Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras or Vaqueyras was a Provençal troubadour and in his life, knight. His life was spent in Italian courts until 1203, when he joined the Fourth Crusade. Raimbaut was near Orange, France, he spent most of his career as court poet and close friend of Boniface I of Montferrat, with whom he served in battle against the communes of Asti and Alessandria. Raimbaut claimed he earned a knighthood through protecting Boniface with his shield in battle at Messina, when they took part in Emperor Henry VI's invasion of Sicily, he was present at the siege and capture of Constantinople in 1204, accompanied Boniface to Thessalonica. His writings the so-called Epic Letter, form an important commentary on the politics of the Latin Empire in its earliest years; the only critical edition of Raimbaut attributes 33 extant songs to him. He used a wide range of styles, including several cansos and tensos, an alba and a gap. One of his songs, Kalenda Maia, is referred to as an estampida and is considered one of the best troubadour melodies.
However, according to the razó, he borrowed the tune from two other musicians. This would explain why the song is called an estampida, which is, theoretically, a purely instrumental piece. Raimbaut's works include a multilingual poem, Eras quan vey verdeyar where he used French, Galician-Portuguese and Gascon, together with his own Provençal. In 1922, Vaqueiras was the subject of a verse drama by Nino Berrini, Rambaldo di Vaqueiras: I Monferrato. Derivative of Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac and La Princesse Lointaine, it presents a romantic, fictionalised image of the poet, in love with his patron's daughter Beatrice. At the end, he returns, mortally wounded, from Thessalonica. He, the song Kalenda Maya, are referenced disparagingly by the protagonist-narrator in Nicole Galland's novel Crossed: A Tale of the Fourth Crusade. A similar fictionalised account of a courtly love relationship between Vaqueiras and Beatrice del Carretto is the subject of a short story, Miłość i płaszcz, by Teodor Parnicki, dating from the period between 1933-1939.
Complete works online The poems of the troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras ed. and tr. Joseph Linskill; the Hague: Mouton, 1964
A troubadour was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages. Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is called a trobairitz; the troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread to Italy and Spain. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, that of the trouvères in northern France. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical and poetical fiction. After the "classical" period around the turn of the 13th century and a mid-century resurgence, the art of the troubadours declined in the 14th century and around the time of the Black Death it died out; the texts of troubadour songs deal with themes of chivalry and courtly love. Most were metaphysical and formulaic. Many were humorous or vulgar satires.
Works can be grouped into three styles: the trobar leu, trobar ric, trobar clus. There were many genres, the most popular being the canso, but sirventes and tensos were popular in the post-classical period; the oldest mention of the word troubadour as trobadors is found in a 12th-century Occitan text by Cercamon. The English word troubadour is an exact rendition from a French word first recorded in 1575 in an historical context to mean "langue d'oc poet at the court in the 12th and 13th century"; the French word is borrowed itself from the Occitan word trobador. It is the oblique case of the nominative trobaire “composer", related to trobar “to compose, to discuss, to invent" It may come from the hypothetical Late Latin *tropāre “to compose, to invent a poem" by regular phonetic change; this recreated form is deduced from the Latin root tropus, meaning a trope and the various meanings of the Old Occitan related words. In turn, the Latin word derives from Greek τρόπος, meaning "turn, manner". B Intervocal Latin shifted to in Occitan.
The Latin suffix -ātor, -atōris explains the Occitan suffix, according to its declension and accentuation: Gallo-Romance *TROPĀTOR > Occitan trobaire and *TROPATŌRE > Occitan trobador « troubadour ». There is an alternative theory to explain the meaning of trobar as “to compose, to discuss, to invent", it has the support of some historians, specialists of literature and musicologists to justify of the troubadours' origins in Arabic Andalusian musical practices. According to them, the Arabic word ṭaraba “song" could be the etymon of the verb trobar. Another Arabic root had been proposed before: Ḍ-R-B “strike", by extension “play a musical instrument", they entertain the possibility that the nearly homophonous Ḍ-R-B root may have contributed to the sense of the newly coined Romance verb trobar. Some proponents of this theory argue, only on cultural grounds, that both etymologies may well be correct, that there may have been a conscious poetic exploitation of the phonological coincidence between trobar and the triliteral Arabic root Ṭ-R-B when Sufi Islamic musical forms with a love theme first spread from Al-Andalus to southern France.
It has been pointed out that the concepts of "finding", "music", "love", "ardour" — the precise semantic field attached to the word troubadour — are allied in Arabic under a single root W-J-D that plays a major role in Sufic discussions of music, that the word troubadour may in part reflect this. The linguistic facts do not support a hypothetical theory: the word trover is mentioned in French as soon as the 10th century before trobar in Occitan and the word trovere > trouvère appears simultaneously in French as trobador in Occitan. In archaic and classical troubadour poetry, the word is only used in a mocking sense, having more or less the meaning of "somebody who makes things up". Cercamon writes: Ist trobador, entre ver e mentir, Afollon drutz e molhers et espos, E van dizen qu'Amors vay en biays. Peire d'Alvernha begins his famous mockery of contemporary authors cantarai d'aquest trobadors, after which he proceeds to explain why none of them is worth anything; when referring to themselves troubadours invariably use the word "chantaire".
The early study of the troubadours focused intensely on their origins. No academic consensus was achieved in the area. Today, one can distinguish at least eleven competing theories: Arabic The sixteenth century Italian historian Giammaria Barbieri was the first to suggest Arabian influences on the music of the troubadours. Scholars like J. B. Trend have asserted that the poetry of troubadours is connected to Arabic poetry written in Spain, while others have attempted to find direct evidence of this influence. In examining the works of William IX of Aquitaine, Évariste Lévi-Provençal and other scholars found three lines that they believed were in some form of Arabic, indicating a potential Andalusian origin for his works; the scholar
Estampie is a German music group, founded in 1985 by Sigrid Hausen, Michael Popp and Ernst Schwindl. The band plays medieval music, with some modern influences from world and minimalist music; the group is not connected to the Leeds-based British ensemble Estampie which recorded Under the Greenwood Tree for Naxos. Sigrid Hausen Michael Popp Ernst Schwindl Sascha Gotowtschikow Christoph Pelgen Sarah "Mariko" Newman Estampie has released 8 studio albums, three of which were recorded in collaboration with Deine Lakaien singer Alexander Veljanov. Two more albums were recorded as Al Andaluz Project, a musical project of Estampie, Spanish Folk band L’Ham de Foc and Amán Amán. Fin Amor, released in 2002, features an orchestra of 15 musicians, it covers themes of mundane love based on texts of medieval troubadour poetry. Their 2004 album Signum has been lauded for its arrangements that includes flutes; the overall theme of this album is transience. A chantar - Lieder der Frauenminne Ave maris stella - Marienverehrung im Mittelalter Ludus Danielis - Ein mittelalterliches Mysterienspiel.
The saltarello is a musical dance form from Italy. The first mention of it is in Add MS 29987, a late-fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century manuscript of Tuscan origin, now in the British Library, it was played in a fast triple meter and is named for its peculiar leaping step, after the Italian verb saltare. This characteristic is the basis of the German name Hoppertanz or Hupfertanz; the saltarello enjoyed great popularity in the courts of medieval Europe. During the 15th century, the word saltarello became the name of a particular dance step, the name of a meter of music, both of which appear in many choreographed dances. Entire dances consisting of only the saltarello step and meter are described as being improvised dances in 15th-century Italian dance manuals. A clearer, detailed description of this step and meter appears in a 16th-century manuscript in the Academia de la Historia in Madrid. During this era, the saltarello was danced by bands of courtesans dressed as men at masquerades; the saltarello gave birth to the quadernaria in Germany, fused into the saltarello tedesco in Italy.
This "German saltarello", in contrast to the Italian variety, was in duple time and began on the downbeat, was known by the name quaternaria. In 1540, Hans Newsidler published an Italian dance under the name Hupff auff, identified it with a parenthetical subtitle: "saltarella". Although a Neapolitan court dance in origin, the saltarello became the typical Italian folk dance of Ciociaria and a favorite tradition of Rome in the Carnival and vintage festivities of Monte Testaccio. After witnessing the Roman Carnival of 1831, the German composer Felix Mendelssohn incorporated the dance into the finale of one of his masterpieces, the Italian Symphony; the only example of a saltarello in the North is saltarello romagnolo of Romagna. The saltarello is still a popular folk dance played in the regions of southern-central Italy, such as Abruzzo, Molise and Marche; the dance is performed on the zampogna bagpipe or on the organetto, a type of diatonic button accordion, is accompanied by a tamburello. The principal source for the medieval Italian saltarello is the Tuscan manuscript Add MS 29987, dating from the late 14th or early 15th century and now in the British Library.
The musical form of these four early saltarelli is the same as the estampie. However, they are in different metres: two are transcribed in 68, one in 34, one in 44; because no choreographies survive from before the 1430s, it is doubtful whether these four dances have any relationship to saltarellos. Tielman Susato included a saltarello in Het derde musikboexken: Danserye. A guitar piece entitled "Saltarello" is attributed to Vincenzo Galilei, written in the 16th century. Odoardo Barri: Six morceaux de salon, for alto-viola and piano Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy used the Saltarello for the fourth movement of his Symphony No. 4 "Italian". Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel: Il saltarello romano, for piano, Op. 6, No. 4 Charles-Valentin Alkan wrote a "Saltarelle" Op. 23, in the final movement of his Sonate de Concert Op. 47 for piano and cello, "Finale alla Saltarella". Berlioz used a saltarello in the Carnival scene of Benvenuto Cellini, reprised in the Roman Carnival Overture. Joachim Raff: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 108 Charles Gounod: Saltarello for orchestra Camille Saint-Saëns: Saltarelle, for men's choir, Op. 74 Camille Saint-Saëns: the last movement of the Piano Concerto No.
2, Op. 22 is a Saltarelle Eugène Ketterer: Saltarelle, for piano, Op. 266 Daniel van Goens: Saltarello for cello and piano, Op. 35 Ernst Haberbier: Saltarello for piano. Op. 54 Max Mayer: Fünf Klavierstücke, Op. 6 F. Laurent-Rollandez: Saltarello for piano, Op. 18 Franz Ries: Nocturne et Saltarello, for violin and piano S. B. Mills: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 26 Bernhard Molique: Saltarella, for violin and piano, Op. 55 H. T. Manicus: Saltarello, for piano George Grothe: Saltarello Galop, for piano Emil Kronke: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 32 George Frederick Bristow: Saltarello, for piano August Marten: 4 Charakterstücke for violin and piano, Op. 8 Georg Goltermann: Saltarello, for cello and piano, Op. 59, No. 2 Gustav Satter: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 147 Gabriel Verdalle: Salatarello for solo harp, Op. 23 One of Frank Bridge's Miniatures for Piano Trio is a saltarello Jean Antiga: Saltarello: danse italienne, for piano George Enescu: Nocturne et Saltarello, for cello and piano Theodor Kullak: Saltarello di Roma, for piano, Op. 49 Carl Gottschalksen: Saltarello: Sorento ved Napoli: Italiensk Suite 3, for piano Edward German: Saltarello, for flute or piccolo and piano Anton Strelezki: Saltarello, danza napolitana, for piano, Op. 18 Henri Piccolini: Saltarello one-step, for orchestra Sydney Smith: Saltarello, for piano four-hands Jules Demersseman: Solo de Concert, Op. 82 No. 6 for flute and piano.
The closing movement is entitled "Saltarello" Leonardo De Lorenzo: Saltarello, for flute, op. 27 Paul Mason: Saltarello, for piano Émile-Robert Blanchet: Saltarello, for piano Anton Schmoll: Saltarello, for piano, Op. 50, No. 19 Jeraldine Saunders Herbison: Saltarello, for cello and piano, Op. 30, no. 2 Maurice Jean Baptiste Ghislain Guillaume: Capriccietto and Saltarello, for clarinet and piano, Op. 23 Guido Papini: Saltarello, for violin and piano, Op. 55, No. 2 Charles Robert Yuille-Smith: Saltarello
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
The vielle is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body. Whatever external form they had, the box-soundchest consisted of back and belly joined by ribs, which experience has shown to be the construction for bowed instruments; the most common shape given to the earliest vielles in France was an oval, which with its modifications remained in favour until the Italian lira da braccio asserted itself as the better type, leading to the violin. The instrument was known as a fidel or a viuola, although the French name for the instrument, vielle, is used, it was one of the most popular instruments of the medieval period, was used by troubadours and jongleurs from the 13th through the 15th centuries. The vielle derived from the lira, a Byzantine bowed instrument related to the rebab, an Arab bowed instrument.
There are many medieval illustrations of different types of vielles in manuscripts and paintings. Starting in the middle or end of the 15th century, the word vielle was used to refer to the hurdy-gurdy, as a shortened form of its name: vielle à roue. Several modern groups of musicians have formed into bands to play early music, they sometimes include vielles, or modern reproductions, in their ensembles, together with other instruments such as rebecs and saz. Vielles Vielles