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Ethernet over twisted pair

Ethernet over twisted pair technologies use twisted-pair cables for the physical layer of an Ethernet computer network. They are a subset of all Ethernet physical layers. Early Ethernet had used various grades of coaxial cable, but in 1984, StarLAN showed the potential of simple unshielded twisted pair; this led to the development of 10BASE-T and its successors 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T and 10GBASE-T, supporting speeds of 10, 100 Mbit/s and 1 and 10 Gbit/s respectively. All these standards use 8P8C modular connectors, while the cables range from Cat 3 to Cat 8; the first two early designs of twisted pair networking were StarLAN, standardized by the IEEE Standards Association as IEEE 802.3e in 1986, at one megabit per second, LattisNet, developed in January 1987, at 10 megabit per second. Both were developed before the 10BASE-T standard and used different signalling, so they were not directly compatible with it. In 1988 AT&T released StarLAN 10, named for working at 10 Mbit/s; the StarLAN 10 signalling was used as the basis of 10BASE-T, with the addition of link beat to indicate connection status.

Using twisted pair cabling, in a star topology, for Ethernet addressed several weaknesses of the previous standards: Twisted pair cables were in use for telephone service and were present in many office buildings, lowering overall cost The centralized star topology in use for telephone service and was a more common approach to cabling than the bus in earlier standards and easier to manage Using point-to-point links was less prone to failure and simplified troubleshooting compared to a shared bus Exchanging cheap repeater hubs for more advanced switching hubs provided a viable upgrade path Mixing different speeds in a single network became possible with the arrival of Fast Ethernet Depending on cable grades, subsequent upgrading to Gigabit Ethernet or faster could be accomplished by replacing the network switchesAlthough 10BASE-T is used as a normal-operation signaling rate today, it is still in wide use with NICs in Wake-on-LAN power-down mode and for special, low-power, low-bandwidth applications.

10BASE-T is still supported on most twisted-pair Ethernet ports with up to Gigabit Ethernet speed. The common names for the standards derive from aspects of the physical media; the leading number refers to the transmission speed in Mbit/s. BASE denotes; the T designates twisted pair cable. Where there are several standards for the same transmission speed, they are distinguished by a letter or digit following the T, such as TX or T4, referring to the encoding method and number of lanes. Most Ethernet cables are wired "straight-through". In some instances the "crossover" form may still be required. Cables for Ethernet may be wired to either the T568A or T568B termination standards at both ends of the cable. Since these standards differ only in that they swap the positions of the two pairs used for transmitting and receiving, a cable with T568A wiring at one end and T568B wiring at the other results in a crossover cable. A 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX host uses a connector wiring called medium dependent interfaces, transmitting on pins 1 and 2 and receiving on pins 3 and 6 to a network device.

An infrastructure node accordingly uses a connector wiring called MDI-X, transmitting on pins 3 and 6 and receiving on pins 1 and 2. These ports are connected using a straight-through cable so each transmitter talks to the receiver on the other end of the cable. Nodes can have two types of ports: MDI or MDI-X. Hubs and switches have regular ports. Routers and end hosts have uplink ports; when two nodes having the same type of ports need to be connected, a crossover cable may be required for older equipment. Connecting nodes having different type of ports requires straight-through cable, thus connecting an end host to a hub or switch requires a straight-through cable. Some older switches and hubs provided a button to allow a port to act as either a normal or an uplink port, i.e. using MDI-X or MDI pinout respectively. Many modern Ethernet host adapters can automatically detect another computer connected with a straight-through cable and automatically introduce the required crossover, if needed. Most newer switches have auto MDI-X on all ports allowing all connections to be made with straight-through cables.

If both devices being connected support 1000BASE-T according to the standards, they will connect regardless of whether a straight-through or crossover cable is used. A 10BASE-T transmitter sends two differential voltages, +2.5 V or −2.5 V. A 100BASE-TX transmitter sends three differential voltages, +1 V, 0 V, or −1 V. Unlike earlier Ethernet standards using broadband and coaxial cable, such as 10BASE5 and 10BASE2, 10BASE-T does not specify the exact type of wiring to be used, but instead specifies certain characteristics that a cable must meet; this was done in anticipation of using 10BASE-T in existing twisted-pair wiring systems that did not conform to any specified wiring standard. Some of the specified characteristics are attenuation, characteristic impedance, timing jitter, propagation delay, several types of noise and crosstalk. Cable testers are available to check these parameters to determine if a cable can be used with 10BASE-T; these characteristics are expected to be met by 100 meters of 24-gauge unshielded twisted-pair cable.

However, with high quality cabling, reliable cable runs of 150 meters


Ichthyoplankton are the eggs and larvae of fish. They are found in the sunlit zone of the water column, less than 200 metres deep, sometimes called the epipelagic or photic zone. Ichthyoplankton are planktonic, meaning they cannot swim under their own power, but must drift with the ocean currents. Fish eggs cannot swim at all, are unambiguously planktonic. Early stage larvae swim poorly, but stage larvae swim better and cease to be planktonic as they grow into juveniles. Fish larvae are part of the zooplankton that eat smaller plankton, while fish eggs carry their own food supply. Both eggs and larvae are themselves eaten by larger animals. Fish can produce high numbers of eggs which are released into the open water column. Fish eggs have a diameter of about 1 millimetre; the newly hatched young of oviparous fish are called larvae. They are poorly formed, carry a large yolk sac and are different in appearance from juvenile and adult specimens; the larval period in oviparous fish is short, larvae grow and change appearance and structure to become juveniles.

During this transition larvae must switch from their yolk sac to feeding on zooplankton prey, a process which depends on inadequate zooplankton density, starving many larvae. Ichthyoplankton can be a useful indicator of the health of an aquatic ecosystem. For instance, most late stage larvae in ichthyoplankton have been preyed on, so ichthyoplankton tends to be dominated by eggs and early stage larvae; this means that when fish, such as anchovies and sardines, are spawning, ichthyoplankton samples can reflect their spawning output and provide an index of relative population size for the fish. Increases or decreases in the number of adult fish stocks can be detected more and sensitively by monitoring the ichthyoplankton associated with them, compared to monitoring the adults themselves, it is usually easier and more cost effective to sample trends in egg and larva populations than to sample trends in adult fish populations. Interest in plankton originated in Britain and Germany in the nineteenth century when researchers discovered there were microorganisms in the sea, that they could trap them with fine-mesh nets.

They started testing different net configurations. Ichthyoplankton research started in 1864 when the Norwegian government commissioned the marine biologist G. O. Sars to investigate fisheries around the Norwegian coast. Sars found fish eggs cod eggs, drifting in the water; this established that fish eggs could be pelagic, living in the open water column like other plankton. Around the beginning of the twentieth century, research interest in ichthyoplankton became more general when it emerged that, if ichthyoplankton was sampled quantitatively the samples could indicate the relative size or abundance of spawning fish stocks. Research vessels collect ichthyoplankton from the ocean using fine mesh nets; the vessels either tow the nets through the sea or pump sea water onboard and pass it through the net. There are many types of plankton tows:Neuston net tows are made at or just below the surface using a nylon mesh net fitted to a rectangular frame The PairoVET tow, used for collecting fish eggs, drops a net about 70 metres into the sea from a stationary research vessel and drags it back to the vessel.

Ring net tows involve a nylon mesh net fitted to a circular frame. These have been replaced by bongo nets, which provide duplicate samples with their dual-net design; the bongo tow drags nets shaped like bongo drums from a moving vessel. The net is lowered to about 200 metres and allowed to rise to the surface as it is towed. In this way, a sample can be collected across the whole photic zone where most ichthyoplankton is found. MOCNESS tows and Tucker trawls utilize multiple nets that are mechanically opened and closed at discrete depths in order to provide insights into the vertical distribution of the plankton The manta trawl tows a net from a moving vessel along the surface of the water, collecting larvae, such as grunion, mahi-mahi, flying fish which live at the surface. After the tow the plankton is flushed with a hose to the cod end of the net for collection; the sample is placed in preservative fluid prior to being sorted and identified in a laboratory. Plankton pumps: Another method of collecting ichthyoplankton is to use a Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler.

Water from a depth of about three metres is filtered with a net. This method can be used. Ichthyoplankton researchers use the terminology and development stages introduced in 1984 by Kendall and others; this consists of two transitional stages. Recruitment of fish is regulated by larval fish survival. Survival is regulated by prey abundance and hydrology. Fish eggs and larvae are eaten by many marine organisms. For example, they may be fed upon by marine invertebrates, such as copepods, arrow worms, amphipods, marine snails and krill; because they are so abundant, marine invertebrates inflict high overall mortality rates. Adult fish prey on fish eggs and larvae. For example, haddock were observed satiating themselves with herring eggs back in 1922. Another study found cod in a herring spawning area with 20,000 herring eggs in their stomachs, concluded that they could prey on half of the total egg production. Fish cannibalise their own eggs. For example, separate studies found northern anchovy were respons

East End, Houston

East End Houston, managed by the East End District, is a district in eastern Houston, United States, located between the eastern edge of downtown to the Port of Houston and South to Hobby Airport. The District is home to Houston's early history and industry and is the site of Harrisburg, the seat of government for the Republic of Texas in 1836. East End Houston consists of many different ethnic groups, including Hispanic, Asian and African American. Latinos make up more than half of the 100,512 residents, The area includes two of Houston's oldest Hispanic neighborhoods, Magnolia Park and Second Ward. East End Houston is bounded on the west on the east by the Port of Houston. Buffalo Bayou flows past the site of Harrisburg, an early Texas trading post and seat of government for the Republic of Texas in 1836. Founded by John Harris, for whom Harris County is named, Harrisburg was considered by the Allen brothers for the initial development of Houston. East End Houston was a primary area for relocation for Germans and Mexican Americans that settled in areas near the port of Houston.

Second Ward and Magnolia Park, in the district, are two of Houston's oldest Hispanic neighborhoods. The Eastwood subdivision, established in 1913, is considered one of the first master-planned communities in Houston. Many well-known Houstonians including Howard Hughes lived in Eastwood as children; the District has become popular among those. In the mid-to-late 2000s upper middle class residents moved into East End Houston to take advantage of houses that are less expensive than west side houses. Other neighborhoods include: Lawndale/Wayside, EaDo, Idylwood, Houston Country Club Estates, Forest Hill, Mason Park and Pecan Park. For several months leading into August 2007, the East End Chamber of Commerce Crime Awareness Committee argued that the Houston Police Department assigned insufficient police officers in the area. In 1997, Lori Rodriguez of the Houston Chronicle said "In the lifetime of some coalition members, the East End has gone from being white to Hispanic affluent to modest thriving to struggling," and that "a younger and more aggressive leadership is trying to revitalize the area and, to a touchingly discernible degree, it has succeeded."The Greater East End management district was established by a bill sponsored by Texas Senator Mario Gallegos and Texas Representative Rick Noriega after a petition circulated advocated for the establishment of the district.

The Governor of Texas signed the bill into law in 1999. The 2002 East End murders involved the deaths of two waitresses; the perpetrators were convicted, with two of them receiving death sentences. The Talento Bilingue de Houston, the largest cultural arts center of its kind in Houston is in East End Houston, as well as the 100 seat Carlos Garcia Theater at Houston Community College-Southeast campus, dedicated in late 1997; the district is home to The Orange Show, Our Lady of Guadalupe Church, Mutalistan Hall, a Chicano mural by artist Leo Tanguma on Canal Street. The Association for the Advancement of Mexican Americans opened the new $3.6 million AAMA Multi-Purpose Education Center in 1999. The center includes science labs; the Ripley House-Neighborhood Centers completed a capital campaign to raise $9 million to replace its 60-year-old, aging physical structure with a new 60,000-square-foot community center. In 2013 Houstonia wrote that East End Houston is "home to some of the city’s best Mexican restaurants and bakeries."

The original Ninfa's restaurant opened in East End Houston in 1973. The Ninfa's chain became popular and prominent. In 1997 Paul Galvani of the Houston Press said that despite the fact that the East End has "standouts " like Ninfa's, Mandola's Deli, Shanghai Reds, "it too gets bypassed when folks think about eating out." In 1997 the East End Management Association published a dining guide listing 42 restaurants within the East End, including in the Second Ward, the original Chinatown, Magnolia Park, other communities. The Houston Convention and Visitors Bureau and various area hotels and restaurants distributed the guides for free, the East End Area Chamber of Commerce mailed copies of the guide, with each copy priced for $2.50. The East End District is headquartered at 3211 Harrisburg Street. Three Houston City Council districts, B, H, I, serve sections of the East End; the Houston Fire Department operates several fire stations in the East End. Three fire stations, Station 18 East End, Station 20 Magnolia Park, Station 23 Lawndale are in Fire District 20.

Station 17 Second Ward is in Fire District 8. In 1920 Station 2 was in what would become the East End. In 1926 the station moved to. Harris County Precinct Two operates the Raul C. Martinez/East End Courthouse annex in the East End. In addition the county operates Courthouse Annex 39 in the East End; the Houston Housing Authority the Housing Authority of the City of Houston, operates the 296-unit Clayton Homes in the East End. Susan Vahn Clayton donated the property to the HACH in 1952; the development was modernized in 2007. In 2011 Dane Schiller of the Houston Chronicle said "Parts of the area have the feel of Mexico: brightly painted homes and narrow streets, store signs in Spanish and snow cones sold from carts." In 1997 Lori Rodriguez of the Houston Chronicle said that "the revitalization" that occurred in the 1990s "seems to abruptly stop at the railroad tracks that crisscross Harrisburg beyond the Plaza" and that "the slick national chains must share the commercial corridor with c

Clangers and Mash

Clangers and Mash is an EP by British singer-songwriter Gwyneth Herbert. It was released on 1 November 2010 and was critically acclaimed, receiving a four-starred review from The Guardian; the EP includes remixes, by Seb Rochford of Polar Bear, of some of Gwyneth Herbert's published songs as well as the song "Perfect Fit", issued as a free download in October 2009 and was released as a single on 7 March 2011. In a four-starred review for The Guardian, jazz critic John Fordham described it as a "fascinating set of variations on the familiar for Herbert regulars, or an appealing introduction for jazz-averse newcomers", saying that although her songs had been radically transformed, "Herbert's unfussy soulfulness and personal vision always glow through". John Eyles, in a review for BBC Music, described the "fragility of Herbert's performance" on the closing track, an a cappella version of "Midnight Oil", as "beautiful". Ivan Hewett, writing for The Daily Telegraph, said that the song "Perfect Fit" "has such a guilessly catchy melody you can't help being charmed by it."

Gwyneth Herbert: official website

Koji Horaguchi

Koji Horaguchi, was a Japanese former rugby union player who played an active role as one of the main players of Nippon Steel Kamaishi, achieving the seven consecutive titles for the first time in the history of the Japanese championship. After graduating from the Kamaishi High School, Horaguchi joined Nippon Steel Kamaishi. In the team, he supported the first row of the scrum with his strong physique, he played every match with Nippon Steel Kamaishi during the seven consecutive Japanese championship victories from 1979 to 1985, where he was the vice-captain. Horaguchi became captain after the then-captain, Yuji Matsuo took office as player-coach; as Japanese representative, his first match with the Japan national team was against England XV at Osaka, on 13 May 1979. He was part of the 1987 Rugby World Cup roster, where he played two matches. After the pool match against England, at Sydney on 30 May 1987, he retired from the international career. After retiring, he became a player-coach for Toyoko Rugby Club, but in 1999, during his tenure as coach for IBM Japan, he had a car accident while he was working and was taken to a hospital in Shibuya ward, where he died at the age of 45 years.

Koji Horaguchi international stats


Serafime Yaiya Sandra Carola Siekas known as Yaiya, is a Swedish entertainment artist, songwriter and film director living in Stockholm, Sweden. She started performing at the age of 6 and won different talent shows like Swedish Radio's national talent show 2008 with Sapphire Sky. In 2007 a radio station in France released the album Générations 88.2, a collection of 15 CDs described as the best hits 1997-2007, featuring Yaiya's song I'ma Do It. The album featured artists like Ciara, Brian McKnight, Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, D'Angelo and Swedish rapper Promoe Yaiya made a guest appearance on Channel 5's hidden camera show Svärföräldrarna från helvetet as the ex-girlfriend Sandy, she was the face and producer of an online talent show iDream and hosted Season 1, November 2010 - April 2011. In commercial video, she has been a main representative of the Carlsberg Group soft drink Festis. Yaiya headlined Cabaret Large A-Cup in Manhattan at the Metropolitan Room. At the age of 14 Yaiya founded her company Ymperia and started to teach performance and film acting with her mother Carola Siekas Kostenius.

2012 they opened Ymperia Academy in Stockholm and presented The Ymperian Method to their students. Yaiya directed a lot of films and in 2015 she won Skellefteå Krafts Competition Brainpower with her 14 seconds short film What Makes The World Go'Round? A well-made film that, in 14 short seconds, may bring thoughts about the world we live in and the role of the individuals in this, it becomes a clear message. It is necessary that the brain's capacity is used to enable us as individuals to develop new innovations that can positively affect the future - it requires brain power! 2016 and 2017 Ymperia Academy won Artisternas Hatt for "the widest course offer for cultural workers". Sapphire Sky Ima Do It ft. Newkid - released in France on the album "Générations 88.2" Lumumba - Lalcko ft. YAIYA - released in France on Lalcko's debut album I Can't Help Making Music Handcuffed Contract My Window - J-Son ft. YAIYA Pure Heart Whiteboy - SHY ft. YAIYA Juuret ft. Bengt Kostenius & Orlando Siekas YAIYA