Royal Dutch Mint
The Royal Dutch Mint based in Utrecht, the Netherlands, is a company owned by the Dutch State, since 1807 the only Dutch entity allowed to strike and issue coins. On 17 September 1806, when The Netherlands were under the rule of King Louis Napoleon, he decided that the striking and distribution of coins should be by a single, national body; this was in contrast to the Middle Ages custom of large trading cities having their own mint and coins, which resulted in several coins circulating within the country, many levels of controlling bureaucracy. It was the intention to found the mint in the capital city of Amsterdam but, since there was insufficient finance available, it was decided to locate the National Mint seat in Utrecht. After Napoleon was defeated in 1813, the Kingdom of the Netherlands was founded with William I as King, the Mint was renamed as's Rijks Munt. What is now known as Belgium was a part of the new kingdom, a second Mint was located in Brussels; when Belgium achieved independence in 1839, the Rijks Munt became the only mint in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The provincial coins had been minted. Due to their high intrinsic value, the "new" coins would only gain popularity with the passage of time. In 1849 the provincial coins were taken out of circulation. In 1901 the company was placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance, in 1912 the Mint became a company owned by the State. At the end of the German occupation during the Second World War, in 1944, coins were produced in the United States; this was necessary to ensure. In 1994's Rijks Munt was renamed as De Nederlandse Munt NV, it became 100 % of whose shares are owned by the Dutch State. The Queen awarded the company the prefix Koninklijk five years and the company was now allowed to call itself De Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt. On 22 November 2016 the Royal Dutch Mint was sold to the Belgian Groep Heylen. Since 2002 the Royal Dutch Mint has been allowed to strike coins for foreign national banks in the euro zone, strikes coins for Latvia and Honduras. Furthermore, the Dutch Royal Mint produces commemorative coins and coins intended for collectors and royal medals.
The Royal Dutch Mint was delegated the task of destroying the old guilders after their replacement by the euro in 2002. Elaborating about the Royal Dutch Mint
Governorate of Livonia
The Governorate of Livonia was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia. Following the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710, Peter the Great, on July 28, 1713, created the Riga Governorate which included Smolensk Uyezd, Dorogobuzh Uyezd, Roslavl Uyezd and Vyazma Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate. Smolensk Province was created from territory in Smolensk Governorate at that time, it was incorporated into Smolensk Governorate when it was reformed in 1726. Sweden formally ceded Swedish Livonia to Russia in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystad. In 1722 Tartu County was added to Riga Governorate. In 1726 Smolensk Governorate was separated from Governorate, which now had five provinces: Rīga, Cēsis, Tartu, Pärnu and Saaremaa. In 1783 the Sloka County was added. On July 3, 1783 Catherine the Great reorganized Governorate into Riga Lieutenancy. Only in 1796, after the Third Partition of Poland this territory was renamed as the Governorate of Livonia.
Until the late 19th century the governorate was not ruled by Russian laws but was administered autonomously by the local German Baltic nobility through a feudal Landtag. German nobles insisted on preserving their privileges and use of the German language. In 1816 Tsar Alexander liberated the serfs of Livonia, in a precursor to his plans for the rest of Russia. After the Russian February Revolution in 1917, the northern part of the Governorate of Livonia was combined with the Governorate of Estonia to form a new Autonomous Governorate of Estonia; the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence on 24 February 1918, one day before it was occupied by German troops during World War I. With the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918, Bolshevik Russia accepted the loss of the Livland Governorate and by agreements concluded in Berlin on 27 August 1918, the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia and the Governorate of Livonia were severed from Russia; the Governorate of Livonia was divided into 9 counties.
Note: After the February Revolution based on declaration of the Provisional Government of Russia of 30 March 1917 "About the autonomy of Estland", the Government of Livland was divided: five northern counties with the Estonian population as well as the populated by the Estonians townships of Walk county were all included into the composition of the neighboring Governorate of Estonia. However the new border between the Governments of Estonia and Livland was never properly demarcated. By the Imperial census of 1897. In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language. Administrative divisions of Russia in 1713-1714 Baltic governorates Courland Governorate Estonia Governorate Livonian Confederation
Protected areas of Estonia
Protected areas of Estonia are regulated by the Nature Conservation Act, passed by the Estonian parliament on April 21, 2004 and entered into force May 10, 2004. According to the law, protected areas are areas maintained in a state unaltered by human activity or used subject to special requirements where the natural environment is preserved, restored, researched or introduced; the following are protected areas: National parks Nature conservation areas Landscape conservation areasAs stated in §10.1: An area shall be placed under protection as a protected area or a special conservation area by a regulation of the Government of the Republic. In addition, the law declares following special protection areas, which are designated for the conservation of habitats, for the preservation of which the impact of planned activities is estimated and activities liable to damage the favourable conservation status of the habitats are prohibited: Strict nature reserve Special management zone Limited management zone In the time of the Estonian SSR, there were only five protected areas categorized as zapovedniks: Vilsandi, Viidumäe, Endla and Matsalu.
A national park is a protected area prescribed for the preservation, restoration and introduction of the natural environment, cultural heritage and balanced use of the environment of the protected area. The following are national parks of Estonia:Lahemaa National Park, intended for the protection of the natural and cultural heritage of the coastal landscapes of Northern Estonia. A national park may include strict nature reserves, special management zones and limited management zones. A nature conservation area is a protected area prescribed for the preservation, restoration and introduction of the natural environment; the zones possible in a nature conservation area are the strict nature reserve, special management zone and limited management zone. A landscape protection area is an area prescribed for the preservation, restoration, research and regulation of use of landscapes of the protected area. A park and forest stand are special types of landscape protection area; the zones possible in a landscape protection area are the special management zone and limited management zone.
A strict nature reserve is a land or water area of a protected area whose natural status is unaffected by direct human activity and where the preservation and development of natural biotic communities is ensured only through natural processes. All types of human activity is prohibited within a strict nature reserve, persons are prohibited from staying in such reserves, except in cases specified in subsections and of this section. Persons may stay in a strict nature reserve only for the purposes of supervision, rescue work or administration of the natural object. People may stay in a strict nature reserve for the purpose of monitoring and assessment of the status of the natural object only with the consent of the administrator of the protected area. A special management zone is a land or water area of a protected area prescribed for the preservation of natural and semi-natural biotic communities established or to be developed therein. Mineral resources present within a special management zone are not deemed to be resources intended for exploitation.
Unless otherwise provided by the protection rules, the following shall be prohibited within a special management zone: economic activities. The prohibition established by clauses 4) and 5) of this section does not extend to supervision and rescue work, activities related to the administration of the natural object, to research carried out with the consent of the administrator of the protected area; the following may be permitted by the protection rules in the special management zone as activities necessary for the preservation of the object or activities which do not harm the object: maintenance work on existing land improvement systems and restoration of the water regime. A limited management zone is a land or water area of a protected area where economic activities are permitted, taking account of the restrictions provided by this Act. Unless otherwise provided by the protection rule
Ancient Estonia refers to a period covering History of Estonia from the middle of the 8th millennium BC until the conquest and subjugation of the local Finnic tribes in the first quarter of the 13th century during the Danish Northern Crusades. The region has been populated since the end of the last glacial era, about 10,000 BC; the earliest traces of human settlement in Estonia are connected with Kunda culture. The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, located on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in southwestern Estonia, it has been dated to the beginning of the 9th millennium BC. The Kunda Culture received its name from the Lammasmäe settlement site in northern Estonia, which dates from earlier than 8500. Bone and stone artifacts similar to those found at Kunda have been discovered elsewhere in Estonia, as well as in Latvia, northern Lithuania and southern Finland. Among minerals flint and quartz was used the most for making cutting tools; the beginning of the Neolithic period is marked by the ceramics of the Narva culture, which appears in Estonia at the beginning of the 5th millennium BC.
The oldest finds date from around 4900 BC. The first pottery was made of thick clay mixed with shells or plants; the Narva type ceramics are found throughout the entire Estonian coastal region and on the islands. The stone and bone tools of the era have a notable similarity with the artifacts of the Kunda culture. Around the beginning of 4th millennium BC Comb Ceramic Culture arrived in Estonia; until the early 1980s the arrival of Finnic peoples, the ancestors of the Estonians, Livonians on the shores of Baltic Sea around was associated with the Comb Ceramic Culture. However, such a linking of archaeologically defined cultural entities with linguistic ones cannot be proven and it has been suggested that the increase of settlement finds in the period is more to have been associated with an economic boom related to the warming of climate; some researchers have argued that a Uralic form of language may have been spoken in Estonia and Finland since the end of the last glaciation. The burial customs of the comb pottery people included additions of figures of animals, birds and men carved from bone and amber.
Antiquities from comb pottery culture are found from Northern Finland to Eastern Prussia. The beginning of the Late Neolithic Period about 2200 BC is characterized by the appearance of the Corded Ware culture, pottery with corded decoration and well-polished stone axes. Evidence of agriculture is provided by charred grain of wheat on the wall of a corded-ware vessel found in Iru settlement. Osteological analysis show. Specific burial customs were characterized by the dead being laid on their sides with their knees pressed against their breast, one hand under the head. Objects placed into the graves were made of bones of domesticated animals; the beginning of the Bronze Age in Estonia is dated to 1800 BC. The development of the borders between the Finnic peoples and the Balts was under way; the first fortified settlements and Ridala on the island of Saaremaa and Iru in the Northern Estonia began to be built. The development of shipbuilding facilitated the spread of bronze. Changes took place in burial customs, a new type of burial ground spread from Germanic to Estonian areas, stone cist graves and cremation burials became common aside small number of boat-shaped stone graves.
The Pre-Roman Iron Age began in Estonia about 500 BC and lasted until the middle of the 1st century BC. The oldest iron items were imported, although since the 1st century iron was smelted from local marsh and lake ore. Settlement sites were located in places that offered natural protection. Fortresses were built; the appearance of square Celtic fields surrounded by enclosures in Estonia date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The majority of stones with man-made indents, which were connected with magic designed to increase crop fertility, date from this period. A new type of grave, quadrangular burial mounds began to develop. Burial traditions show the clear beginning of social stratification; the Roman Iron Age in Estonia is dated to between 50 and 450 AD, the era, affected by the influence of the Roman Empire. In material culture this is reflected by some jewellery and artefacts; the abundance of iron artifacts in Southern Estonia speaks of closer mainland ties with southern areas while the islands of western and northern Estonia communicated with their neighbors by sea.
By the end of the period three defined tribal dialectical areas: Northern Estonia, Southern Estonia, Western Estonia had emerged, the population of each having formed its own understanding of identity. The name of Estonia occurs first in a form of Aestii in the 1st century AD by Tacitus. However, at this stage it indicated Baltic tribes living in the area of Western Lithuania and the present-day Kaliningrad. In the Norse sagas the term was used to indicate the Estonians. According to one interpretation, Ptolemy in his Geography III in the middle of the 2nd century AD mentions the Osilians among other dwellers on the Baltic shore; the extent of Estonian territory in early medieval times is disputed but the nature of their religion is not. They were known to the Scandinavians as experts in wind-magic; the name Estonia is first mentioned by Cassiodorus in his book V. Letters 1–2 dating from the 6th century. Saxo Grammaticus describes the Curonians and Estonians as participating in the Battle of Bråvalla on the side of the Swedes against the Danes, who were aided
Terra Mariana was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia, formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on 2 February 1207, as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire but lost this status in 1215 when proclaimed by Pope Innocent III as directly subject to the Holy See. Terra Mariana was divided into feudal principalities by Papal Legate William of Modena: Duchy of Estonia Archbishopric of Riga Bishopric of Courland Bishopric of Dorpat Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek Military administration of the Livonian Brothers of the SwordAfter the 1236 Battle of Saule the surviving members of the Brothers merged in 1237 with the Teutonic Order of Prussia and became known as the Livonian Order. In 1346 the Order bought Danish Estonia. Throughout the existence of medieval Livonia there was a constant struggle over supremacy, between the lands ruled by the Church, the Order, the secular German nobility and the citizens of the Hanseatic towns of Riga and Reval.
Following its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 the Teutonic Order and the Ordensstaat fell into decline but the Livonian Order managed to maintain its independent existence. In 1561, during the Livonian war, Terra Mariana ceased to exist, its northern parts were ceded to the Swedish Empire and formed into the Duchy of Estonia, its southern territories became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania — and thus of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — as the Duchy of Livonia and the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. The island of Saaremaa became part of Denmark. Since the beginning of the 20th century Terra Mariana has been used as a poetic name or sobriquet for Estonia. In 1995 the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, a state decoration, was instituted to honor the independence of Estonia; the lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were the last part of Europe to be Christianized by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1193 Pope Celestine III called for a crusade against the pagans in Northern Europe.
This crusade is compared to the crusade of the Franks and Charlemagne. However, this crusade was not announced until 1197 or 1198, but the first account of this crusade is in a letter by Pope Innocent III. At the beginning of the 13th century, German crusaders from Gotland and the northern Holy Roman Empire conquered the Livonian and Latvian lands along the Daugava and Gauja rivers; the stronghold of Riga was established in 1201, in 1202 the Livonian Brothers of the Sword was formed as a branch of the Knights Templar. In 1218 Pope Honorius III gave Valdemar II of Denmark free rein to annex as much land as he could conquer in Estonia. Additionally Albert of Riga, leader of the crusaders fighting the Estonians from the south, paid a visit to the German King Philip of Swabia and asked permission to attack the Estonians from the North; the last to be subjugated and Christianised were Oeselians and Semigallians. This crusade differed from many other crusades because, in this case, the Pope allowed people intending to go on a crusade to the Holy Land to go instead to crusade in Livonia.
Members of this crusade were made to wear the insignia of the cross as well, which showed that they were bound to the crusade. After the success of the crusade, the German- and Danish-occupied territory was divided into feudal principalities by William of Modena; this division of medieval Livonia was created by Papal Legate William of Modena in 1228 as a compromise between the church and the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, both factions led by Germans, after the German knights had conquered and subdued the territories of several indigenous tribes: Finnic-speaking Estonians and Livs, Baltic-speaking Latgalians, Selonians and Curonians. Medieval Livonia was intermittently ruled first by the Brothers of the Sword, since 1237 by the semi-autonomous branch of Teutonic knights called Livonian Order and the Roman Catholic Church. By the mid 14th century, after buying the Duchy of Estonia from Christopher II, the Livonian Order controlled about 67,000 square kilometers of the Old Livonia and the Church about 41000 km2.
The lands of the Order were divided into about 40 districts governed by a Vogt. The largest ecclesiastical state was the Archbishopric of Riga followed by the Bishopric of Courland, Bishopric of Dorpat, Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek; the nominal head of Terra Mariana as well as the city of Riga was the Archbishop of Riga as the apex of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. In 1240 Valdemar II created the Bishopric of Reval in the Duchy of Estonia by reserving the right to appoint the bishops of Reval to himself and his successor kings of Denmark; the decision to nominate to the See of Reval was unique in the whole Catholic Church at the time and was disputed by bishops and the Pope. During this era, the election of bishops was never established in Reval, the royal rights to the bishopric and to nominate the bishops were included in the treaty when the territories were sold to the Teutonic Order in 1346. Throughout the existence of medieval Livonia there was a constant struggle for superiority in the rule over the lands by the Church, the order, the secular nobles of German descent who ruled the fiefs and the citizens of the Hanseatic town of Riga.
Two major civil wars were fought in 1296–1330, 1313–1330, in 1343–1345 the Estonian revolt resulted in the annexation of the Danish Duchy of Estonia within the Teutonic Ordensstaat. Technically, the Archbishop of Riga was the feudal and ecclesiastical superior, first over the Teutonic Knights over the Liv
The Baltic Germans are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia. Since their expulsion from Estonia and Latvia and resettlement during the upheavals and aftermath of the Second World War, Baltic Germans have markedly declined as a geographically determined ethnic group; the largest groups of present-day descendants of the Baltic Germans are found in Canada. It is estimated that several thousand still reside in Estonia. For centuries Baltic Germans and the Baltic nobility constituted a ruling class over native non-German serfs; the emerging Baltic-German middle class was urban and professional. In the 12th and 13th centuries Catholic Germans, both traders and crusaders, began settling in the eastern Baltic territories. After the Livonian Crusade, they assumed control of government, economics and culture of these lands, ruling for more than 700 years until 1918 — in alliance with Polish, Swedish or Russian overlords. With the decline of Latin, German became the language of all official documents, commerce and government.
At first the majority of German settlers lived in military castles. Their elite formed the Baltic nobility, acquiring large rural estates and comprising the social, commercial and cultural elite of Latvia and Estonia for several centuries. After 1710 many of these men took high positions in the military and civilian life of the Russian Empire in Saint Petersburg. Baltic Germans held citizenship in the Russian Empire until the Revolution of 1918, they held Estonian or Latvian citizenship until the occupation and annexation of these areas by the Soviet Union in 1939–1940. The Baltic German population never surpassed more than 10% of the total population. In 1881 there were 180,000 Baltic Germans in Russia's Baltic provinces, but by 1914 this number had declined to 162,000. In 1881 there were 46,700 Germans in Estonia. According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, there were 120,191 Germans in Latvia, or 6.2% of the population. Baltic German history and presence in the Baltics came to an end in late 1939, following the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the subsequent Nazi–Soviet population transfers.
All the Baltic Germans were resettled by Nazi Germany under the Heim ins Reich program into the newly formed Reichsgaue of Wartheland and Danzig-West Prussia. In 1945, most ethnic Germans were expelled from these lands by the Soviet army. Resettlement was planned for the territory remaining to Germany under terms of the border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference, i.e. west of the Oder–Neisse line, or elsewhere in the world. Ethnic Germans from East Prussia and Lithuania are sometimes incorrectly considered Baltic Germans for reasons of cultural and historical affinities, but the Germans of East Prussia held Prussian, after 1871, German citizenship, because the territory they lived in was part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Baltic Germans were not a purely German ethnic group; the early crusaders and craftsmen married local women, as there were no German women available. Some noble families, such as the Lievens, claimed descent through such women from native chieftains. Many of the German Livonian Order soldiers died during the Livonian War.
New German arrivals came to the area. During this time the Low German of the original settlers was replaced by the High German of the new settlers. In the course of their 700-year history, Baltic German families had ethnic German roots, but had extensive intermarriage with Estonians and Latvians, as well as with other Northern or Central European people, such as Danes, Irish, Scots, Poles and Dutch. In cases where intermarriage occurred, members of the other ethnic groups assimilated into German culture, adopting language and German family names, they were considered Germans, leading to the ethnogenesis of the Baltic Germans. Barclay de Tolly and George Armitstead, who emigrated from the British Isles, married into and became part of the Baltic-German community. Baltic German settlements in the Baltic area consisted of the following territories: Estland the northern half of present-day Estonia. Livland the southern half of present-day Estonia and the northern and eastern part of today's Latvia.
Kurland the western half of present-day Latvia. Ösel belonging to present-day Estonia. Small numbers of Ethnic Germans began to settle in the area in the late 12th century when traders and Christian missionaries began to visit the coastal lands inhabited by tribes who spoke Finnic and Baltic languages. Systematic conquest and settlement of these lands was completed during the Northern Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries which resulted in creation of the Terra Mariana confederation, under the protection of Roman Popes and Holy Roman Empire. After the heavy defeat in the 1236 Battle of Saule the Livonian Brothers of the Sword became a part of
Setos are an indigenous ethnic and linguistic minority in south-eastern Estonia and north-western Russia. Setos are Seto-speaking Orthodox Christians of Estonian nationality; the Seto language belongs to the Finnic group of the Uralic languages. The Setos seek greater recognition, rather than having their language considered a dialect of Estonian. Along with Orthodox Christianity, vernacular traditional folk religion is practiced and supported by Setos. There are 15,000 Setos around the world; the bulk of Setos, are found in the Setomaa region, divided between south-eastern Estonia and north-western Russian Federation. Setos are an protected ethnic minority of Pskov Oblast; the culture of Setos blossomed in the early 20th century when many national societies of Setos were organized. In 1905 the number of Setos reached its maximum. After the proclamation of independence of Estonia its authorities adopted a policy of Estonification of its population, which led to virtual disappearance of Setos as a distinctive linguistic entity of Estonia.
In Russia, due to the influence of Estonian language schools, high rates of mixed marriages, emigration to Estonia, the number of Setos drastically decreased as well. Prior to A. D. 600 the whole of Setomaa was within the vast northern Finnic lands of the indigenous Uralic peoples. After A. D. 600 Slavic tribes migrated northeast, into Uralic lands. During this migration north the Slavic and Finnic tribes interbred in the southern habitation areas of the indigenous Finnics; the first significant event that separated Setos from Estonians was forced conversion of the latter into Catholicism in the 13th century, while Setos who lived in Novgorod Land remained pagans. In the 15th century Setos were converted into Orthodox Christianity but kept their vernacular beliefs. Elements of Catholic culture were brought to the Setos by Estonian colonists, while in Estonia itself they nearly disappeared after the Lutheran reformation in Estonia. In 1920, with the peace treaty of Tartu, the area Setomaa was ceded to the newly created Republic of Estonia and it was included into Petseri County.
As a result of World War II, the Republic of Estonia was forcibly annexed to the Soviet Union. And on August 15, 1944 the border between the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was revised by Moscow authorities to what it is now; the issue became topical as the Republic of Estonia was restored in the borders of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991 and a national border was established soon afterwards. The establishment of the border brought about the division of Setomaa between two countries for the first time in history; the Seto Congress, a body comprising representatives of Seto villages and organisations, is convened every three years and elects a permanent Council of Elders. The Society for Seto Congress was a member of the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages; the Setomaa federation of municipalities in Estonia publishes the newspaper Setomaa in the Seto language in Estonian. Every year the Seto choose a steward of King Peko for the so-called Kingdom of Setomaa at the annual celebration of the Day of the Kingdom, a local festival that rotates among the bigger Seto villages.
The office is ceremonial and has been held by local activists, politicians and scholars. The tradition was initiated by Paul Hagu, an ethnic Seto and a researcher of Seto folk songs and traditional vocal polyphony at the University of Tartu. Seto language Võro language Photo essay by BBC News - "In pictures: The Seto people, a border people" "Seto Culture in Setumaa" on visitestonia.com Picture Stories on National Geographic - A Fairytale Kingdom Faces Real-Life Troubles by Jérémie Jung and Eve Conant Eichenbaum, K.. - Keel ja Kirjandus nr 7, lk. 483-489. Eller, K.: Võro-Seto language. Võro Instituut'. Võro