Fot was a runemaster who flourished in mid-11th century Sweden. He is sometimes known as Foto, most early medieval Scandinavians were probably literate in runes, and most people probably carved messages on pieces of bone and wood. However, it was difficult to make runestones, and in order to master it one needed to be a stonemason, during the 11th century, when most runestones were raised, there were a few professional runemasters. Fot was active as a runemaster in southern Uppland during the late Viking Age and his work is representative of the runestone style known as the Urnes style. This runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns, the animal heads are typically seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses and the necks. Fot is prominent among the known runemasters as the representative of the classic Uppland or Urnes runestone style. A salient trait is the care with which he chose the stones, how he treated the surface of them, the harmonious ornamentation and he is noted for the consistency of his use of the punctuation mark × between the words in his runic inscriptions.
Only a few runestones were signed by Fot, an additional 40 runestones can be attributed to him based upon stylistic analysis. The runestone U678 at the church of Skokloster belongs to his most famous works, one runestone from Södermanland, the now-lost Sö341 in Stavsta, was apparently signed by a different runemaster with the same name. The runic inscription on this stone states that Þorgautr risti runaʀ þessaʀ, Fots arfi, or Þorgautr, Fótrs heir, other inscriptions signed by Torgöt Fotsarve include U746 in Hårby and U958 in Villinge. An additional 18 inscriptions are listed by Rundata as being attributed to him based on stylistic analysis
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is considered a city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, the part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent, today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger, Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old Citys boundaries. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, the sobriquet of holy city was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesuss crucifixion there, in Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.
As a result, despite having an area of only 0, outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, one of Israels Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the countrys undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israels capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of importance, such as the Hebrew University. In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, a city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba, the name Jerusalem is variously etymologized to mean foundation of the god Shalem, the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua, according to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yireh and the town Shalem. The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states, I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem, or as other scholars suggest, the mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem
The Jarlabanke Runestones is the name of about 20 runestones written in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark rune script in the 11th century, in Uppland, Sweden. They were ordered by what appears to have been a chieftain named Jarlabanke Ingefastsson and his clan, Jarlabanke was probably a hersir responsible for the local leidang organization and on several runestones he stated that he was a Christian and not a Pagan. Five of the runestones contain very much the same message, Jarlabanke had these stones made after himself while he was alive and he made this bridge for his soul. He alone owned all of Täby, one stone at the church of Vallentuna shows the following text on its second side, Jarlabanke had this stone made after himself while he was alive. He made this location and he alone owned this hundred. The so-called Jarlabankes bridge is a causeway in Täby which was bordered by four runestones. It is c.116 metres long and 6.4 metres wide, three other runestones present Jarlabanke as the builder of roads and bridges, and ten or so mention his family members making it possible to follow his family during four generations.
His pride at building roads and bridges shows that this was something that gave prestige in 11th-century Sweden, the inscriptions have led to a controversy on the meaning of the Old Norse verb eiga, and to a debate on the origins on the hundred division. It is debated whether he owned the hundred or if he was appointed as its chieftain by the King of Sweden. Besides the runestones treated in this article, there are others that were raised by Jarlabanke and his clansmen such as U101, U135, U136, U137, U143, U147, U309. However, these runestones are treated separately as they were raised in connection with Estrid, the female progenitor of the Jarlabanke clan. The remaining runestones that are associated with Jarlabankes relatives are, U100, U104, U112, U133, U141, U151, U160, U161, U225, U226, U328, U336, U343 and U344. This runestone in the style Pr2 is located at the church of Danderyd and it was found in the walls of the church and had probably been move quite a distance from Täby before it was used in the church.
On this rune stone, Jarlabanke declared that he had the whole of Täby under his command, English translation, Jarlabanki had these stones raised in memory of himself while alive, and made this bridge for his spirit, and alone owned all of Tábýr. This fragment is located in Broby, near the Broby bro Runestones and it was discovered among the ground stones of a smaller building. It is one of two Jarlabanke runestones that mention men who travelled abroad, but it is not known who the traveller mentioned in the fragment was and it belongs to the Greece Runestones and it is treated there as well. Latin transliteration, ×. la×b. han, entaþis * i kirikium Old Norse transcription and he met his end in Greece. This rune stone in the style Pr4 is located in Fällbro and it was raised by Jarlabankes wife Ketiley, and his son Ingifastr Jarlabankesson
Hargs bro runic inscriptions
The Hargs bro runic inscriptions, or U309, U310 and U311, are 11th century Younger Futhark inscriptions in Old Norse on bedrock in Skånela Parish, Sweden. U309 and U310 constitute a monument in the style Pr4. They belong to a group of c.20 runestones called the Jarlabanke Runestones that are connected to the local strongman Jarlabanke and his clan. Together with the Broby bro Runestones and the Uppland Rune Inscriptions 101,143 and 147 these particular runestones, however, U310 tells that Estrid had a husband named Ingvar, and he had a son prior to marrying Estrid, named Ragnvald who died. Estrid constructed a bridge, apparently a tradition in her family, U309 mentions Sigvid and Jarlabanke in a way that suggests that they are Estrids sons. This Jarlabanke is not the one as the Jarlabanke who raised the runestones in Täby, because he was the son of an Ingefast. These runestones show a peculiarity to this family, the sons often have the name as their fathers. Estrid is the person as the Estrid who is mentioned on a number of runestones in Täby.
This Estrid was the ancestor of a great clan called the Jarlabanke clan. This strongly suggests that Estrid was born in Snottsta, married Östen of Täby and this runic inscription is in the style Pr4 and it was made by Jarlabanke Ingvarsson and his brothers Sigviðr and Ingvarr in memory of their father Ingvarr and their brother Ragnvaldr. Sigviðr and Ingvarr and Jarlabanki had the runes carved in memory of Ingvarr, their father, like the previous runic inscription, this inscription is in the style Pr4 and it was made in memory of Ingvarr and Ragnvaldr. However, this one was made on the orders of Estrid, Ingvars wife who was not Ragnvalds mother. × estriþ × lit × bro × kiara × eftiʀ × ikuar × bonta × sin × auk × at raknualt × sun × hans × Æstrið let bro gæra æftiʀ Ingvar, bonda sinn, ok at Ragnvald, sun hans. Ástríðr had the bridge made in memory of Ingvarr, her husbandman and this inscription was made later, and it is in the style Pr5 which dates it to the late 11th century or the early 12th century.
It is not known how the people mentioned in it are related to those mentioned in the two inscriptions. Inkriþ lit kiara bro iftiʀ * inkikiari totur sin inkihualtr inkimar karl litu at systur si Ingrið let gæra bro æftiʀ Ingigærði, Ingimarr, Karl letu at systur sina. Ingríðr had the bridge made in memory of Ingigerðr, her daughter, ingivaldr Ingimarr Karl had in memory of their sister. In the gallery is a map of the area
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock. The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted into the 12th century, most runestones are located in Scandinavia, but there are scattered runestones in locations that were visited by Norsemen during the Viking Age. Runestones are often memorials to dead men, Runestones were usually brightly coloured when erected, though this is no longer evident as the colour has worn off. The tradition of raising stones that had runic inscriptions first appeared in the 4th and 5th century, in Norway and Sweden, the earliest Danish runestones appeared in the 8th and 9th centuries, and there are about 50 runestones from the Migration Period in Scandinavia. Most runestones were erected during the period 950-1100 CE, and they were raised in Sweden. —The Ynglinga saga What may have increased the spread of runestones was an event in Denmark in the 960s, King Harald Bluetooth had just been baptised and in order to mark the arrival of a new order and a new age, he commanded the construction of a runestone.
The runestone has three sides of two are decorated with images. On one side, there is an animal that is the prototype of the animals that would be commonly engraved on runestones. Shortly after this stone had been made, something happened in Scandinavias runic tradition, scores of chieftains and powerful Norse clans consciously tried to imitate King Harald, and from Denmark a runestone wave spread northwards through Sweden. In most districts, the fad died out after a generation, but, in the central Swedish provinces of Uppland and Södermanland, there are about 3,000 runestones among the about 6,000 runic inscriptions in Scandinavia. The runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia, Denmark has 250 runestones, Sweden has as many as between 1,700 and 2,500 depending on definition. The Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1,196 inscriptions in stone, outside of Scandinavia, the Isle of Man stands out with its 30 runestones from the 9th century and early 11th century.
Scattered runestones have found in England, Scotland. Runestones were placed on selected spots in the landscape, such as locations, bridge constructions. In medieval churches, there are often runestones that have been inserted as construction material, in southern Scania, runestones can be tied to large estates that had churches constructed on their land. In the Mälaren Valley, the appear to be placed so that they mark essential parts of the domains of an estate, such as courtyard, grave field. Runestones usually appear as single monuments and more rarely as pairs, in some cases, they are part of larger monuments together with other raised stones. However, although scholars know where 95% of all runestones were discovered, the remainder have been found in churches, bridges, graves and water routes
They were written in the Old Norse language, mainly in Iceland. The tales are usually realistic, except legendary sagas, sagas of saints, sagas of bishops and they are sometimes romanticised and fantastic, but always dealing with human beings one can understand. The term saga originates from the Norse saga, and refers to what is said, statement or story, tale and it is cognate with the English word saw, and the German Sage. Icelandic sagas are based on traditions and much research has focused on what is real. The accuracy of the sagas is often hotly disputed, most of the manuscripts in which the sagas are preserved were taken to Denmark and Sweden in the 17th century, but returned to Iceland. Classic sagas were composed in the 13th century, scholars once believed that these sagas were transmitted orally from generation to generation until scribes wrote them down in the 13th century. However, most scholars now believe the sagas were conscious artistic creations, this clothing is not contemporary with the events of the saga as it is a closer match to the clothing worn in the 12th century.
There are plenty of tales of kings, everyday people and larger than life characters, the sagas describe a part of the history of some of the Nordic countries. The British Isles, northern France and North America are mentioned and it was only recently that the tales of the voyages to North America were authenticated. Most sagas of Icelanders take place in the period 930–1030, which is called söguöld in Icelandic history, the sagas of kings, contemporary sagas have their own time frame. Norse sagas are generally classified as, the Kings sagas, sagas of Icelanders, Short tales of Icelanders, Contemporary sagas, Legendary sagas, Chivalric sagas, Saints sagas, Kings sagas are of the lives of Scandinavian kings. They were composed in the 12th to 14th centuries, family Sagas, are stories of real events, passed in oral form till they eventually were recorded, mostly in the 13th century. These are the highest form of the classical Icelandic saga writing, some well-known examples include Njáls saga, Laxdæla saga and Grettis saga.
The material of the Short tales of Icelanders sagas is similar to Íslendinga sögur, the narratives of the Contemporary Sagas are set in 12th- and 13th-century Iceland, and were written soon after the events they describe. Most are preserved in the compilation Sturlunga saga, though some, Legendary Sagas blend remote history with myth or legend. The aim is on a narrative and entertainment. Scandinavias pagan past was a proud and heroic history for the Icelanders, Chivalric sagas are translations of Latin pseudo-historical works and French chansons de geste as well as native creations in the same style. While sagas are generally anonymous, a literary movement in the 14th century involves sagas, mostly on religious topics, with identifiable authors
Stockholm County Museum
Stockholm County Museum is a museum located in Sickla, covering the history of Stockholm County in central-eastern Sweden except central Stockholm. The museum is serving the inhabitants in the county, especially those living in districts without a local museum and it documents both pre-historical and historical structures in the county and promotes Stockholmers to visit historical locations by arranging cultural paths binding these sites together. To invite people to learn about the history of the county and it offers information on how to preserve old buildings and promotes the use of traditional materials when restoring historical structures. The museum attempts to put focus on the history of Stockholm. History of Stockholm Welcome to Stockholm County Museum, archived from the original on October 14,2007. Archived from the original on 2008-01-13, archived from the original on 2008-01-06
Svealand, Swealand or Sweden proper is the historical core region of Sweden. It is located in south central Sweden and is one of three lands of Sweden, bounded to the north by Norrland and to the south by Götaland, deep forests, Tylöskog, and Kolmården, separated Svealand from Götaland. Historically, its inhabitants were called Svear, from which is derived the English Swedes, Svealand consists of the capital region Mälardalen in the east, Roslagen in the north-east, the former mining district Bergslagen in the center, and Dalarna and Värmland in the west. The older name of Sweden in Swedish, Svea rike or the Realm of the Swedes, Swea Region, other forms are Sweoðeod, and Sweorice. As the domains of the Swedish kings grew, the name Svealand began to be used to separate the territory from the new. Since 1634, Sweden has been divided into counties instead of provinces, Svealand was the original Sweden, to which it gave its name. This is supported by linguistics and is based on medieval sources.
In Old Norse and in Old English and Sweden are synonymous, in Sögubrot af Nokkrum for instance, Kolmården between Svealand and Östergötland is described as the border between Sweden and Östergötland. In Hervarar saga, king Ingold I rides to Sweden through Östergötland, hann reið austr um Smáland ok í eystra Gautland ok svá í Svíþjóð. Sweoland is mentioned in the travels of Ohthere of Hålogaland around 890, the lord Bo Jonsson Grip was probably the one who was best acquainted with the geography of the Swedish kingdom since he owned more than half of it. In 1384, he stated in his will that the kingdom consisted of Swerige, the 15th-century Swedish version of the Þiðrekssaga says that Vilkinaland was formerly a name for Sweden and Götaland, wilcina land som nw är kalladh swerige oc götaland. A campaign to the east started by the kings of Svealand during the 12th century eventually conquered the provinces of Österland, an older name for Finland. In the early Middle Ages the modern province of Gästrikland was part of Tiundaland, for a time in the early 19th century, the province of Värmland belonged to the Court of Appeal for Svealand.
Even though Värmland historically belonged to Götaland, it has by custom long been considered part of Svealand, Norrland Götaland Österland Rike Media related to Svealand at Wikimedia Commons
Broby bro Runestones
At Broby bro in Uppland, Sweden there are six runestones. U139, U140 and U151 still stand by the road, the last three stones are in the style Pr2 and thus dated to the period 1020-1050, but the internal relationship between them shows that U137 is the oldest one. They belong to a group of c.20 runestones called the Jarlabanke Runestones that are connected to the local strongman Jarlabanke and his clan. Together with the Hargs bro runic inscriptions and the Uppland Rune Inscriptions 101,143 and 147 these particular runestones, however, U137 tells that Estrid and Östen have a son named Gag who dies, and when it was raised Östen was still alive. The other stones constitute a twin monument telling that Östen has gone to Jerusalem, Estrid and Östen had three sons, Ingefast, Östen and Sven, who built a bridge and a barrow after their father. These twin stones show that Gag died as young as he is not mentioned on them. Estrid is the person as the Estrid who is mentioned on a number of runestones in Täby.
This Estrid was the ancestor of a great clan called the Jarlabanke clan. The carver of the Snottsta runestone called U329, where an Estrid and this strongly suggests that Estrid was born in Snottsta, married Östen of Täby and married for the second time in Harg near Snottsta. English translation and Eysteinn and Sveinn had these stones raised in memory of Eysteinn, their father, and made this bridge, English translation, Ástríðr had these stones raised in memory of Eysteinn, her husbandman, who attacked Jerusalem and met his end up in Greece. Latin transliteration, * aystin * auk * astriþr * raistu * stina * aftir * kak * sun * sin * Old Norse transcription, Øystæinn ok Æstriðr ræistu stæina æftiʀ Kag/Gag, English translation, Eysteinn and Ástríðr raised the stones in memory of Kagr/Gagr, their son. Latin transliteration. sti ru. * hia. hans Old Norse transcription, sti ru. hial. hans English translation. English translation, Þorbjôrn and Ingiþóra had this stone raised in memory of Ígull, their father, rundata Inga och Estrid - en såpa för tusen år sedan, Människor, händelser och platser i Ingas och Estrids liv.
A page at the Museum of Stockholm County
A runemaster or runecarver is a term for a specialist in making runestones. More than 100 names of runemasters are known from Viking Age Sweden with most of them from 11th century eastern Svealand, many anonymous runestones have more or less securely been attributed to these runemasters. During the 11th century, when most runestones were raised, there were a few professional runemasters and they and their apprentices were contracted to make runestones and when the work was finished, they sometimes signed the stone with the name of the runemaster. Many of the runic inscriptions have likely been completed by non-professional runecarvers for the practical purposes of burial rites or record-keeping. Due to the depictions of life, many of the nonprofessional runecarvers could have been anything from pirates to soldiers, merchants. The layout of Scandinavian towns provided centers where craftspeople could congregate, after the spread of Christianity in these regions, and the increase in runic literacy that followed, runes were used for record-keeping and found on things like weapons and coins.
Most early medieval Scandinavians were probably literate in runes, and most people probably carved messages on pieces of bone, however, it was difficult to make runestones, and in order to master it one needed to be a stonemason. A number of historians have theorized that there may be a connection between the word erulaR, in the priesthood and the old Norse title jarl. This suggests that it is possible that those who were versed in runic arts formed their own secular upper class of learned runemasters. This claim is corroborated by the distribution of runestones throughout Eastern Norway. This continued with the prominence of runestones that accompanied the rise of Christianity. Many of the runic inscriptions carved during this time were done so for the pleasure of God, runes were often erected by long-distance explorers seeking to document their visits or memorialize their fallen comrades. Runecarvers on commission or on their own carved memorials and gravestones more than anything else, in addition, memorial runes could provide additional details about an individuals death with more accuracy than oral tradition.
Additionally, based on the texts recovered, it appears that the families who raised runestones often had as many as six sons. This is most likely due to the practice of female infanticide, notable runemasters of the 11th to early 12th centuries include, Åsmund Kåresson Balle Fot Frögärd i Ösby Gunnborga Halvdan Öpir Torgöt Fotsarve Ulf of Borresta Visäte