Estradiol glucuronide

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Estradiol glucuronide
Estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide.svg
IUPAC name
(2S,3S,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-Trihydroxy-6-[[(8R,9S,13S,14S,17S)-3-hydroxy-13-methyl-6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-decahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl]oxy]oxane-2-carboxylic acid
Other names
E217βG; 17β-Estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide; Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 17β-D-glucuronoside
3D model (JSmol)
Molar mass 448.51 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Estradiol glucuronide, or estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide, is a conjugated metabolite of estradiol.[1] It is formed from estradiol in the liver by UDP-glucuronyltransferase via attachment of glucuronic acid and is eventually excreted in the urine by the kidneys.[1] It has much higher water solubility than does estradiol.[1] Glucuronides are the most abundant estrogen conjugates.[1]

When exogenous estradiol is administered orally, it is subject to extensive first-pass metabolism (95%) in the intestines and liver.[2][3] A single administered dose of estradiol is absorbed 15% as estrone, 25% as estrone sulfate, 25% as estradiol glucuronide, and 25% as estrone glucuronide.[2] Formation of estrogen glucuronide conjugates is particularly important with oral estradiol as the percentage of estrogen glucuronide conjugates in circulation is much higher with oral ingestion than with parenteral estradiol.[2] Estradiol glucuronide can be converted back into estradiol, and a large circulating pool of estrogen glucuronide and sulfate conjugates serves as a long-lasting reservoir of estradiol that effectively extends its terminal half-life of oral estradiol.[2] In demonstration of the importance of first-pass metabolism and the estrogen conjugate reservoir in the pharmacokinetics of estradiol,[2] the terminal half-life of oral estradiol is 13 to 20 hours[4] whereas with intravenous injection its terminal half-life is only about 1 to 2 hours.[5]

Approximately 7% of estradiol is excreted in the urine as estradiol glucuronide.[6]

The positional isomer of estradiol glucuronide, estradiol 3-glucuronide, also occurs as a major endogenous metabolite of estradiol, circulating at two-thirds of the levels of estrone sulfate when it reaches its maximal concentrations just before ovulation and during the peak in estradiol levels that occurs at this time.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^ a b c d e Michael Oettel; Ekkehard Schillinger (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens II: Pharmacology and Clinical Application of Estrogens and Antiestrogen. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 268–. ISBN 978-3-642-60107-1. 
  3. ^ M. Notelovitz; P.A. van Keep (6 December 2012). The Climacteric in Perspective: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on the Menopause, held at Lake Buena Vista, Florida, October 28–November 2, 1984. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 406–. ISBN 978-94-009-4145-8. 
  4. ^ Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Archer, David F.; Bhavnani, Bhagu R. (2013). "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment". Contraception. 87 (6): 706–727. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.12.011. ISSN 0010-7824. 
  5. ^ Düsterberg B, Nishino Y (1982). "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacological features of oestradiol valerate". Maturitas. 4 (4): 315–24. PMID 7169965. 
  6. ^ Kelly Smith; Daniel M. Riche; Nickole Henyan (15 April 2010). Clinical Drug Data, 11th Edition. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-162686-6. 
  7. ^ F. A. Kincl; J. R. Pasqualini (22 October 2013). Hormones and the Fetus: Volume 1: Production, Concentration and Metabolism During Pregnancy. Elsevier Science. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-1-4832-8538-2. 

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