- Homer, Odyssey 4, 32
- "12916 Eteoneus (1998 TL15)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
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In Greek mythology, Phoenix was the son of king Amyntor, a king of the Dolopians. Phoenix, on the urgings of his mother had sex with his father's concubine. Amyntor, discovering this, called upon the Erinyes to curse him with childlessness. In accounts of the story, Phoenix was falsely accused by Amyntor's concubine, blinded by his father, but Chiron restored his sight. Phoenix fled to Peleus, the king of Phthia, Achilles' father, where Pelleus made Phoenix a king of the Dolopians, gave him the young Achilles to raise. Phoenix participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar, was said to have given Achilles' son the name Neoptolemus; as an old man he accompanied Achilles to the Trojan War. By some accounts, after Achilles died, Phoenix was one of those sent to fetch Neoptolemus from Scyros. On his way home from Troy, Phoenix was buried by Neoptolemus, his tomb was said to be either in Trachis, Thessaly. Phoenix plays an important role in Book 9 of the Iliad of Homer. Achilles, the Greeks' greatest warrior, has withdrawn from the war because of his great anger at his ill treatment by the Greek commander Agamemnon.
Phoenix, in charge of Achilles upbringing, now an old man, has accompanied Achilles to the Trojan War. Phoenix is sent by Agamemnon to Achilles' tent, as part of an embassy with Ajax and Odysseus, to persuade Achilles to return to the battle. Odysseus speaks first, presenting Agamemnon's offer of reconciliation, an appeal which Achilles rejects utterly, saying that he will leave with his ships the next morning. Phoenix, "bursting into tears", pleads passionately with Achilles to put down his anger and return to the war. In a long speech covering 172 lines, Phoenix's speech presents an "exposition of heroic, traditional ethics". Phoenix begins by reminding Achilles. Phoenix's father was Amyntor, the son of Ormenus, a king in Hellas; when Amyntor forsook his wife, Phoenix's mother, for a concubine, at the urging of his jealous mother, Phoenix had sex with Amyntor's concubine. To punish this crime Amyntor called upon the Erinyes to curse Phoenix with childlessness. Outraged Phoenix intended to kill Amyntor, but was dissuaded.
Instead he decided to leave his father's kingdom. For nine days some of his friends and family kept watch over him to prevent his leaving, but on the tenth day he managed to escape, fleeing through Hellas, Phoenix came to Phthia, where king Peleus, the father of Achilles, took in Phoenix, treated him like a son. Peleus made Phoenix a king of the Dolopians, and Phoenix was given charge of the young Achilles. Having reminded Achilles of all this, Phoenix asks Achilles to "master thy proud spirit. Nay the gods can bend". Phoenix next relates two stories meant to persuade Achilles; the first story concerns daughters of Zeus, who follow along after Ate. This story is meant to show Achilles the dangers inherant in refusing prayers of supplication. After telling the story, Phoenix again asks Achilles to "cast aside thine anger" and heed the supplication of his comrads in arms and return to the battle. Phoenix reminds Achilles' that heroes of old, in their wrath, might be won over by gifts and pleadings.
He recounts the story of the hero Meleager, with its many parallels to Achilles' situation. Like Achilles, Meleager has withdrawn from battle in anger. Offering gifts, his friends and family beg Meleager to return to the battle, but when his own household is threatened heeding the pleas of his wife, he returns to the battle, but received no gifts and honors, for doing so. Phoenix urges Achilles not to be like Meleager, but to accept the gifts and honors Agammenon has offered, before it is too late, but Achilles says he has honor enough already. Further he admonishes Phoenix "not to confound my spirit by weeping and sorrowing," on Agamemnon's behalf. Achiles invites Phoenix to stay the night "and at break of day we will take counsel whether to return to our own or to tarry here."Brief mentions of Phoenix appear in Books 16, 17, 19, 23. In Book 16 Phoenix leads a company of Myrmidons into battle. In Book 17, Athena takes Phoenix's form. In Book 19, Phoenix is among those comforting Achilles in his tent after the death of Patroclus.
In Book 23, Phoenix is an umpire in Patroclus' funeral games. Besides the Iliad a few other mentions of Phoenix, from the epic tradition, are found in the Epic Cycle, a collection of epic poems about the Trojan War. According to scholia to Iliad 19, citing the Epic Cycle, prior to the Trojan War, Phoenix was sent with Odysseus and Nestor to seek out Achilles to recruit him for the war. According to the Cypria, Achilles' son Neoptolemus named Pyrrhus, was given the name Neoptolemus by Phoenix, because Achilles was a young man when he went to war. According to Proclus' summary of the Nostoi Phoenix, while traveling home from the Trojan War with Neoptolemus and was buried by Neoptolemus; the late sixth-century early fifth-century BC poet Pindar mentioned Phoenix, saying that he "held a throng of Dolopians, bold in the use of the sling and bringing aid to the missiles of the Danaans, tamers of horses." Phoenix appeared as a character in tragedian Aeschylus' lost play Myrmidons, which included an embassy scene, Phoenix's attempt to persuade Achilles to put aside his a
In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. He joined the Greeks in the expedition against Troy. Pausanias in his Description of Greece says that in Corinth is a Temple of Fortune in which Palamedes dedicated the dice that he had invented. After Paris took Helen to Troy, Agamemnon sent Palamedes to Ithaca to retrieve Odysseus, who had promised to defend the marriage of Helen and Menelaus. Odysseus did not want to honor his oath, so he pretended to be insane and plowed his fields with salt. Palamedes put Odysseus' son, Telemachus, in front of the plow. Odysseus revealed his sanity; the ancient sources show differences in regards to the details of. Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for ruining his attempt to stay out of the Trojan War; when Palamedes advised the Greeks to return home, Odysseus hid gold in his tent and wrote a fake letter purportedly from Priam. The letter was found and the Greeks accused him of being a traitor. Palamedes was stoned to death by Diomedes. According to other accounts the two warriors drowned him during a fishing expedition.
Still another version relates that he was lured into a well in search of treasure, was crushed by stones. Although he is a major character in some accounts of the Trojan War, Palamedes is not mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Ovid discusses Palamedes' role in the Trojan War in the Metamorphoses. Palamedes' fate is described in Virgil's Aeneid. In the Apology, Plato describes Socrates as looking forward to speaking with Palamedes after death, intimates in the Phaedrus that Palamedes authored a work on rhetoric. Euripides and many other dramatists have written dramas about his fate. Hyginus revives an old account that Palamedes created eleven letters of the Greek alphabet: The three Fates created the first five vowels of the alphabet and the letters B and T, it is said that son of Nauplius invented the remaining eleven consonants. Hermes reduced these sounds to characters, showing wedge shapes because cranes fly in wedge formation and carried the system from Greece to Egypt*; this was the Pelasgian alphabet, which Cadmus had brought to Boeotia Evander of Arcadia, a Pelasgian, introduced into Italy, where his mother, formed the familiar fifteen characters of the Latin alphabet.
Other consonants have since been added to the Greek alphabet. Alpha was the first of eighteen letters, because alphe means honor, alphainein is to invent. In one modern account, The Luck of Troy by Roger Lancelyn Green, Palamedes was double-dealing with the Trojans. Defense of Palamedes is a text by Gorgias, describing the defense speech that Palamedes gave when charged with treason; the major Dutch playwright Joost van den Vondel wrote in 1625 the play "Palamedes", based on the above Greek myth. The play had a clear topical political connotation, the unjust killing of Palamedes standing for the execution of the statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt six years earlier - which Vondel, like others in the Dutch Republic, considered a judicial murder. In Vondel's version, responsibility for the killing of Palamedes is attributed to to Agamemnon. Authorities in Amsterdam found no difficulty in deciphering the political meanings behind Vondel's Classical allusions, imposed a heavy fine on the playwright.
D. R. Reinsch, "Die Palamedes-Episode in der Synopsis Chronike des Konstantinos Manasses und ihre Inspirationsquelle," in Byzantinische Sprachkunst. Studien zur byzantinischen Literatur gewidmet Wolfram Hoerandner zum 65. Geburtstag. Hg. v. Martin Hinterberger und Elisabeth Schiffer. Berlin-New York, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, 266-276. Palamedes at Greek Mythology Link
Talthybius was herald and friend to Agamemnon in the Trojan War. Talthybius was the one. Preceding the duel of Menelaus and Paris, Agamemnon charges him to fetch a sheep for sacrifice, he died at Aegium in Achaia. Talthybius appears in The Trojan Women. In addition, he has a small role in The Iliad. In The Iliad, Agamemnon orders Talthybius to fetch the medic Machaon after Menelaus was wounded with an arrow shot by Pandarus. In Hecuba and The Trojan Women, Talthybius seems to always be the bearer of bad news. In The Trojan Women, he tells Hecuba that all of the women are being divided up and given to different Greek Heroes as slaves, he says that Hecuba herself will be given to Odysseus. Furthermore, Talthybius is the one who tells Andromache of the Greeks’ plan to kill Astyanax, her son by Hector; the plan is to throw Astyanax from the towers of Troy because it would not be wise to let the son of a Trojan hero reach adulthood. In Hecuba, Talthybius brings an order from Agamemnon to Hecuba, telling her to bury her daughter, sacrificed to Achilles.
He exercises significant independence in the way he carries out his orders given to him from the commanders. He was worshipped as a hero at Sparta where sacrifices were offered to him, he served in Trojan war alongside his others who supported him. Talthybius' commitment to interests of the Greek commanders and the care he takes to avoid their disapproval. In his dealings with the captive women he felt in the main to be a sympathetic figure. Eurybates
Philoctetes, or Philocthetes, according to Greek mythology, was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. He was a Greek hero, famed as an archer, a participant in the Trojan War. Philoctetes was the subject of four different plays of ancient Greece, each written by one of the three major Greek tragedians. Of the four plays, Sophocles' Philoctetes is the only one. Sophocles' Philoctetes at Troy, Aeschylus' Philoctetes and Euripides' Philoctetes have all been lost, with the exception of some fragments. Philoctetes is mentioned in Homer's Iliad, Book 2, which describes his exile on the island of Lemnos, his being wounded by snake-bite, his eventual recall by the Greeks; the recall of Philoctetes is told in the lost epic Little Iliad, where his retrieval was accomplished by Diomedes. Philoctetes killed three men at Troy. Philoctetes was the son of King Poeas of the city of Meliboea in Thessaly. Heracles built his own funeral pyre. No one would light it for him in other versions his father Poeas.
This gained him the favor of the newly deified Heracles. Because of this, Philoctetes or Poeas was given poisoned arrows. Philoctetes was one of the many eligible Greeks who competed for the hand of Helen, the Spartan princess; as such, he was required to participate in the conflict to reclaim her for Menelaus in the Trojan War. Philoctetes was stranded on the island of Lemnos by the Greeks on the way to Troy. There are at least four separate tales about what happened to strand Philoctetes on his journey to Troy, but all indicate that he received a wound on his foot that festered and had a terrible smell. One version holds that Philoctetes was bitten by a snake that Hera sent to molest him as punishment for his or his father's service to Heracles. Another tradition says that the Greeks forced Philoctetes to show them where Heracles's ashes were deposited. Philoctetes would not break his oath by speech, so he went to the spot and placed his foot upon the site, he was injured in the foot that touched the soil over the ashes.
Yet another tradition has it that when the Achaeans, en route to Troy at the beginning of the war, came to the island of Tenedos, Achilles angered Apollo by killing King Tenes the god's son. When, in expiation, the Achaeans offered a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake came out from the altar and bit Philoctetes, it is said that Philoctetes received his terrible wound on the island of Chryse, when he unknowingly trespassed into the shrine of the nymph after whom the island was named. A modern interpretation of the cause of his wound is. Tips of arrows were poisoned with a combination of fermented viper venom, blood or plasma, feces. A scratch would result in death, sometimes drawn out. A person who survives would do so with a festering wound. Regardless of the cause of the wound, Philoctetes was exiled by the Greeks and was angry at the treatment he received from Odysseus, King of Ithaca, who had advised the Atreidae to strand him. Medôn took control of Philoctetes' men, Philoctetes himself remained on Lemnos, for ten years.
Helenus, the prophetic son of King Priam of Troy, was forced to reveal, under torture, that one of the conditions of the Greeks' winning the war was that they needed the bow and arrows of Heracles. Upon hearing this, Odysseus and a group of men rushed back to Lemnos to recover Heracles' weapons. Surprised to find the archer alive, the Greeks balked on. Odysseus tricked the weaponry away from Philoctetes, but Diomedes refused to take the weapons without the man. Heracles, who had become a god many years earlier, came down from Olympus and told Philoctetes to go and that he would be healed by the son of Asclepius and win great honor as a hero of the Achaean army. Once back in military company outside Troy, they employed either Machaon the surgeon or more Podalirius the physician, both sons of the immortal physician Asclepius, to heal his wound permanently. Philoctetes challenged and would have killed Paris, son of Priam, in single combat were it not for the debates over future Greek strategy. In one telling it was Philoctetes who killed Paris.
He shot four times: the first arrow went wide. Philoctetes sided with Neoptolemus about continuing to try to storm the city, they were the only two to think so because they had not had the war-weariness of the prior ten years. Afterward, Philoctetes was among those chosen to hide inside the Trojan Horse, during the sack of the city he killed many famed Trojans; the legend of Philoctetes was used by André Gide in his play Philoctète. George Maxim Ross adapted the legend in his play Philoktetes, written in the 1950s and performed off Broadway at One Sheridan Square; the East German postmodern dramatist Heiner Müller produced a successful adaptation of Sophocles' play in 1968 in Munich. It became one of his most-performed plays. Philoctetes appears in Seamus Heaney's play The Cure at a "version" of Sophocles' Philoctetes. John Jesurun wrote the Philoktetes-variations in 1993 on Ron Vawter's request, it was
In Greek mythology, Podalirius or Podaleirius was a son of Asclepius. With Machaon, his brother, he led thirty ships from Tricca, Thessaly in the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks. Like Machaon, he was a legendary healer, he healed holder of the bow and arrows of Heracles required to end the war. He was one of those. Alongside Amphimachus, Calchas and Polypoetes he traveled to Colophon, where Calchas died. Unlike his brother, Podalirius survived the war, subsequently settled in Caria. Accounts vary as to. According to one version, he returned to Argos after the war but went on to consult the Delphian oracle about a preferable place for himself to live, was instructed to stay at a place where he would suffer no harm should the sky fall. Others relate that on the way back from Troy Podalirius' ship was blown off course so he landed in Syrnus, where he settled. In yet another version, he got shipwrecked near the Carian coast but was rescued by a shepherd named Bybassus, the eponym-to-be of a city in Caria.
Podalirus could be the founder of Syrnus. Podalirius arrived at the court of the Carian king Damaethus and healed the king's daughter Syrna, who had fallen off a roof. In reward, Damaethus handed the power over the peninsula over to him. Podalirus founded two cities, one of which he named Syrnus after his wife and the other Bybassus after the shepherd to whom he owed his life. According to Strabo, a heroum of Podalirius, another of Calchas, were located in Daunia, Italy, on a hill known as Drium. By the hero-shrine of Podalirius there flowed. Lycophron writes that Podalirius was buried in Italy near the cenotaph of Calchas, but John Tzetzes accuses him of providing false information and defends the versions cited above. 4086 Podalirius, a Jovian asteroid Podalyria, a plant genus in Fabaceae, was named for Podalirius. Iphiclides podalirius, the scarce swallowtail butterfly; the dictionary definition of Podaleirios at Wiktionary
Ajax was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the king of Locris. He was called the "lesser" or "Locrian" Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax the Great, son of Telamon, he was the leader of the Locrian contingent during the Trojan War. He is a significant figure in Homer's Iliad and is mentioned in the Odyssey, in Virgil's Aeneid and in Euripides' The Trojan Women. In Etruscan legend, he was known as Aivas Vilates. Ajax's mother's name was Eriopis. According to Strabo, he was born in Naryx in Locris. According to the Iliad, he led his Locrians in forty ships against Troy, he is described as one of the great heroes among the Greeks. In battle, he wore a linen cuirass, was brave and intrepid skilled in throwing the spear and, next to Achilles, the swiftest of all the Greeks. In the funeral games at the pyre of Patroclus, Ajax contended with Odysseus and Antilochus for the prize in the footrace. In traditions, this Ajax is called a son of Oileus and the nymph Rhene and is mentioned among the suitors of Helen.
After the taking of Troy, he rushed into the temple of Athena, where Cassandra had taken refuge, was embracing the statue of the goddess in supplication. Ajax violently dragged her away to the other captives. According to some writers, he raped Cassandra inside the temple. Odysseus called for Ajax's death by stoning for this crime, but Ajax saved himself by claiming innocence with an oath to Athena, clutching her statue in supplication. Since Ajax dragged a supplicant from her temple, Athena had cause to be indignant. According to the Bibliotheca, no one was aware that Ajax had raped Cassandra until Calchas, the Greek seer, warned the Greeks that Athena was furious at the treatment of her priestess and she would destroy the Greek ships if they didn't kill him immediately. Despite this, Ajax managed to hide in the altar of a deity where the Greeks, fearing divine retribution should they kill him and destroy the altar, allowed him to live; when the Greeks left without killing Ajax, despite their sacrifices, Athena became so angry that she persuaded Zeus to send a storm that sank many of their ships.
As he was returning from Troy, Athena hit his ship with a thunderbolt and the vessel was wrecked on the Whirling Rocks. But he escaped with some of his men, managing to cling onto a rock through the assistance of Poseidon, he would have been saved in spite of Athena, but he audaciously declared that he would escape the dangers of the sea in defiance of the immortals. Offended by this presumption, Poseidon split the rock with his trident and Ajax was swallowed up by the sea. Thetis buried him. Other versions depict a different death for Ajax. In these versions, when Ajax came to the Capharean Rocks on the coast of Euboea, his ship was wrecked in a fierce storm, he himself was lifted up in a whirlwind and impaled with a flash of rapid fire from Athena in his chest, his body thrust upon sharp rocks, which afterwards were called the rocks of Ajax. After Ajax's death, his spirit dwelt in the island of Leuce; the Opuntian Locrians worshiped Ajax as their national hero, so great was their faith in him that when they drew up their army in battle, they always left one place open for him, believing that, although invisible to them, he was fighting for and among them.
The story of Ajax was made use of by ancient poets and artists, the hero who appears on some Locrian coins with the helmet and sword is this Ajax. Other accounts of Ajax's death are offered by the scholiast on Lycophron; the abduction of Cassandra by Ajax was represented in Greek works of art, such as the chest of Cypselus described by Pausanias and in extant works. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Ajax". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ajax". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 452
In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms. In Homer's Iliad, Idomeneus is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors, he was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, fought Hector and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well, he was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed at least three Amazon women, including Bremusa, at Troy. A tradition, preserved by the mythographer Apollodorus of Athens, continues the story as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm, he promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
The first living thing was his son. The gods sent a plague to Crete; the Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria and Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento, see Grecìa Salentina. Alternatively, Idomeneus was driven out of Crete by Leucus, his foster son, who had seduced and killed Idomeneus' wife Meda and usurped the throne of Crete; the tale is covered by the fourth-century Italian writer Maurus Servius Honoratus, the French 17th century writer François Fénelon. According to the hypothetical reading of Achterberg et al. Idomeneus may be mentioned on the Phaistos Disk as the governor of Mesara. Idomeneo, a 1781 opera seria by Mozart, is based on the story of Idomeneus's return to Crete. In this version, Poseidon spares Idomeneo's son Idamante, on condition that Idomeneo relinquish his throne to the new generation. Achterberg, Winfried.
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