Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone. It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. There are three major endogenous estrogens in females that have estrogenic hormonal activity: estrone and estriol; the estrane steroid estradiol is the most prevalent of these. Estrogens are synthesized in all vertebrates as well as some insects, their presence in both vertebrates and insects suggests that estrogenic sex hormones have an ancient evolutionary history. The three major occurring forms of estrogen in women are estrone and estriol. Another type of estrogen called. Quantitatively, estrogens circulate at lower levels than androgens in both women. While estrogen levels are lower in males compared to females, estrogens also have important physiological roles in males. Like all steroid hormones, estrogens diffuse across the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors which in turn modulate the expression of many genes.
Additionally, estrogens bind to and activate rapid-signaling membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER. In addition to their role as natural hormones, estrogens are used as medications, for instance in menopausal hormone therapy and hormonal birth control; the four major occurring estrogens in women are estrone, estradiol and estetrol. Estradiol is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. During menopause, estrone is the predominant circulating estrogen and during pregnancy estriol is the predominant circulating estrogen in terms of serum levels. Given by subcutaneous injection in mice, estradiol is about 10-fold more potent than estrone and about 100-fold more potent than estriol. Thus, estradiol is the most important estrogen in non-pregnant females who are between the menarche and menopause stages of life. However, during pregnancy this role shifts to estriol, in postmenopausal women estrone becomes the primary form of estrogen in the body.
Another type of estrogen called. All of the different forms of estrogen are synthesized from androgens testosterone and androstenedione, by the enzyme aromatase. Minor endogenous estrogens, the biosyntheses of which do not involve aromatase, include 27-hydroxycholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone, 7-oxo-DHEA, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7β-hydroxyepiandrosterone, androstenediol, 3α-androstanediol, 3β-androstanediol; some estrogen metabolites, such as the catechol estrogens 2-hydroxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestrone, 4-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestrone, as well as 16α-hydroxyestrone, are estrogens with varying degrees of activity. The biological importance of these minor estrogens is not clear; the actions of estrogen are mediated by the estrogen receptor, a dimeric nuclear protein that binds to DNA and controls gene expression. Like other steroid hormones, estrogen enters passively into the cell where it binds to and activates the estrogen receptor; the estrogen:ER complex binds to specific DNA sequences called a hormone response element to activate the transcription of target genes.
Since estrogen enters all cells, its actions are dependent on the presence of the ER in the cell. The ER is expressed in specific tissues including the ovary and breast; the metabolic effects of estrogen in postmenopausal women has been linked to the genetic polymorphism of the ER. While estrogens are present in both men and women, they are present at higher levels in women of reproductive age, they promote the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, are involved in the thickening of the endometrium and other aspects of regulating the menstrual cycle. In males, estrogen regulates certain functions of the reproductive system important to the maturation of sperm and may be necessary for a healthy libido. Structural Mediate formation of female secondary sex characteristics Accelerate metabolism Increase fat store Stimulate endometrial growth Increase uterine growth Increase vaginal lubrication Thicken the vaginal wall Maintenance of vessel and skin Reduce bone resorption, increase bone formation Protein synthesis Increase hepatic production of binding proteins Coagulation Increase circulating level of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, plasminogen Decrease antithrombin III Increase platelet adhesiveness Increase vWF Increase PAI-1 and PAI-2 through Angiotensin II Lipid Increase HDL, triglyceride Decrease LDL, fat deposition Fluid balance Salt and water retention Increase cortisol, SHBG Gastrointestinal tract Reduce bowel motility Increase cholesterol in bile Melanin Increase pheomelanin, reduce eumelanin Cancer Support hormone-sensitive breast cancers Lung function Promotes lung function by supporting alveoli.
Uterus lining Estrogen together with progesterone promotes and maintains the uterus lining in preparation for implantation of fertilized egg and maintenance of uterus function during gestation period upregulates oxytocin receptor in myometrium Ovulation Surge in estrogen level induces the release of luteinizing hormone, which triggers ovulation by releasing the egg from the Graafian follicle in the ovary. Sexual behavior Promotes sexual receptivity in estrus, induces lordosis behavior. In non-human mammals, it induces
Randy Phillips is a retired U. S. soccer goalkeeper who spent two seasons in the North American Soccer League, one in the American Soccer League and two in the United Soccer League. He was a two-time first team All American goalkeeper at Southern Methodist University. Phillips grew up in Dallas and attended Southern Methodist University where he played on the men's soccer team from 1977 to 1980, he was a three-time All American, being selected to the second team in 1978 and the first team in 1979 and 1980. In 1980, Phillips signed with the Minnesota Kicks of the North American Soccer League, he played in ten games, but the Kicks folded at the end of the season and on December 8, 1981, the Tulsa Roughnecks acquired Phillips in the Dispersal Draft. He was a backup player for Tulsa during the 1982 season. In 1983, he moved to the Dallas Americans in the American Soccer League; the ASL collapsed at the end of the season and the American players moved to the newly established United Soccer League. Phillips was the Americans' starting goalkeeper for the 1985 USL seasons.
The USL collapsed after only half the season was played. Phillips does not appear to have played professionally after that. NASL Stats
Krupanj is a town and municipality located in the Mačva District of western Serbia. The municipality has a total population of 17,295 inhabitants, while the town has a population of 4,429 inhabitants; the town lies at the southern border of the Pannonian plain and Mačva region. It is surrounded by the mountains Jagodnja and Sokolska planina, in a valley intersected by several rivers and creeks. In the town itself, the rivers Bogoštica, Čađavica and Kržava conjoin into Likodra, which empties into Jadar; the town lies at the altitude of 280 m. The municipality area covers around 242 km2, it encompasses 23 villages, it is the center of the region Rađevina, named after Rađ, a knight of Prince Lazar, who defended it from Hungarian and Ottoman conquerors, and, buried at the monument of Rađev Kamen. Aside from the town of Krupanj, the municipality includes the following settlements: The name'Krupanj' was first recorded in Ragusan records on 27 July 1417. In the Middle Ages, it was a silver mining site, frequented by Ragusan merchant caravans.
Lead ore with the high content of silver was excavated and transported across the Drina river, where it was melted in Srebrenica, a major silver processing center in the Balkans. This process gave name to the both settlements: larger lumps of ore were called "krupa" while the Serbian word for silver is "srebro". According to the Ragusian papers, in the first half of the 15th century Krupanj had a court and both the Catholic and Orthodox church; the settlement was quite developed when in 1459 fell under Ottoman rule with the rest of the Serbian Despotate. In the first wave of conquest, the Ottomans razed down the entire town, rebuilt from scratch. Medieval remnants include numerous stećci with lots of bas-reliefs which points out to the Branković dynasty; the Church of Dobri Potok at the town outskirts, devoted to the Holy Ascension of God-bearer Mary, was first recorded in 1528 in Turkish records, making it the oldest preserved church in the Podrinje area. Built in a traditional style, it hosts a number of records and monuments from Ottoman Rule and the'Serbian Liberation wars' period.
It is surrounded by a small ethno-park with several chapels and museum rooms. The town was first liberated in the First Serbian Uprising in 1804 by the hajduks company of Đorđe Obradović "Ćurčija". Vojvoda Maksim Krstić and count Krsto Ignjatović were leaders of the defense of Krupanj during the uprising; the first basic school in the town was opened in 1837, the church of Holy Ascension was built in 1842. The Ottomans withdrew in 1862, the nearby fortress called "Soko Grad" was torn down, to be turned into the monastery of St. Nicholas. At the end of the 19th century, a lead-antimony smeltery was founded in the city. During World War I, a battle between Austria-Hungary and Serbian forces was fought at the nearby site of Mačkov kamen, the peak of Jagodnja mountain. A charnel house or memorial church is built in memory of the event 1930 when the bones of both Serbian soldier and Austrian aggressors were buried in the same ossuary. During World War II, in the village of Bela Crkva, partisan Žikica Jovanović Španac killed two gendarmes on 7 July 1941, which would become the official date of celebration of the people's uprising against occupiers in Serbia during communist rule.
On 26 September 1941, a meeting of partisans' main headquarters, presided by Josip Broz Tito, was held in the nearby village of Stolice. A monument and memorial park were built after the war; as the town was one of the centers of the Republic of Užice, it was burned to the ground by German occupiers in late 1941, with only a few buildings surviving. Krupanj was affected by significant flooding in May 2014. Many houses, roads and a bridge were destroyed. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has a population of 17,295 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Krupanj is an underdeveloped municipality, but its clean and natural environment, its historical monuments offers touristic potential. There are two hotels in the town center; the Church of Good Creek is a preserved building of traditional sacral architecture. Several historical monuments from the World Wars include the ones at Stolice, Mačkov kamen and Cer mountain.
The monastery of Tronoša and the ethno-park in nearby Tršić preserve the memory of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, a 19th-century reformer of the Serbian language. At the site of Mačkov kamen there is a small ski resort; the area has some hiking and biking, the creeks are rich in fish trout. Several sporting grounds offer support for sports tourism, used by sport clubs from Serbia and nearby countries. Mačva District Podrinje Church of Holy Ascension, Krupanj Official website Krupanj Online
The Australian boobook is a species of owl native to mainland Australia, southern New Guinea, the island of Timor, the Sunda Islands. Described by John Latham in 1801, it was considered to be the same species as the morepork of New Zealand until 1999, its name is derived from its two-tone boo-book call. Eight subspecies of the Australian boobook are recognized, with three further subspecies being reclassified as separate species in 2019 due to their distinctive calls and genetics; the smallest owl on the Australian mainland, the Australian boobook is 27 to 36 cm long, with predominantly dark-brown plumage with prominent pale spots. It has yellow-green eyes, it is nocturnal, though is sometimes active at dawn and dusk, retiring to roost in secluded spots in the foliage of trees. The Australian boobook feeds on insects and small vertebrates, hunting by pouncing on them from tree perches. Breeding takes place from late winter to early summer; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed the Australian boobook as being of least concern on account of its large range and stable population.
English ornithologist John Latham described the boobook owl as Strix boobook in 1801, writing about it in English, before giving it its scientific name, taking its species epithet from a local Dharug word for the bird. The species description was based on a painting by Thomas Watling of a bird—the holotype—in the Sydney district in the 1790s. John Gould described Athene marmorata in 1846 from a specimen in South Australia. German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup classified the two taxa into subgenus Spiloglaux of a new genus Ieraglaux in 1852, renaming S. boobook to Ieraglaux bubuk. In his 1865 Handbook to the Birds of Australia, Gould recognised three species, all of which he placed in the genus Spiloglaux: S. marmoratus from South Australia, S. boobook, widespread across the Australian mainland and Tasmania, S. maculatus from southeastern Australia and Tasmania. Meanwhile, in India, English naturalist Brian Houghton Hodgson had established the genus Ninox in 1837, his countryman Edward Blyth placed the Australian boobook in the new genus in 1849."Australian boobook" has been designated the official name by the International Ornithological Committee, changed from "southern boobook in 2019 with the separation of some Indonesian subspecies.
The common name comes from the two-tone call of the bird, has been transcribed as "mopoke". William Dawes recorded the name bōkbōk "an owl" in 1790 or 1791, in his transcription of the Dharug language, English explorer George Caley had recorded the native name as buck-buck during the earliest days of the colony, reporting that early settlers had called it cuckoo owl as its call was reminiscent of the common cuckoo, he added, "The settlers in New South Wales are led away by the idea that everything is the reverse in that country to what it is in England. Gould recorded local aboriginal names: Goor-goor-da, Mel-in-de-ye, Koor-koo. Alternative common names include brown owl; the Ngarluma people of the western Pilbara knew it as gurrgumarlu. In the Yuwaaliyaay dialect of the Gamilaraay language of southeastern Australia, the Australian boobook is guurrguurr. Dutch naturalist Gerlof Mees and German evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr regarded the taxonomy of the boobook owl complex as challenging, the latter remarking in 1943 that it was "one of the most difficult problems I have encountered".
In his 1964 review of Australian owls, Mees treated Australian and New Zealand boobooks, along with several taxa from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, as one species—Ninox novaeseelandiae—with 16 subspecies. In his 1968 book Nightwatchmen of the Bush and Plain, Australian naturalist David Fleay observed that the boobooks from Tasmania more resembled those of New Zealand than those from mainland Australia, though he followed Mees in treating them as a single species; the Australian boobook was split from the Tasmanian boobook and morepork in volume 5 of the Handbook of the Birds of the World in 1999, though several authors, including Australian ornithologists Les Christidis and Walter Boles, continued to treat the three taxa as a single species. Examining both morphological and genetic characters in 2008, German biologist Michael Wink and colleagues concluded the Australian boobook is distinct from the morepork and Tasmanian boobook, that it is instead the sister taxon to the barking owl. A 2017 study by Singapore-based biologist Chyi Yin Gwee and colleagues analysing both multi-locus DNA and boobook calls confirmed a sister relationship of N. n. novaeseelandiae and N. leucopsis and their close relationship to N. connivens.
Genetic and call analysis show the Christmas boobook to be close to the Australian populations of the Australian boobook, leading Gwee and colleagues to suggest it be reclassified within this species. Gwee and colleagues found that boobook populations on larger mountainous islands were more distinct from Australian stock, while those on flatter smaller islands were much more similar, suggesting that these locations were colonised much more after previous populations had become extinct. Eleven subspecies of Ninox boobook are recognised in version 7.3 of the IOC World Bird List, published in July 2017: N. b. boobook, the nominate subspecies, is found on the Australian mainland, from southern Quee
Oleksiy Brovkin was a Ukrainian militsiya general. An ethnic Russian, Brovkin was born in family of stoker in Putyvl, his career he started as an intern at Verinsky Sugar Factory and Sumy-Stepanivka Sugar Factory, both located near Sumy. Worked as a repairman at the Sumy Refined Sugar Factory. In 1930s worked at the Kharkiv Remmashtrest as director of some of its departments and as chief engineer. Just before the World War II, in 1939 Brovkin became a chief of Directorate of Local Fuel Industry in Kharkiv Oblast. In 1941 he became a secretary of engineering at the Kharkiv city committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. During the evacuation of Soviet government, Brovkin was appointed as secretary of engineering of the Communist Party committee in Kupyansk and Kuibyshev. In 1942-1946 he was working on leading positions of the All-Union Communist Party in Nizhniy Tagil. Following liberation of the Ukrainian SSR from the Nazi Germany occupation, in 1946-1954 Brovkin returned to Ukraine working at leading position of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine including deputy chief of engineering department, deputy minister of MGB of UkrSSR, deputy chief of department on party, trade union and Komsomol agencies.
In 1954-1968 he worked at the Ministry of Interior of UkrSSR as deputy minister and rector of the Kiev College of Ministry of Interior. In 1968 Brovkin retired, but not for long. In 1970-1977 he worked as an engineer for DerzhPlan. In 1977 Brovkin retired. Oleksiy Brovkin at Who is who of the Ukrainian confederation of journalists Petrov, N. Who governed the security agencies: 1941-1954.. International Society "Memorial". "Zvenia". Moscow, 2010
Dowd Avenue is a major thoroughfare in Elizabeth, New Jersey which serves the residential district. The street is 1.05 miles long, beginning at an intersection with Trumbull Street in Elizabeth, continuing on a west–east alignment to the intersection with North Avenue at New Jersey Route 81. The street was known as Humboldt Avenue by the city of Elizabeth and maintained by the New Jersey State Highway Department as an alignment of Route 164. Route 164 was first assigned onto Humboldt Avenue after the 1953 state highway renumbering, continuing until somewhere between 1957 and 1969, when it was decommissioned and turned over to the city for maintenance. On, Humboldt Avenue was changed names to Dowd Avenue, the alignment was used as a frontage road to the constructed Route 81 Expressway. Dowd Avenue begins at an intersection with Trumbull Street and New Point Road in the city of Elizabeth, New Jersey; the street heads northward, crossing between two railroad lines and passing under two overpasses serving former rail lines.
Paralleling to the east of the New Jersey Turnpike, Dowd Avenue crosses under another railroad, the route enters a short community in the southeastern portion of Elizabeth. The highway continues northward, intersecting with Schiller Street, which serves as the main street. After leaving the community, Dowd Avenue turns to the northwest, crossing under the twelve lanes of the turnpike just south of Interchange 13A and continuing northward on a western parallel. From here, Dowd Avenue continues northward along the turnpike right-of-way, passing through a large industrial community, serving several industries. A two-lane roadway, Dowd Avenue intersects with Evans Street. Entering the center of Elizabeth and along a parallel with Route 81, Dowd Avenue continues northward until reaching North Avenue, which serves as the northern terminus of Dowd combined with the Route 81 interchange. Dowd Avenue's right-of-way merges into Route 81; the alignment of Dowd Avenue originates as the name of Humboldt Avenue and the designation of New Jersey Route 164.
Route 164 was first designated just after the 1953 state highway renumbering, as the highway was not listed as a creation of the renumbering from its original system. Although the maps produced by Rand McNally never showed Route 164 after 1955, the highway was in logs produced by the state of New Jersey past 1957. Route 164 was decommissioned by the New Jersey State Highway Department by the 1969 milepost log. In 1982, the new freeway to Newark Airport, which parallels the former alignment of Route 164, opened; the entire route is in Union County. U. S. Roads portal Dan. "164". New Jersey: Alps Roads. Retrieved 12 January 2010