Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Valladolid Rugby Asociación Club is a Spanish rugby union club. The club was established in 1986 and competes in the División de Honor de Rugby competition, the highest level of Spanish club rugby; the club are based in Valladolid in central Spain. VRAC play in white colours; the team have in the past won both the Copa del Rey de Rugby. They play at Estadio Pepe Rojo. División de Honor: 8 Champions: 1998–99, 2000–01, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2016–17, 2017–18 Copa del Rey: 5 Champions: 1997–98, 2009–10, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2017–18 Runners-up: 2012–13 Supercopa de España: 7 Champions: 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Copa Ibérica de Rugby: 3 Champions: 2014, 2017,2018 Valladolid RAC's first foray into Europe was in the 2001–02 European Challenge Cup. Playing in a pool with London Irish, Dax and L'Aquila, they lost all six games; the 2003/4 season saw a change in format in the European Challenge Cup. Teams played in a knockout format, over two legs, in each round. First round losing teams played in a new, third tier, Shield competition.
Having lost home and away to England's Newcastle Falcons in Round 1 of the 2003–04 European Challenge Cup, they dropped into the European Shield. Here their performance against Italy's Overmach Parma was better, but they again lost home and away; the 2004/5 season was a close repeat of 2003/4: heavy losses home and away to Italy's Viadana in the Challenge Cup was followed by heavier defeats at the hands of England's Leeds in the Shield. As the winners of the 2011–12 División de Honor de Rugby and the championship playoff, Valladolid RAC qualified to play in the 2012–13 European Challenge Cup but turned down the opportunity due to economic factors. Gernika RT represented Spain; as the winners of the 2013/14 División de Honor championship, VRAC qualified to play the Iberian Rugby Cup against CDUL of Lisbon, winning the game and the title. In 2015/16 season, Valladolid RAC as the champion of the 2014/15 División de Honor championship, represented Spain at the Qualifying Competition of the European Rugby Challenge Cup.
In this competition VRAC won two games, against Royal Kituro Rugby Club and Mogliano Rugby but lost against Grupo Desportivo Direito and Timișoara Saracens. Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Víctor Acevedo Fernando de la Calle Aníbal Fernando Bonan Benjamín Pardo Nacho Müller Glen Rolls Gareth Griffiths Sargent Adam Newton Gareth Griffiths Mike Davis Glen Lewis Rolls 25 seasons in División de Honor Rugby union in Spain VRAC Official website Spanish Rugby website
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Spain national rugby union team
The Spain national rugby union team, nicknamed Los Leones, is administered by the Spanish Rugby Federation. The team annually takes part in the European Nations Cup, the highest European rugby championship outside the Six Nations; as of 11 September 2017, Spain is ranked 19th in the world. Rugby union in Spain dates back to 1901, although Spain did not play its first international until 1929, beating Italy 9–0 in Barcelona. Throughout the century, Spain played against other European opponents such as France, Romania, West Germany, the Soviet Union, Portugal; the team's greatest moment of success came in 1999, when Spain qualified for the 1999 Rugby World Cup. Despite being whitewashed, the team performed admirably in a group which included South Africa and Scotland. Today, Spain competes in the European Nations Cup against Georgia, Portugal and Russia. Spain has never been crowned European champions; the closest they've come to becoming European champions was in 2012, having beaten both Romania and Georgia and finishing second.
Many players have moved abroad to play professionally in France, in hopes of qualifying for the 2019 or expanded 2023 editions of the World Cup. The exact starting point of rugby union in Spain is unknown. Through the 1920s, the game gained popularity through universities in the country; the first Copa del Rey de Rugby was organized in 1926, won by Barcelona. An unofficial Spanish XV played France, including Yves du Manoir, in 1927, but it was organised by a rebel governing body. Spain played their first recognised match in 1929, winning 9–0 over Italy in the Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc. During the 1930s the Spanish rugby team played sporadically in the 1930s, playing against the national teams of Italy, Morocco and Portugal. Due to the outbreak of World War II, rugby in much of Europe was suspended, this included Spain. Rugby operations throughout Europe were continued in the 1950s; this pattern of consistency continued somewhat in the 1970s. However, while no official games were played between Spain and the Home Nations or the SANZAR, some Spanish sides traveled to play against various foreign sides.
The 1980s proved to be somewhat of a golden age for Spanish rugby. The Spanish were thrashed 66–3 to the Māori, but came close to upsetting Argentina, losing only 28 to 19; the Spanish received Zimbabwe through various tests in the 80s. The Spanish recorded upsets, defeating Zimbabwe in Harare in 1984, winning 30–18. More impressive, the Spanish swept a two-game tour in Zimbabwe, a team that had appeared in the 1987 Rugby World Cup, winning 28–16 and 14–9 in Bulawayo and Harare. Other notable results in this period included beating Uruguay 18–6, as well as giving scares to the sides of England and Scotland, coming within 10 points of beating the Māori in 1988. By the end of the 80s, Spain was considered one of the best non-5 Nations teams in Europe, just behind Romania and the Soviet Union. Spain joined the IRB in 1987, after not being invited for the 1987 Rugby World Cup, despite the USSR declining an invitation; the 1990s provided a mixed fortune of eventual success. In the 1991 qualifying rounds, Spain toppled its first group consisting of the Netherlands and Belgium, all games being played at home.
However, Spain narrowly missed on qualifying for the Rugby World Cup, losing 19–6 against Romania, finishing third behind Italy and Romania. In 1992, Spain beat Romania for the first time in 1992, winning 6–0. Spain again nearly beat Argentina that same year. 1995 began in similar fashion to the 1991 campaign toppling the first group. However, Spain were placed in a group with Wales, losing the key fixture 54–0, again coming close, yet not close enough. Spain began their quest for 1999 Rugby World Cup qualification in Pool 3 of Round B of the European qualification, they won all four of their games in the round. They, along with Portugal advanced to the next pool round with Scotland, they finished qualified for their first Rugby World Cup. For the 1999 Rugby World Cup, Spain were in Pool A, along with South Africa and Uruguay, their first World Cup game was played against Uruguay, with Spain losing 27–15. They lost their subsequent pool games to Scotland and the Springboks by 40 points, both of which were played at Murrayfield.
They failed to score a try in the tournament, the only team in the World to have qualified but not scored a try in the World cup. Spain began 2003 Rugby World Cup qualifying games in May 2002. Spain advanced to Round 3 after defeating Portugal. However, they lost to both Italy and Romania, moved through to face Russia for a place in the repechage competition. Despite losing the first game in Madrid 3–36, looking dead in the water, Spain pulled off a unlikely victory, winning 38–22. Despite losing on aggregate, Spain went through the repechage due to Russia being disqualified for fielding ineligible players, they moved on to face the United States. Spain lost 62–13 and 58–13, again missing out
Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people, making it Spain's 13th most populous municipality and northwestern Spain's biggest city, its metropolitan area ranks 20th in Spain with a population of 414,244 people in 23 municipalities. The city is situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers 15 km before they join the Duero, located within five winegrowing regions: Ribera del Duero, Toro, Tierra de León, Cigales. Valladolid was settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei people, the Romans themselves, it remained a small settlement until being re-established by King Alfonso VI of Castile as a Lordship for the Count Pedro Ansúrez in 1072. It grew to prominence in the Middle Ages as the seat of the Court of Castile and being endowed with fairs and different institutions as a collegiate church, Royal Court and Chancery and the Royal Mint; the Catholic Monarchs, Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married in Valladolid in 1469 and established it as the capital of the Kingdom of Castile and of united Spain.
Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid in 1506, while authors Francisco de Quevedo and Miguel de Cervantes lived and worked in the city. The city was the capital of Habsburg Spain under Phillip III between 1601 and 1606, before returning indefinitely to Madrid; the city declined until the arrival of the railway in the 19th century, with its industrialisation into the 20th century. The Old Town is made up of a variety of historic houses, churches, plazas and parks, includes the National Museum of Sculpture, the Museum of Contemporary Art Patio Herreriano or the Oriental Museum, as well as the houses of José Zorrilla and Cervantes which are open as museums. Among the events that are held each year in the city there is Holy Week, Valladolid International Film Week, the Theatre Festival and street arts. There is no direct evidence for the origin of the modern name of Valladolid. One held etymological theory suggests that the modern name Valladolid derives from the Celtiberian language expression Vallis Tolitum, meaning "valley of waters", referring to the confluence of rivers in the area.
Another theory suggests that the name derives from the Arabic expression Balad al-Walid بلد الوليد, which means "city of al-Walid", referring to Al-Walid I. Yet a third claims that it derives from Vallis Olivetum, meaning "valley of the olives". Instead, in the south part of the city exist an innumerable amount of pine trees; the gastronomy reflect the importance of the piñon as a local product, not olives. In texts from the middle ages the town is called Vallisoletum, meaning "sunny valley", a person from the town is a Vallisoletano, o Vallisoletana; the city is popularly called Pucela, a nickname whose origin is not clear, but may refer to knights in the service of Joan of Arc, known as La Pucelle. Another theory is that Pucela comes from the fact that Pozzolana cement was sold there, the only city in Spain that sold it; the Vaccaei were a Celtic tribe, the first people with stable presence on the sector of the middle valley of the River Duero documented in historical times. Remains of Celtiberian and of a Roman camp have been excavated near the city.
The nucleus of the city was located in the area of the current San Miguel y el Rosarillo square, was surrounded by a palisade. Archaeological proofs of the existence of three ancient lines of walls have been found. During the time of Muslim rule in Spain the Christian kings moved the population of this region north into more defended areas, deliberately created a no man's land as a buffer zone against further Moorish conquests; the area was captured from the Moors in the 10th century, Valladolid was a village until King Alfonso VI of León and Castile donated it to Count Pedro Ansúrez in 1072. He built a palace for himself and his wife, Countess Eylo, the Collegiate of St. Mary and the La Antigua churches. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Valladolid grew thanks to the commercial privileges granted by the kings Alfonso VIII and Alfonso X, as well as to the repopulation of the area after the Reconquista. In 1469 Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand of Aragon were married in the city. In 1506 Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid "still convinced that he had reached the Indies" in a house, now a Museum dedicated to him.
It was made the capital of the kingdom again between 1601 and 1606 by Philip III. The city was again damaged by a flood of the rivers Esgueva. Despite the damage to the old city by the 1960s economic boom, it still boasts a few architectural manifestations of its former glory; some monuments include the unfinished cathedral, the Plaza Mayor, the model for that of Madrid, of other main squares throughout the former Spanish Empire, the National Sculpture Museum, next to the church of Saint Paul, which includes Spain's greatest collections of polychrome wood sculptures, the Faculty of Law of the University of Valladolid, whose façade is one of the few surviving works by Narciso Tomei, the same artist who did the transparente in Toledo Cathedral. The Science Museum is next to the river Pisuerga; the only surviving house of Miguel de Cervantes is located in Valladolid. Although unfinished, the Cathedral of Valladolid was designed by Juan de Herrera, architect of El Escorial. At an elevation of 735 metres or 2,411 feet, the city of Valladolid experiences a hot-summer Medi