished fourth in the 1990 tournament, Scotland failing to qualify for the first time since 1970. France, designated as hosts of the 1998 tournament missed out following surprise home losses to Israel and Bulgaria; this was the second World Cup in a row for which France had failed to qualify, the last one to date to not feature England and Japan. Other notable absentees were 1990 Round of 16 participants Uruguay, UEFA Euro 1992 champions Denmark, Poland and Hungary; the following 24 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournamentː Three nations bid for host duties: United States and Morocco. The vote was held in Zurich on 4 July 1988, only took one round with the United States bid receiving a little over half of the votes by the Exco members. FIFA hoped that by staging the world's most prestigious tournament there, it would lead to a growth of interest in the sport.
One condition FIFA imposed was the creation of a professional football league – Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 and began operating in 1996. There was some initial controversy about awarding the World Cup to a country where football was not a nationally popular sport, at the time, in 1988, the U. S. did not have a professional league of its own anymore. Success of the 1984 Summer Olympics the soccer tournament contributed to FIFA's decision. Despite the controversy, the U. S. staged a hugely successful tournament, with average attendance of nearly 70,000 breaking a record that surpassed the 1966 FIFA World Cup average attendance of 51,000, thanks to the large seating capacities the stadiums in the United States provided for the spectators in comparison to the smaller venues of Europe and Latin America. To this day, the total attendance for
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Netherlands national football team
The Netherlands national football team has represented the Netherlands in international football since its initial match in 1905. The national team is controlled by the Royal Dutch Football Association, a part of UEFA, under the jurisdiction of FIFA the governing body for football in the Netherlands. Most of the Netherlands' home matches are played at the Johan Cruyff Arena and the Stadion Feijenoord; the team is colloquially referred to as Het Nederlands Elftal or the Oranje, after the House of Orange-Nassau. Like the country itself, the team is sometimes referred to as Holland; the fan club is known as the "Het Legioen". The Netherlands has competed in ten FIFA World Cups, they have appeared in nine UEFA European Championships winning the 1988 tournament in West Germany. Additionally, the team won a bronze medal at the Olympic football event in 1908, 1912 and 1920; the Netherlands has long-standing football rivalries with neighbors Germany. The Netherlands played their first international match in Antwerp against Belgium on 30 April 1905.
The players were selected by a five-member commission from the Dutch football association. After 90 minutes, the score was 1–1; because the match was for the Coupe van den Abeele it went into overtime, during which Eddy de Neve scored three times, making the score 4–1 for the Netherlands. Some historians attribute one of the goals scored to Willem Hesselink. In 1908, the Netherlands competed in their first official tournament appearance at the Summer Olympics in London, they received a bronze medal after losing to Great Britain in the semifinals, before defeating Sweden in the bronze medal match 2–0. At the Olympic Games in 1912 and 1920, the Dutch finished with the bronze medal as they lost to Denmark and Belgium in the respective tournaments; the Dutch reached the semi-finals at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris after winning against Romania and Ireland. In the semi-final, they gave up a one-goal lead, scored by Kees Pijl, to lose 2–1 and were relegated to the third-place playoff for the fourth time, losing to Sweden in a replay.
After being eliminated in the first round at the 1928 Summer Olympics on home turf, they skipped the first World Cup in 1930 due to the cost of travel from Europe to South America. The team made their first appearance at a FIFA World Cup in 1934. Kick Smit was the first goalscorer for the Netherlands in a World Cup; the team was eliminated in the opening round by Switzerland 3–2. A second appearance at the 1938 World Cup resulted in a first-round elimination against Czechoslovakia. After the Second World War, the Dutch qualified for only two international tournaments before the 1970s; the 1948 Summer Olympics in Great Britain and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Finland. They faced early elimination losing to the hosts in 1948 and Brazil in 1952. During the 1970s, Total Football was invented, pioneered by Ajax and led by playmaker Johan Cruyff and national team head coach Rinus Michels; the Dutch made significant strides. Carlos Alberto, captain of the Brazilian team that won the 1970 FIFA World Cup said, "The only team I've seen that did things differently was Holland at the 1974 World Cup in Germany.
Since everything looks more or less the same to me... Their'carousel' style of play was amazing to watch and marvelous for the game."In 1974, the Netherlands beat both Brazil and Argentina in the second group stage, reaching the final for the first time in their history. However, they lost to West Germany in the final in Munich, despite having gone up 1–0 through Johan Neeskens' early penalty kick before a German had touched the ball. However, a converted penalty by Paul Breitner and the winner from Gerd Müller, led to a victory for the Germans; the 1976 European Championship the Netherlands qualified for their first European Championship after beating Belgium in the quarterfinals. They were matched in the semifinals by Czechoslovakia who kept Cruff and Van Hanegem within arms-length of another player as they defeated the Dutch in overtime; the Dutch finished in third place after defeating the hosts in overtime. In 1978, the Netherlands qualified for the World Cup in Argentina; the team was missing Johan Cruyff due to a kidnapping attempt, Wim van Hanegem.
But the squad still had players like Jan Jongbloed, Wim Suurbier and Ruud Krol from the previous World Cup. After finishing runner-up in Group 4 behind Peru, they recorded wins against Austria and Italy to set up a final with Argentina. After a controversial start, with Argentina questioning the plaster cast on René van de Kerkhof's wrist, the match headed to extra time where the Dutch lost 3–1 after two extra time goals from Mario Kempes and Daniel Bertoni. Euro'80 was the last tournament. Despite the tournament format being expanded that year they did not advance past the group stage. Veterans such as Krol and Rensenbrink retired soon afterwards and the Dutch team hit a low point in their history: they missed the 1982 World Cup in Spain, Euro 1984 in France, the 1986 World Cup in Mexico, they failed qualifying for Euro 1984 by virtue of goals scored when Spain scored twelve in the final game against Malta. Because both teams had the same goal difference, Spain qualified having scored two more goals than the Dutch.
After qualifying for the 1986 World Cup the Dutch finished in second place and advanced to the playoffs against neighbors Belgium. After losing the first leg 1–0 in Brussels, they held a 2–0 lead at Rotterdam with a few minutes remaining, but Georges Grun's header in the 84th minute resulted in the Netherlands elimination as Belgium advanc
Germany national football team
The Germany national football team is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association, founded in 1900. Since the DFB was reinaugurated in 1949 the team has represented the Federal Republic of Germany. Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic. Both have been absorbed along with their records by the current national team; the official name and code "Germany FR" was shortened to "Germany" following the reunification in 1990. Germany is one of the most successful national teams in international competitions, having won four World Cups, three European Championships, one Confederations Cup, they have been runners-up three times in the European Championships, four times in the World Cup, a further four third-place finishes at World Cups. East Germany won Olympic Gold in 1976.
Germany is the only nation to have won both the FIFA Women's World Cup. At the end of the 2014 World Cup, Germany earned the highest Elo rating of any national football team in history, with a record 2205 points. Germany is the only European nation that has won a FIFA World Cup in the Americas; the manager of the national team is Joachim Löw. Between 1899 and 1901, prior to the formation of a national team, there were five unofficial international matches between German and English selection teams, which all ended as large defeats for the German teams. Eight years after the establishment of the German Football Association, the first official match of the Germany national football team was played on 5 April 1908, against Switzerland in Basel, with the Swiss winning 5–3. Gottfried Fuchs scored a world record 10 goals for Germany in a 16–0 win against Russia at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm on 1 July, becoming the top scorer of the tournament, he was Jewish, the German Football Association erased all references to him from their records between 1933 and 1945.
As of 2016, he was still the top German scorer for one match. The first match after World War I in 1920, the first match after World War II in 1950 when Germany was still banned from most international competitions, the first match in 1990 with former East German players were all against Switzerland as well. Germany's first championship title was won in Switzerland in 1954. At that time the players were selected by the DFB; the first manager of the Germany national team was Otto Nerz, a school teacher from Mannheim, who served in the role from 1926 to 1936. The German FA could not afford travel to Uruguay for the first World Cup staged in 1930 during the Great Depression, but finished third in the 1934 World Cup in their first appearance in the competition. After a poor showing at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Sepp Herberger became coach. In 1937 he put together a squad, soon nicknamed the Breslau Elf in recognition of their 8–0 win over Denmark in the German city of Breslau, Lower Silesia.
After Austria became part of Germany in the Anschluss of March 1938, that country's national team – one of Europe's best sides at the time due to professionalism – was disbanded despite having qualified for the 1938 World Cup. Nazi politicians ordered five or six ex-Austrian players, from the clubs Rapid Vienna, Austria Vienna, First Vienna FC, to join the all-German team on short notice in a staged show of unity for political reasons. In the 1938 World Cup that began on 4 June, this "united" German team managed only a 1–1 draw against Switzerland and lost the replay 2–4 in front of a hostile crowd in Paris, France; that early exit stands as Germany's worst World Cup result, one of just two occasions the team failed to progress the group stage. During World War II, the team played over 30 international games between September 1939 and November 1942. National team games were suspended, as most players had to join the armed forces. Many of the national team players were gathered together under coach Herberger as Rote Jäger through the efforts of a sympathetic air force officer trying to protect the footballers from the most dangerous wartime service.
After World War II, Germany was banned from competition in most sports until 1950. The DFB was not a full member of FIFA, none of the three new German states — West Germany, East Germany, Saarland — entered the 1950 World Cup qualifiers; the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to as West Germany, continued the DFB. With recognition by FIFA and UEFA, the DFB continued the record of the pre-war team. Switzerland was once again the first team that played West Germany in 1950. West Germany qualified for the 1954 World Cup; the Saarland, under French control between 1947 and 1956, did not join French organisations, was barred from participating in pan-German ones. It sent their own team to the 1954 World Cup qualifiers. In 1957, Saarland acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1949, the communist German Democratic Republic was founded. In 1952 the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR was established and the East Germany national football team took to the field, they were the only team to beat the 1974 FIFA World Cup winning West Germans in the onl
The CONMEBOL Recopa Sudamericana, known as the Recopa Sudamericana or CONMEBOL Recopa, as the Recopa, is an annual international club football competition organized by CONMEBOL since 1988. It is a match-up between the champions of the previous year's Copa Libertadores and the Copa Sudamericana, South America's premier club competitions; the competition has had several formats over its lifetime. The champions of the Copa Libertadores and Supercopa Libertadores contested it. In 1998, the Supercopa Libertadores was discontinued and the Recopa went into a hiatus; the competition has been disputed with either a presently-used two-legged series or a single match-up at a neutral venue. Together with the aforementioned tournaments, a club has the chance to win the CONMEBOL Treble all in one year or season. However, if the Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana are won by the same team according to the Copa Libertadores regulations Article 1.7, both competitions' runners-up will play one or two matches in order to decide the team which will play in the Recopa.
The most recent champion of the competition is Brazilian club Grêmio, after beating Independiente in the 2018 edition. Argentine club Boca Juniors is the most successful club in the cup history, having won the tournament four times. Brazilian clubs have accumulated the most victories with nine wins while Brazil has the most different winning teams, with seven clubs having won the title; the cup has been won by 16 clubs and won consecutively by four clubs: Brazil's São Paulo, Ecuador's LDU Quito, Argentina's Boca Juniors and River Plate defended the title in 1994, 2006, 2010 and 2016, respectively. When the Supercopa Sudamericana was created in 1988, a new continental Super Cup competition in South America became viable. CONMEBOL named the new competition Recopa Sudamericana after the defunct Recopa Sudamericana de Clubes played in 1970 and 1971; the Recopa Sudamericana, disputed between the winners of South America's two premier club competitions, is not related chronologically to the Recopa Sudamericana, created in 1968, contested between former South American winners of the Intercontinental Cup, Recopa Sudamericana de Clubes, disputed among Cup winners of South America.
The first edition was pitted Uruguayan club Nacional and Argentinian side Racing. Played on two legs, Nacional managed to win the trophy after winning 4–1 on points. Due to schedule dilemmas and political issues, the 1990 edition was played in Miami between Atlético Nacional and Boca Juniors with the latter winning 0–1. Olimpia of Paraguay would win the Recopa Sudamericana without the need to dispute a match as the Decano won both the Copa Libertadores and Supercopa Sudamericana. CONMEBOL declared Olimpia the automatic winners of the 1991 competition. In 1992, from 1994 to 1997, the competition was played in Japan. Colo-Colo of Chile defeated Cruzeiro 5–4 on penalties after a 0–0 tie in the 1992 final. Staying true to the winning ways of the Paulista's golden generation, São Paulo won the 1993 and 1994 finals to become the first team to retain the title. Due to schedule congestion, the 1993 finals were played as part of the Campeonato Brasileiro and it became the first Recopa to feature two teams from the same nation.
In a second, consecutive all-Brazilian final, São Paulo defended the trophy against Botafogo. Since São Paulo won both the Copa Libertadores and Supercopa Sudamericana, CONMEBOL had Copa CONMEBOL winners Botafogo dispute the Recopa Sudamericana only to lose 3–1 to the defending champions. Argentina managed to emulate their northern neighbors with the 1995 edition being an all-Argentinian affair. Independiente, led by Jorge Burruchaga, managed to consecrate themselves winners after defeating Carlos Bianchi's legendary Vélez Sársfield 1–0 in Tokyo. Independiente participated in a second, consecutive final only to lose the title to Grêmio after being defeated 4–1; the 1997 edition was won by a Vélez Sársfield team that bowed out from the international limelight with their last title. Having failed to win the trophy in 1992 and 1993, Cruzeiro comfortably won the 1998 edition, played as part of the Copa Mercosur; this final series was played two years after the participating teams won their corresponding qualifying tournaments.
At the end of the 1998 season, CONMEBOL discontinued the Supercopa Sudamericana. As a result of not having an important, secondary tournament, the Recopa Sudamericana went into a hiatus from 1999 until 2002. However, the introduction of the new Copa Sudamericana revitalized the competition with Olimpia winning the 2003 final in Los Angeles. Played on a neutral venue for the second year in a row, Cienciano defeated Boca Juniors on penalties to win their second international title. From 2005 onwards, the Recopa Sudamericana would be played on a home-and-away basis. In a rematch of the Copa Libertadores final of 2004, Boca Juniors avenged that defeat as they beat Once Caldas 4–3 on aggregate. A year Boca Juniors faced São Paulo, both two-time winners of the competition, in order to determine who would become the first tricampeón; the Xeneizes won 4–1 on points and defended the title, becoming the first side since Telê Santana's São Paulo to win consecutive Recopas. Internacional became the first Brazilian side to lift the trophy in nine years.
The 2008 competition saw Boca Juniors win their fourth title to become joint leaders for most international titles won by a club in a last hurrah on the international scene. LDU Quito won their second international title as they thumped Internacional 6–0 on points and 4–0 on goal aggregate to win their first title. LDU Quito successfully defended their title in 2010 again
Colombia national football team
The Colombia national football team represents Colombia in international football competitions and is overseen by the Colombian Football Federation. It is a member of the CONMEBOL and is ranked 12th in the FIFA World Rankings; the team are nicknamed Los Cafeteros due to the coffee production in their country. Since the mid-1980s, the national team has been a symbol fighting the country's negative reputation; this has made the sport popular and made the national team a sign of nationalism and passion for many Colombians worldwide. Colombia is known for having a passionate fan base. Colombia had its strongest period during the 1990s. A 1993 match resulted in a 5–0 win over Argentina which began a special "mutual respect" rivalry between both nations; the goalkeeper René Higuita achieved fame from his eccentric scorpion kick clearance against England at Wembley Stadium in 1995. Stars from Colombia's team included Faustino Asprilla. During this era Colombia qualified for the 1990, 1994, 1998 World Cups, only reaching the second round in 1990.
Following the murder of Andrés Escobar after the 1994 World Cup, Colombia's team faded in the latter half of the 1990s. They were the champions of the 2001 Copa América, which they hosted and set a new Copa América record of conceding no goals and winning each match. Prior to that success, they were runners-up to Peru in the 1975 Copa América. In total, Colombia has gained a top four result in seven Copa Américas. Colombia was the first team to win FIFA best mover in 1993 where the achievement was first introduced and the second team after Croatia to win it twice in 2012. Colombia missed three World Cups between 2002 and 2010. During the 2014 World Cup qualifiers, Colombia showed improvement over the 2011 Copa América, bringing its rank up to the top ten for the first time since 2002 and into the top five for the first time since 2004. After a 16-year-long wait, in 2014 Colombia returned to the World Cup, where they were able to advance to the quarter-finals, the furthest Colombia has made it in a World Cup.
Colombia's midfielder James Rodríguez won two awards, the Golden Boot for most goals and Best Goal of the Tournament. Colombia played its first official matches at Caribbean Games; the Colombia national football team was composed by all the players of the Club Juventud Bogotana. Alfonso Novoa was the manager of Colombia until 23 February; the first game was played on 10 February 1938 against Mexico. Colombia was defeated 1–3. Colombia was able to obtain the bronze medal, with three losses; the same year, Colombia played at the I Bolivarian Games in Bogotá, where they finished fourth with one win and three losses. Fernando Paternoster was the manager of the side's first foreign manager. Colombia did not play again until 1945, when they participated for the first time at the South American Championship, finishing in fifth place; this time, Colombia was composed by players of Junior de Barranquilla save for Antonio de la Hoz and Pedro Ricardo López. Roberto Meléndez was coach of Colombia throughout the tournament.
The first match of Colombia in the professional era was played on 6 April in the 1949 South American Championship, a 3–0 defeat against Paraguay. Austrian coach Friedrich Donnenfeld was the manager of Colombia during the tournament; as Junior was chosen to represent Colombia in the tournament, he became in the first European manager of the Colombia national team. The team, repeated their losing streak since, as in the previous tournament, ended eighth with two draws and five losses, scoring four goals. After a withdrawal in 1938 and getting banned in 1954, Colombia participated for the first time in qualifying for the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, their first match was on 16 June 1957 against Uruguay in a 1 -- 1 draw. Colombia lost their next matches. At the 1962 World Cup, Colombia lost 2 -- 1 against Uruguay. Luis Cubilla and Jorge Sasía scored for Uruguay at the 56th and 75th minute while Francisco Zuluaga scored a 19th-minute penalty goal for Colombia. In the second match, they earned a 4–4 draw with the Soviet Union, champions of the 1960 European Nations' Cup.
In this game, Colombia scored four goals against Soviet goalkeeper Lev Yashin considered the best goalkeeper in football history. In that game, Marcos Coll scored the only olympic goal in World Cup history so far; the Colombian campaign in 1962 ended with a 5–0 defeat against Yugoslavia, who finished in fourth place in the tournament. After the 1962 World Cup, Colombia didn't qualify for over 28 years before they returned at 1990 edition. At 1990 World Cup, Colombia defeated United Arab Emirates 2–0, lost to Yugoslavia 1–0, earned their place in the round of 16 after a 1–1 draw with West Germany, who would win the World Cup. Colombia would be eliminated in their next match against Cameroon with a 2–1 defeat in extra time. For the 1994 World Cup, Colombia finished top of their qualifying group without having lost a match, which included a historic 5–0 win over Argentina in Buenos Aires. Expectations of the team were high, some naming them as favourites to win the tournament. Colombia was assigned to the Group A with the hosts United States and Switzerland.
During the tournament, Colombia only earned
Racing Club de Avellaneda
Racing Club known as Racing, is an Argentine professional sports club based in Avellaneda, a city of Greater Buenos Aires. Founded in 1903, Racing has been considered one of the "big five" clubs of Argentine football. Racing plays in the Primera División, the top division of the Argentine league system. Racing has won the Primera División 18 times, apart from winning 12 National cups such as five Copa Ibarguren, four Copa de Honor Municipalidad de Buenos Aires and one Copa Beccar Varela. Due to those achievements the team was nicknamed "La Academia" which still identifies the club and its supporters. On international stage, the club has won 6 titles, 3 of them organised by CONMEBOL and other international bodies; those achievements include one Copa Libertadores, one Intercontinental Cup and the first edition of the Supercopa Sudamericana. In addition, Racing won Rioplatense competitions Copa de Honor Cousenier once; the first team plays its home games in the Estadio Presidente Juan Domingo Perón, nicknamed El Cilindro de Avellaneda.
Apart from football, other sports practised at Racing are artistic gymnastics, boxing, field hockey, martial arts, roller skating and volleyball. The history of the club can be traced in 1898, when a group of young football players decided to create a team named "Excelsior Club", it lasted three years until in 1901 it divided into three clubs, Sud América F. C. de Barracas al Sud, American Club and Argentinos Unidos. Barracas al Sud officialised its establishment on 12 May 1901, with Pedro Werner becoming its first president. Less than one year after the establishment, an internal conflict about what color of jersey should be adopted caused a group of members to found Colorados Unidos, which adopted red as color; this division did not last too long, in March 1903, both clubs agreed to merge into a new club under the same name. The club took its name from a French auto racing magazine owned by Germán Vidaillac; the suggestion was well received and the name "Racing Club" was approved. Racing was the first football team integrally formed by criollos.
The first jersey worn by the emerging club was white, until 25 July 1904, when it was decided a yellow and black vertical striped jersey would be used. The adopted uniform only lasted a week due to its similarity to Uruguayan club CURCC, being replaced by a design proposed by president Luis Carbone; the jersey had two light blue and two pink. This light blue and pink design would be worn until 1908, once again replaced by a design with three horizontal bars. Racing adopted the light blue and white colors in 1910, in commemoration of the May Revolution's 100th anniversary that same year. Racing affiliated to the Argentine Football Association in 1905, began playing in the lower divisions of Argentine football league system. In 1906 the club registered to play in Segunda División. In 1909 Racing competed in a playoff to promote to Primera División, but lost to Gimnasia y Esgrima de Buenos Aires. Racing promoted to the first division in 1910, winning the playoff final against Boca Juniors with an attendance of 4,000.
The line-up that won the promotion was: Fernández. Frers and Ohaco were the scorers for Racing. In 1911 Racing debuted in Primera División. One year Racing won its first domestic cup, the Copa de Honor Municipalidad de Buenos Aires after beating Newell's Old Boys 3–0; the first league title came in 1913 when Racing defeated San Isidro at the final in a playoff series after both teams finished first. To crown a champion, the association decided a play off series. Racing first eliminated River Plate, played the final against San Isidro, which it defeated 2 to 0; that same year Racing won another domestic cup, the Copa Ibarguren after beating Newell's Old Boys 3–1 in Avellaneda. The line-up was: Muttoni. In 1914 Racing won its second league title, having scored only 7 received in 12 games; the runner-up was Estudiantes. That same year Racing won its second consecutive Copa Ibarguren, defeating another Rosarino team, Rosario Central, by 1–0 in Buenos Aires; the line-up for the match: Arduino. Racing became Primera División tri-champion in 1915 when the squad defeated San Isidro 1–0 at a playoff at arch-rival Independiente stadium.
Racing line-up was: Arduino. Racing finished unbeaten, with 22 games won and 2 drew over 24, with an outstanding record of 95 goals scored with only 5 conceded; the line-up vs. San Isidro was: Arduino. Racing won the following title, the 1916 championship, totalizing 34 points in 21 games with 39 goals converted and 10 received at the end of the tournament. Platense was the runner-up with 30 points; the 5th consecutive title was in 1917 after totalizing 35 points, being River Plate the runner-up with 30 points. The team scored the mark of 58 goals with only 4 received in 20 fixtures. In addition, the squad achieved its third Copa Ibarguren with a smashing victory over Rosario Central by 6