Eerik Kumari was a doctor of biology, the founder of ornithology and nature conservation in Estonia, the learned director of the Institute of Zoology and Botany at the Estonian Academy of Sciences during 1952-1977. He was the president of the Estonian Naturalists' Society in 1954–1964; the Eerik Kumari Award was established in 1989 in his name to honor those who have excelled in bioscience in Estonia. Eerik Kumari memorial collection
Teodor Lippmaa was a noted Estonian botanist. He was the president of the Estonian Naturalists' Society in 1939–1942. There is a monument honoring him in Tartu, it was erected in 1982. Lippmaa is buried at the Rahumäe cemetery in Tallinn, he was the father of Endel Lippmaa a well-known scientist
Carl Schmidt (chemist)
Carl Ernst Heinrich Schmidt known in Russia as Karl Genrikhovich Schmidt was a Baltic German chemist from the Governorate of Livonia, a part of the Russian Empire. He determined the typical crystallization patterns of many important biochemicals such as uric acid, oxalic acid and its salts, lactic acid, stearin, etc. Schmidt analyzed muscle chitin, he showed that animal and plant cell constituents are chemically similar and studied reactions of calcium albuminates. He studied the chemistry of metabolism and digestion, he discovered hydrochloric acid in its chemical interaction with pepsin. He studied pancreatic juices; some of this work was done with Friedrich Bidder. He studied chemical changes in blood associated with cholera, dysentery and arsenic poisoning. Schmidt received his PhD in 1844 from the University of Gießen under Justus von Liebig. In 1845, he first announced the presence in the test of some Ascidians of what he called "tunicine", a substance similar to cellulose. Tunicine now is regarded as cellulose and correspondingly a remarkable substance to find in an animal.
In 1850, Schmidt had been named Professor of Pharmacy at Dorpat and in 1851 he was appointed Professor of Chemistry in the mathematical and physical division on the University of Dorpat. He was a corresponding member of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, he was the president of the Estonian Naturalists' Society in 1894. Schmidt is notable as the PhD advisor of the Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Ostwald. J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, Macmillan, 1964, vol. 4, p. 306 and p. 595. Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 1970 -- 1990, vol. 2, p. 124a. St. Szcz Zaleski. "Carl Schmidt". Chem. Ber. 27: 963–978. Doi:10.1002/cber.18940270494. R. Stefan Ross. "Carl Schmidt – a chemical tourist in Victorian Britain". Endeavour. 29: 33–37. Doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2005.01.006. PMID 15749151. Physiological-Chemical Research of Bidder and Schmidt Official site of Russian Academy of Sciences. Information about Carl Schmidt
Karl Eduard von Liphart
Baron Karl Eduard von Liphart or Carl Eduard von Liphart was a noted art expert and collector from Estonia. The family manor was near Dorpat. Liphart was born in Kambja Parish in Tartu County in 1808, he was one of the three children of Annette von Loewenwolde. He came from a noble family based at Raadi Manor who were members of the Estonian intelligentsia and owned a significant art collection. Liphart's father maintained his own string quartet led by Ferdinand David, a gifted violinist and composer. In 1853 Liphart was the founding President of the Estonian Naturalists' Society; the society still claims to be the oldest scientific society in the Baltic states. In 1862 Liphart moved to Florence because of the poor health of Ernst. However, in Florence he was able to amass a collection of paintings, he was financed and supported by Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, the daughter of Tsar Nicholas I. The bas-relief of St Jerome by Desiderio da Settignano now in the National Gallery of Art, was purchased in Florence by an agent of Maria Nikolaevna as a gift for Baron Liphart.
Liphart became an acknowledged expert on the history of art. In 1867, following a theory put forward by Gustav Waagen, Liphart was able to recognise that a painting of the Annunciation newly arrived in the Uffizi Gallery was by Leonardo da Vinci. In 1871 he realised that another painting in the Uffizi was by the seventeenth century artist Hercules Seghers, it was Liphart and his friend the Director of the Berlin State Museums, Wilhelm von Bode, who independently established that this artist was more than just an etcher. He died in Florence in 1891. After his death his art collection was moved to Estonia where it was combined with his family's collection at Raadi Manor. Liphart wrote numerous articles and published brief notes, but never published a book-length monograph, he corresponded with all the major art historians of his time, in Europe, Great Britain and the United States. Liphart's son, Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, was disinherited by his father in 1873 for converting to marry a Roman Catholic.
However his son was an accomplished artist, painting portraits including one of Tsar Nicholas II. He went on to be a curator of the Hermitage Museum; the graphic art, collected by the Liphart family came into the possession of Tartu University in the 1920s. The university still conserves the collection which includes examples of Japanese art as well as noted European printmakers like Albrecht Dürer and William Hogarth
Armin Aleksander Öpik was an Estonian paleontologist who spent the second half of his career at the Bureau of Mineral Resources in Australia. He was died in Canberra, his father Karl Heinrich Öpik was a harbormaster and his mother was Leontine Johanna Öpik. He had one sister, his oldest brother Paul a director of the Bank of Estonia, introduced Armin to fossils. His sister Anna was fluent in 14 languages, including Sanskrit, his brother Oskar was a diplomat. His brother Ernst was a famous astronomer. During the First World War he got to know Barbara Potaschko, they had three daughters. Öpik is known for his work on the Cambrian and Lower Ordovician stratigraphy and paleontology of northern Australia. Öpik graduated from the Nicolai Gymnasium with high grades in 1917. He studied mineralogy at the Estonian State University at Tartu, he was lecturer at that institution in mineralogy. In 1930 he became professor of geology and paleontology and director of the Geological Institute and Museum, until 1944.
Öpik's published on stratigraphic correlation, facies distribution and biostratonomy of the Cambrian and lower Ordovician in Estonia. He studied Ordovician published monographies on several subgroups. Öpik published papers on Ordovician ostracodes. In 1937 he finished Trilobiten aus Estland; when the Russian army threatened to overrun his country of birth in 1944, Öpik fled with his family. He lived in displaced persons' camps in Germany until his emigration to Australia in 1948. Öpik was assisted by C. Teichert and H. Raggatt, director of the newly established Bureau of Mineral Resources, to immigrate to Australia and start working at the Melbourne office of the Bureau of Mineral Resources; the next year he transferred to Canberra. He began studies on the Ordovician to Devonian stratigraphy of the Australian Capital Territory. From 1952 to 1982, Öpik made 27 publications on Cambrian paleontology, he described 94 new genera and 294 new species of Cambrian trilobites. He studied Cambrian agnostid trilobites.
In 1962 he became fellow of the Australian Academy of Science
Kalevi Kull is a biosemiotics professor at the University of Tartu, Estonia. He graduated from the University of Tartu in 1975, his earlier work dealt with ethology and field ecology. He has studied the mechanisms of species coexistence in species-rich communities and developed mathematical modelling in ecophysiology. Since 1975, he has been the main organiser of annual meetings of theoretical biology in Estonia. In 1992, he became a Professor of Ecophysiology in the University of Tartu. In 1997, he joined the Department of Semiotics, became a Professor in Biosemiotics. From 2006 to 2018, he was the Head of the Department of Semiotics in the University of Tartu, Estonia, his field of interests include biosemiotics, general semiotics, theoretical biology, theory of evolution and philosophy of semiotics and life science. He was the president of the Estonian Naturalists' Society in 1991–1994, he is the president of the International Society for Biosemiotic Studies since 2015. Ecologist Olevi Kull was his younger brother.
Emmeche, Claus. Towards a Semiotic Biology: Life is the Action of Signs. London: Imperial College Press. Tartu University: Kalevi Kull Publications List Publications
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl