Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Club Atlético Nueva Chicago
Nueva Chicago is an Argentine sports club based in Mataderos, a neighborhood in the west side of Buenos Aires called "Nueva Chicago". Club's nickname, El Torito is an allusion to 1930s legendary boxer Justo Suárez, known as El Torito de Mataderos; the club is known for its football team, that plays in the Primera B Nacional, the second division of the Argentine football league system. Other sports practised at the club are basketball, field hockey, handball, roller skating and volleyball. On 1 July 1911, a group of young people from 15 to 30 years old, met in a public park, more on the wooden bridge located in the corner of Tellier and Francisco Bilbao Streets, to form a football team; the name chosen was "Los Unidos de Nueva Chicago", naming Pedro San Martín as President, along with Felipe Maglio as Vice-President. The club's activities started on an empty lot located behind a slaughterhouse. There were many proposals to define the team colours; some wished to adopt the colours from Alumni and white.
During their discussion, a truck loaded with bundles which had green and black colours went pass the Campana Avenue. Those colours were adopted as club colours; the club executives worked intensively in getting a field. Alejandro Morh, a Mercado de Hacienda manager, donated the land where the first field was established, but it lasted a short time due to the flood waters. Nueva Chicago was given a land on Francisco Bilbao Avenues; the team played there from 1912 to 1920. The third field was located on Campana avenues; that was the field where Chicago played its first games in Primera División and opened in June 1920 when the team defeated Huracán by 2–0. In this field, Nueva Chicago would win the Copa de Competencia Jockey Club in 1933, its first title in Primera División; when football became professional in Argentina, the Football Association did not authorise to play official matches there, so Nueva Chicago had to play in other stadiums. Three years the land were expropriated to build a hospital.
The first time Chicago promoted to Primera División was in 1930, when winning the Primera B title after disputing a championship playoff with All Boys and Temperley. Chicago debuted in the Asociación Amateurs Argentina de Football in 1931, playing there until 1935 when the LAF merged with the professional league, being all its teams relegated to second division. In 1932 Chicago played a relegation playoff with Sportivo Buenos Aires and Sportivo Palermo. One year the team made a great campaign, finishing 2nd after champion Sportivo Dock Sud with only 3 losses over 19 matches played. In 1933 Nueva Chicago won its first official title, the last edition of the Copa Competencia Jockey Club, a traditional national cup established 1907; the team made a great campaign, arriving to the final unbeaten with 3 matches 2 draws. Nueva Chicago won the title defeating Banfield by 1–0 at the final, played at Almagro stadium; the line-up was: Scali. In 1937 Nueva Chicago was relegated to the second division after Banfield defeated Excursionistas.
President of the club Amadeo Cozza made an agreement with Sportivo Buenos Aires so the team hosted their home games at that stadium located in Almagro, Buenos Aires. By 1939 Nueva Chicago played its home games at All Boys stadium; that same year the club made the arrangements to get a new field. The Municipality of Buenos Aires donated the club a land. A group of club members and neighborhoods collaborated to level the playing field until it was in conditions to host games; the stadium was inaugurated on 27 October 1940 vs. Sportivo Buenos Aires, defeated by 2–0; the team celebrated not only the Primera C championship. Nueva Chicago has been playing at that stadium since then. In 1966 Nueva Chicago was near to promote to Primera División but the team lost the final match to Deportivo Español, remaining in the second division. Nueva Chicago would not play in the top division of Argentine football until 1981, when it won its second Primera B title; the team played 22 matches, with 6 losses. Chicago scored 66 goals and conceded 40.
In Primera División, the team's highlight was an outstanding win against Boca Juniors by 5–0, on 2 November 1983. Despite this historic fact, the team was relegated at the end of the season. Nueva Chicago remained in lower divisions until 1991 when the team promoted to Primera B Nacional defeating Gimnasia y Esgrima de Concepción del Uruguay at playoffs via penalty shoot-out. In 2001 the squad promoted to Primera División for the second time in club's history after defeating Instituto de Córdoba 3–2 in the Estadio Chateau Carreras with an attendance of 12,000 fans that celebrated the goal scored by Oscar Gómez in the last minute of the match, after running 50 metres with the ball. Nueva Chicago played in the top division of Argentine football until 2004; the third promotion to Primera División was in 2006. At the end of the 2007 season and due to the poor campaign, Nueva Chicago had to play the "Promoción" vs. Tigre; the first game was won by Tigre by 1–0. Next matc