Ingegerd of Norway
Ingegerd Haraldsdotter was a Norwegian princess who, by her successive marriages, became Queen of Denmark and Queen of Sweden. Her husbands were Olaf I of Philip of Sweden. Ingegerd Haraldsdotter was the daughter of King Harald Hardrada of Norway and Elisiv of Kiev and thereby the great-granddaughter of King Olof Skötkonung of Sweden and the granddaughter of Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev, she was first married to Olaf I of Denmark, in 1067, in a marriage arranged as a part of the peace treaty between Denmark and Norway. Ingegerd became queen of Denmark when Olof became king in 1086, they had Ulvhild. After his death in 1095, the queen dowager traveled to Sweden, where she married King Inge the Elder's nephew Philip in 1095 or 1096, he became king in 1105. There is no known issue from the second marriage, she was widowed in 1118. The years of her birth and death are not confirmed, but she is known to have survived her second spouse. Lars O. Lagerqvist. Sverige och dess regenter under 1.000 år.
Albert Bonniers Förlag AB. ISBN 91-0-075007-7
Richeza of Denmark
Richeza of Denmark was a medieval Queen consort of Sweden, spouse of King Eric X and mother of King Eric XI. Richeza was a daughter of Valdemar I of Sophia of Minsk, she received her first name a Lotharingian-Burgundian female name, in honor of her maternal grandmother, the late Richeza of Poland. In c. 1210 the new king Eric X of Sweden, who had deposed his predecessor Sverker II, desired to build cordial and peaceful relations with Denmark, which had traditionally supported the House of Sverker, against the Norwegian-supported dynasty of Eric. That was why Richeza, sister of the reigning Valdemar II of Denmark, was married to Eric; when she arrived at the Swedish coast, according to a folk song, she expressed her surprise that she was expected to ride and not travel by carriage, as she had been used to in her birth country, the Swedish noblewomen and ladies-in-waiting had encouraged her to adapt the customs of her new home country instead of trying to establish her own "Jutian" customs. Queen Richeza bore daughters as long as her spouse was alive.
King Eric died in 1216. Dowager Queen Richeza was pregnant at the time and gave birth to her only surviving son, the future Eric XI of Sweden, after the death of her spouse; the family of King Eric X, was driven to exile from Sweden as the House of Sverker heir, John I of Sweden, was elected king there, to succeed Richeza's husband. It was in Denmark that Richeza herself died, without seeing her son's accession to the throne, nor her daughters' marriages, she was buried in Ringsted. While nothing is concretely known about her person, the occurrence of the name Rikissa among her descendants may indicate that she was well-liked. Sophia Eriksdotter, married Henry III of Rostock Martha Eriksdotter married the Marshal Nils Sixtensson Ingeborg Eriksdotter, married to Birger Jarl, regent of Sweden Marianna Eriksdotter, who married a duke of Pomerania Eric XI of Sweden Åke Ohlmarks: Alla Sveriges drottningar. Stockholm: Gebers, 1973
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history. Narratives in this genre may demonstrate human values, possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of "possibility," but may include miracles. Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep them fresh and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being believed by the participants, but never being resolutely doubted; the Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale grounded. A modern folklorist's professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R. Tangherlini in 1990: Legend is a short episodic, traditional ecotypified historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode, reflecting on a psychological level a symbolic representation of folk belief and collective experiences and serving as a reaffirmation of held values of the group to whose tradition it belongs.
Legend is a loanword from Old French that entered English usage circa 1340. The Old French noun legende derives from the Medieval Latin legenda. In its early English-language usage, the word indicated a narrative of an event; the word legendary was a noun meaning a collection or corpus of legends. This word changed to legendry, legendary became the adjectival form. By 1613, English-speaking Protestants began to use the word when they wished to imply that an event was fictitious. Thus, legend gained its modern connotations of "undocumented" and "spurious", which distinguish it from the meaning of chronicle. In 1866, Jacob Grimm described the fairy tale as "poetic, legend historic." Early scholars such as Karl Wehrhan Friedrich Ranke and Will Erich Peuckert followed Grimm's example in focussing on the literary narrative, an approach, enriched after the 1960s, by addressing questions of performance and the anthropological and psychological insights provided in considering legends' social context.
Questions of categorising legends, in hopes of compiling a content-based series of categories on the line of the Aarne–Thompson folktale index, provoked a search for a broader new synthesis. In an early attempt at defining some basic questions operative in examining folk tales, Friedrich Ranke in 1925 characterised the folk legend as "a popular narrative with an objectively untrue imaginary content" a dismissive position, subsequently abandoned. Compared to the structured folktale, legend is comparatively amorphous, Helmut de Boor noted in 1928; the narrative content of legend is in realistic mode, rather than the wry irony of folktale. In Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft, Ernst Bernheim asserted that a legend is a longstanding rumour. Gordon Allport credited the staying-power of some rumours to the persistent cultural state-of-mind that they embody and capsulise; when Willian Jansen suggested that legends that disappear were "short-term legends" and the persistent ones be termed "long-term legends", the distinction between legend and rumour was obliterated, Tangherlini concluded.
In the narrow Christian sense, legenda were hagiographical accounts collected in a legendary. Because saints' lives are included in many miracle stories, legend, in a wider sense, came to refer to any story, set in a historical context but that contains supernatural, divine or fantastic elements. Hippolyte Delehaye distinguished legend from myth: "The legend, on the other hand, has, of necessity, some historical or topographical connection, it refers imaginary events to some real personage, or it localizes romantic stories in some definite spot."From the moment a legend is retold as fiction, its authentic legendary qualities begin to fade and recede: in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Washington Irving transformed a local Hudson River Valley legend into a literary anecdote with "Gothic" overtones, which tended to diminish its character as genuine legend. Stories that exceed the boundaries of "realism" are called "fables". For example, the talking animal formula of Aesop identifies his brief stories as fables, not legends.
The parable of the Prodigal Son would be a legend if it were told as having happened to a specific son of a historical father. If it included a donkey that gave sage advice to the Prodigal Son it would be a fable. Legend may be transmitted orally, passed on person-to-person, or, in the original sense, through written text. Jacob de Voragine's Legenda Aurea or "The Golden Legend" comprises a series of vitae or instructive biographical narratives, tied to the liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, they are presented as lives of the saints, but the profusion of miraculous happenings and above all their uncritical context are characteristics of hagiography. The Legenda was intended to inspire extemporized homilies and sermons appropriate to the saint of the day; the vanishing hitchhiker is the best-known urban legend in America, traceable as far back as 1870, but it is found around the world including in Korea and Russia. In the legend, a young girl in a white dress picked up alongside of the road by a passerby.
The unknown girl in white remains silent for the duration of her ride, thanks the driver, gets
Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden
Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden known as Irene and Saint Anna, was a Swedish princess and a Grand Princess of Kiev. She was the daughter of Swedish King Olof Skötkonung and Estrid of the Obotrites and the consort of Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev. Ingegerd or Saint Anna is confused with the mother of Saint Vladimir “the Enlightener” of the Rus; this is because Ingegerd and Yaroslav had a son named Vladimir. However, Saint Vladimir was the father of Ingegerd’s husband Yaroslav I “the Wise”, thus making her Saint Vladimir’s daughter-in-law. Saint Vladimir was the son of Malusha. Ingegerd was born a princess in the court of King Olof Skötkonung. In 1015, after Olaf II of Norway assumed the throne as King of Norway, he proposed a royal marriage alliance. In 1016, noblemen of both countries tried to arrange a marriage between King Olaf and Princess Ingegerd. Olof Skötkonung agreed at first but he reneged. Rather he agreed to the marriage of Astrid Olavsdatter to King Olaf. Olof Skötkonung subsequently arranged for the marriage of Princess Ingegerd to the powerful Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Novgorod with whom Sweden had a flourishing trade relationship.
The marriage took place in 1019. Once in Kiev, Ingegerd had her name changed to the Greek Irene. According to several sagas, she received as a marriage gift Ladoga and adjacent lands, which became known as Ingria, arguably a corruption of Ingegerd's name, she arranged for jarl Ragnvald Ulfsson, to rule in her stead. Together Ingegerd and Yaroslav had four daughters; the whole family is depicted in one of the frescoes of the Saint Sophia. Ingegerd died on 10 February 1050. Upon her death, according to different sources, Ingegerd was buried in either Saint Sophia's Cathedral in Kiev or Cathedral of St. Sophia in Novgorod. Ingegerd initiated the building of the Saint Sophia's Cathedral in Kiev, she initiated the construction of Cathedral of St. Sophia in Novgorod. Ingegerd was declared a saint under the name of St. Anna in Novgorod and Kiev; the reason for her sainthood was that she initiated the building of both cathedrals in Kiev and in Novgorod together with many other good deeds. The following was stated by the church in reference to her sainthood: St. Anna, Grand Duchess of Novgorod, She was the daughter of Swedish King Olaf Sketktung, the "All-Christian King," who did much to spread Orthodoxy in Scandinavia, the pious Queen Astrida.
In Sweden she was known as Princess Indegard. She gave shelter to the outcast sons of British King Edmund and Edward, as well as the Norwegian prince Magnus, who returned to Norway, she is best known as the mother of Vsevolod of, himself the father of Vladimir Monomakh and progenitor of the Princes of Moscow. Her daughters were Anna, Queen of France, Queen Anastasia of Hungary, Queen Elizabeth of Norway; the whole family was profoundly pious. She reposed in 1050 in the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Kiev, having been tonsured a monastic with the name of Anna; as saint, her hymn goes: And 4 stichera, in Tone I: Spec. Mel.: Joy of the ranks of heaven O joy of the Swedish people, thou didst gladden the Russian realm, filling it with grace and purity, adorning its throne with majesty, lustrous in piety like a priceless gem set in a splendid royal crown. Named Ingegerd in the baptismal waters, O venerable one, thou wast called Irene by thy Russian subjects, who perceived in thee the divine and ineffable peace.
Wed in honourable matrimony, O holy Anna, thou didst live in concord with thy royal spouse, the right-believing and most wise Prince Yaroslav. Disdaining all the allurements of vanity and donning the coarse robes of a monastic, O wondrous and sacred Anna, thou gavest thyself over to fasting and prayer entreating Christ thy Master, that He deliver thy people from the all want and misfortune. Feast days: 10 February, 4 October. Ingegerd had the following children Elisiv of Kiev, queen of Norway Anastasia of Kiev, queen of Hungary Anne of Kiev, queen of France Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile Vladimir of Novgorod Iziaslav I of Kiev Sviatoslav II of Kiev Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev Igor Yaroslavich Lars O. Lagerqvist. "Sverige och dess regenter under 1.000 år". Albert Bonniers Förlag AB. ISBN 91-0-075007-7. "Rus - Rulers". Xenophon-mil.org. Retrieved 2017-03-15. "Ingegerd Olofsdotter". Historiska-personer.nu. Retrieved 2017-03-15. "Commemoration of Our Venerable Mother Anna, Wonderworker of Novgorod". Orthodoxengland.org.uk.
Retrieved 2017-03-15. "St. Anna of Novgorod | Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese". Antiochian.org. Retrieved 2017-03-15. "The Shepherd 11, October 2005". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. 2017-01-19. Archived from the original on 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2017-03-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Anund Jacob or James, Swedish: Anund Jakob was King of Sweden from 1022 until around 1050. He is believed to have been born on July 25, in either 1008 or 1010 as Jakob, the son of King Olof Skötkonung and Queen Estrid. Being the second Christian king of the Swedish realm, his long and turbulent reign saw the increasing dissemination of Christianity, he is referred to in positive terms in Norse historical sources. The main sources for Anund Jacob's reign are the near-contemporary ecclesiastic chronicle of Adam of Bremen and several Norse histories from the 12th and 13h centuries, in particular Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla. Adam and Snorri both relate that Anund Jacob's father Olof Skötkonung ran into trouble with his subjects towards the end of his reign. According to Adam, the still pagan population of Svealand urged the fervently Christian ruler to withdraw to Västergötland. Snorri, on the other hand, asserts that King Olof's high-handed rule caused the Swedes to rise against him, whereby his young son Jacob was hailed as king.
When the Swedish Thing was to elect him the ruler of Sweden, the people objected to his non-Scandinavian name. They gave him the name of Anund. Olof and Anund Jacob came to an agreement: Olof was to retain his royal title for the rest of his life, but Anund Jacob would be co-ruler and govern part of the realm, had to support the peasantry if Olof caused further trouble. In Snorri's chronology this happened in c. 1019. Three years Olof died, leaving Anund Jacob as the sole ruler. Indigenous Swedish historiography has preserved meager recollections of the pre-1250 rulers, but points out Anund Jacob as a heavy-handed master; the enumeration of kings appended to the Westrogothic law says that he had the epithet of Kolbränna as he had the habit of burning down the houses of his opponents. This may refer to the practice known from medieval Sweden of burning the houses of people who opposed the authorities. A different opinion of his character is given by Adam of Bremen: "Certainly he was young of years, but he surpassed all his predecessors in wisdom and piety.
No king was as beloved by the Swedish people as Anund". The Norse sagas emphasize his helpful attitude to his royal Norwegian kinsmen. Anund Jacob continued the minting of coins in Sigtuna in Central Sweden. Snorri mentions Central Sweden, Västergötland and Småland among the regions ruled by Anund Jacob, but his ideas of Sweden might be influenced by conditions in the High Middle Ages. A poem from the 1040s, describing a Norwegian battle against Danes and Swedish auxiliaries, suggests that at least some Geats stood under Anund Jacob: "Geatic shield and hauberk / did I bring home from the battle". According to Adam of Bremen, Christianity reached rather in the reign of Anund Jacob, with missionary work led by Bishop Thurgot of Skara in Västergötland until 1030 when he was nominally succeeded by Gottskalk. Both were appointed by the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Gottskalk, was a passive church magnate who preferred to stay home in Germany. An English missionary, filled the void to an extent. From a Norwegian base, he visited Sweden, Götaland "and all the islands beyond the northern land".
King Anund Jacob's political agenda included maintaining the balance of power in Scandinavia, why he supported the Norwegian kings Olaf II and Magnus I against Denmark's and England's king Cnut the Great during the 1020s and 1030s. According to Snorri, Cnut tried to neutralize Anund Jacob, when a dispute flared up with Olaf around 1025, by sending him rich presents and offers of friendship. However, the envoys noted Anund Jacob's strong affinity to Olaf, married to his sister Astrid. In fact Anund Jacob traveled with a large entourage to Kungahälla where he met Olaf for a friendly parley; some time when Cnut was away tending his English kingdom, Olaf attacked and ravaged Sjaelland, while Anund Jacob came down with a fleet from Svealand to attack Scania. The allies combined their forces and awaited Cnut, who returned from England with a superior fleet in 1026. While the late Norse accounts are unreliable, some details of the war are mentioned in contemporary scaldic verses and confirm Anund Jacob's intervention.
According to Snorri's account of the Battle of Helgeå, the Swedish and Norwegian fleets arrived to the estuary of Helge å on the east coast of Scania. There they prepared a trap by building a levee of turf close to the estuary; when Cnut's fleet approached, the levee was torn down and the rushing water and floating logs created disorder in the Danish fleet. However, many Danish ships were soon ready to confront Norwegians. In the face of the superior enemy, Anund Jacob and Olaf withdrew. Olaf sneaked back to Norway with his entourage via Småland and Västergötland; the actual circumstances of the Battle of Helgeå are debated among historians due to conflicting sources. The near-contemporary Anglo-Saxon Chronicle asserts, under the year 1025: "This year King Cnut went to Denmark with a fleet to the holm by the holy river. There were many men lost on the side of King Cnut, both of Danish and English; the identity of Ulf and Eilaf is not known - they are identical with two brothers by that name who were sons of the Swedish or Geatish magnate Ragnvald Ulfsson.
They could be the Anglo-Danish Ulf Jarl and his brother Eilaf, since
Hedwig of Holstein
Hedwig of Holstein or Helvig was a Swedish queen consort, spouse of King Magnus III of Sweden. She was Count of Holstein-Itzehoe and Elisabeth of Mecklenburg. Hedwig was married to Magnus Ladulås in 1276, was granted the fief of Dåvö in Munktorp in Västmanland. Magnus succeeded in preventing a Danish-Holstein alliance by marrying her. However, he had obtained a dispensation for their marriage only after the wedding, her father was captured during the Folkunge party revolt by rebellious noblemen in Skara in 1278 and the queen was targeted. The actions of the rebels were well timed, she sought refuge in the convent in the city. Hedwig was crowned Queen of Sweden in the city of Söderköping on 29 June 1281, it included the prayers for her fertility, the matter of great importance. She convents; as a queen, she is not much heard of, despite the fact that she held the position for fourteen years, she lived a discreet life, both as a queen and as a dowager queen. She took a prominent part in processions which accompanied the inauguration of bishops, celebrations of a feast day and the installation of relics, such as the Mass for Saint Erik in 1277.
After the death of her spouse in 1290, Hedwig acted as one of the executors of the will of the King. In 1291, she withdrew to her estate Dåvö in Västmanland, she is not known to have taken any political role, formal or informal, during or after the reign of her spouse. She was described as a noble and peace-loving mother figure, tormented by the conflicts between her sons, she acted as a foster mother for her son's future bride, Martha of Denmark, who spent a lot of her childhood in Sweden as the future Queen of Sweden after 1290. In 1302, she was present at the coronation of her son; as dowager queen, she governed Fjärdhundraland, given to her as dower. Queen Hedwig is buried with her husband and her daughter Richeza. Hedwig's wedding took place at Kalmar castle the 11 November 1276 with king Magnus III Ladulås of Sweden, they had the following children: Ingeborg Magnusdotter of Sweden, born abt. 1279. Married King Eric VI of Denmark, Erik Menved. Birger Magnusson, born abt. 1280, king of Sweden. Eric Magnusson, Duke of Södermanland in 1302 and Halland etc.
C 1305, born abt. 1282. Died of starvation 1318 at Nyköpingshus Castle while imprisoned by his brother, King Birger. Valdemar Magnusson, Duke of Finland in 1302 and Öland 1310. Died of starvation 1318 at Nyköpingshus castle while imprisoned by his brother King Birger. Richeza Magnusdotter of Sweden, abbess of the convent of St. Clara at Stockholm. Died after 1347. Dick Harrison: Jarlens Sekel, Ordfront Förlag, 2002 Nordisk Familjebok, band 11, sida 373, Stockholm 1909 Åke Ohlmarks: Alla Sveriges drottningar Svenska Familje-Journalen, band XI, årgång 1872, s. 194
Inge the Elder
Inge the Elder was a King of Sweden. In English literature he has been called Ingold. While the sources do not allow us to paint a full picture of his term of kingship, he is known to have led a turbulent but at length successful reign of more than two decades, he stands out as a devout Christian who founded the first abbey in Sweden and acted harshly against pagan practices. The kingdom was still an unstable realm based on alliances of noblemen, Inge's main power base was in Västergötland and Östergötland. Inge was the son of a Swedish princess. Inge shared the rule of the kingdom with his elder brother Halsten Stenkilsson, but little is known with certainty of Inge's reign. According to the contemporary chronicler Adam of Bremen and the writer of his scholion, the former king Stenkil had died and two kings named Eric had ruled and been killed. An Anund Gårdske was summoned from Kievan Rus', but rejected due to his refusal to administer the blóts at the Temple at Uppsala. A hypothesis suggests that Anund and Inge were the same person, as several sources mention Inge as a fervent Christian.
All that can be said is that a Håkan the Red ruled in c. 1075 and that Inge was enthroned under unknown circumstances shortly before 1080. In a letter to Inge from Pope Gregory VII, from 1080, he is called "king of the Swedes", but in a letter dated to 1081, to Inge and another king "A", they are called kings of the West Geats. Whether this difference reflects a change in territory is not certain since the two letters concern the spreading of Christianity in Sweden and the paying of tithe to the Pope. In the early 1080s, Inge was forced to abdicate by the Swedes over his disrespect for old traditions and his refusal to administer the pagan custom of the blót. King Blot-Sweyn was thus elected king; the Hervarar saga describes the rise of Sweyn, the abdication and how Inge was exiled in Västergötland: Steinkel had a son called Ingi, who became King of Sweden after Haakon. Ingi was King of Sweden for a long time, was popular and a good Christian, he tried to put an end to heathen sacrifices in Sweden and commanded all the people to accept Christianity.
King Ingi married. King Ingi liked Svein better than any other man, Svein became thereby the greatest man in Sweden; the Swedes considered that King Ingi was violating the ancient law of the land when he took exception to many things which Steinkel his father had permitted, at an assembly held between the Swedes and King Ingi, they offered him two alternatives, either to follow the old order, or else to abdicate. King Ingi spoke up and said that he would not abandon the true faith, they drove King Ingi away. Svein the Sacrificer was King of Sweden for three years. However, Inge returned after three winters to kill Blot-Sweyn and reclaim the throne: King Ingi set off with his retinue and some of his followers, though it was but as small force, he rode eastwards by Småland and into Östergötland and into Sweden. He rode both day and night, came upon Svein in the early morning, they set it on fire and burned the band of men who were within. There was a baron called Thjof, burnt inside, he had been in the retinue of Svein the Sacrificer.
Svein himself was slain immediately. Thus Ingi once more received the Kingdom of Sweden. A similar story appears in the Orkneyinga saga, but in this account, Sweyn stays indoors and is burnt to death: Christianity was young in Sweden. King Ingi was a thorough Christian man, all wizards were loathsome to him, he took great pains to root out those evil ways which had long gone hand in hand with heathendom, but the rulers of the land and the great freeholders took it ill that their bad customs were found fault with. So it came about that the freemen chose them another king, the queen’s brother, who still held to his sacrifices to idols, was called Sacrifice-Sweyn. Before him king Ingi was forced to fly the land into West-Gothland. After that he took all the land under him, he still went on rooting out many bad ways. In Västergötland, Inge lived, according to tradition, at Bjurum near present-day Falköping. An Icelandic skald named. Markús was the lawspeaker of Iceland from 1084, it has been suggested that the details about Inge and Blot-Sweyn in the Norse literature are derived from him.
In that case Blot-Sweyn's short reign would fall in the early years of the 1080s. According to the Westrogothic law, Inge ruled Sweden with virility and he never broke the laws, accepted in the districts. Around 1100, Inge and Queen Helena founded Vreta Abbey near present-day Linköping in Östergötland; the abbey is one of the oldest in Scandinavia. The abbey belonged to the Benedictine order and was founded on the orders of Pope Paschal II; as a step in the