Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics is practiced by followers of Scientology, the Nation of Islam, independent Dianeticist groups. Dianetics divides the mind into three parts: the conscious "analytical mind", the subconscious "reactive mind", the somatic mind; the goal of Dianetics is to erase the content of the "reactive mind", which Scientologists believe interferes with a person's ethics, awareness and sanity. The Dianetics procedure to achieve this erasure is called "auditing". In auditing, the Dianetic auditor asks a series of questions and elicits answers to help a person locate and deal with painful experiences of the past, which Scientologists believe to be the content of the "reactive mind". Practitioners of Dianetics believe that "the basic principle of existence is to survive" and that the basic personality of humans is sincere and good; the drive for goodness and survival is distorted and inhibited by aberrations "ranging from simple neuroses to different psychotic states to various kinds of sociopathic behavior patterns."
Hubbard developed Dianetics, claiming that it could eradicate these aberrations. When Hubbard formulated Dianetics, he described it as "a mix of Western technology and Oriental philosophy", he said that Dianetics "forms a bridge between" cybernetics and general semantics —a claim denied by scholars of General Semantics, including S. I. Hayakawa, who expressed strong criticism of Dianetics as early as 1951. Hubbard claimed that Dianetics could increase intelligence, eliminate unwanted emotions and alleviate a wide range of illnesses he believed to be psychosomatic. Among the conditions purportedly treated were arthritis, asthma, some coronary difficulties, eye trouble, migraine headaches, "sexual deviation", death. Hubbard asserted that "memories of painful physical and emotional experiences accumulate in a specific region of the mind, causing illness and mental problems." He taught that "once these experiences have been purged through cathartic procedures he developed, a person can achieve superior health and intelligence."
Hubbard variously defined Dianetics as "a spiritual healing technology" and "an organized science of thought."Dianetics predates Hubbard's classification of Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy". Early in 1951, he expanded his writings to include teachings related to the soul, or "thetan". Dianetics is practiced by several independent Dianetics-only groups not connected with Scientology, Free Zone or Independent Scientologists; the Church of Scientology has prosecuted a number of people in court for unauthorized publication of Scientology and Dianetics copyrighted material. L. Ron Hubbard published Dianetics on May 9, 1950, as a "branch of self-help psychology". In Dianetics, Hubbard introduced the "phenomena known as'engrams'" as the source of "all psychological pain, which in turn harmed mental and physical health." He claimed that individuals could reach the state of "clear", or a state of "exquisite clarity and mental liberation, by exorcising their engrams to an'auditor,' or listener acting as therapist."
While not accepted by the medical and scientific establishment, in the first two years of its publication, over 100,000 copies of the book were sold. Many enthusiasts emerged to form groups to practice Dianetics; the atmosphere from which Dianetics was written about in this period was one of "excited experimentation". Roy Wallis writes that Hubbard's work was regarded as an "initial exploration" for further development. Hubbard wrote an additional six books in 1951. Hubbard always claimed that his ideas of Dianetics originated in the 1930s. By his own account, he had been injured by the premature detonation of a primer mechanism on a small depth charge that had become stuck in the launch rack aboard the navy ship he was assigned to in 1941, his injuries were flash burns to his eyes and so was despatched ashore and he spent a great deal of his recovery time in the Oak Knoll Naval Hospital's library. LRH encountered the work of Thompson, Jung, Freud and other psychoanalysts. In his 1955 Phoenix Lectures Series, Hubbard himself, explains that he took the opportunity to enter an office where research papers on the US Naval Medical Research Division's work on PTSD were kept in a filing cabinet and he spent the lunch hour free to read the notes left lying on the desk of the Naval Medical Officer involved.
Much of what he learned along with his recent mastery of hypnotherapy technique by mail order, was influential in his development of ideas and concepts for Dianetics Therapy from 1947 onwards. All he needed was approval from any source. However, his several attempts were blocked by several luminaries of the American Medical Association in the years 1948–1958, such as Professors Duncan Cameron and Allan Whyte, who both were senior authorities within the AMA-funded Psychiatric Research Department conducting their own research into drug therapies and controversial psycho-surgical techniques on traumatised war veterans. Hubbard claimed in his several public lectures during the 1950s to have "undertaken clinical research at several of the institutions" they and Whyte, had directed. Historical AMA records show that LR
Fair Game (Scientology)
The term Fair Game is used to describe policies and practices carried out by the Church of Scientology towards people and groups it perceives as its enemies. Founder L. Ron Hubbard established the policy in the 1950s, in response to criticism both from within and outside his organization. Individuals or groups who are "Fair Game" are judged to be a threat to the Church and, according to the policy, can be punished and harassed using any and all means possible. In 1968, Hubbard canceled use of the term "Fair Game" because of negative public relations it caused, although the Church's aggressive response to criticism continued. Applying the principles of Fair Game and his followers targeted many individuals as well as government officials and agencies, including a program of covert and illegal infiltration of the IRS and other U. S. government agencies during the 1970s. They conducted private investigations, character assassination and legal action against the Church's critics in the media; the policy remains in effect and has been defended by the Church of Scientology as a core religious practice.
Starting in the 1980s, for their major branch in Los Angeles, the Scientology organization switched from using church members in harassment campaigns to hiring private investigators, including former and current Los Angeles police officers. The reason seemed to be that this gave the church a layer of protection in case embarrassing tactics were used and made public. Scientology's founder, L. Ron Hubbard, said all opposition came from what he called "Suppressive Persons" — which scientologists claim are "anti-social people who want to destroy anything that benefits humanity." In written policies dating from the mid-1950s, Hubbard told his followers to take a hard line against perceived opponents. In 1955 he wrote, "The purpose of the suit is to discourage rather than to win; the law can be used to harass, enough harassment on somebody, on the thin edge anyway, well knowing that he is not authorized, will be sufficient to cause his professional decease. If possible, of course, ruin him utterly".
In his confidential Manual of Justice of 1959, Hubbard wrote "People attack Scientology. I never forget it, always the score." He advocated using private investigators to investigate critics, who had turned out to be "members of the Communist Party or criminals both. The smell of police or private detectives caused to close down, to confess. Hire them and damn the cost when you need to." He said that in dealing with opponents, his followers should "always find or manufacture enough threat against them to cause them to sue for peace. Don't defend. Always attack." He urged the use of "black propaganda" to "destroy reputation or public belief in persons, companies or nations."The Church has retained an aggressive policy towards those it perceives as its enemies, argued as late as 1985 that retributive action against "enemies of Scientology" should be considered a Constitutionally-protected "core practice" of Scientology. In 1965 Hubbard formulated the "Fair Game Law", which states how to deal with people who interfere with Scientology's activities.
These suppressive persons could be considered "fair game" for retaliation: By FAIR GAME is meant, may not be further protected by the codes and disciplines or the rights of a Scientologist. In other words, a person who attacked the Church would not be protected by the Church or granted the rights of Scientologists in good standing. In December of that year, Hubbard reissued the policy with additional clarifications to define the scope of Fair Game, he made it clear that the policy applied to non-Scientologists as well, declaring: The homes, property and abodes of persons who have been active in attempting to: suppress Scientology or Scientologists are all beyond any protection of Scientology Ethics, unless absolved by Ethics or an amnesty... this Policy Letter extends to suppressive non-Scientology wives and husbands and parents, or other family members or hostile groups or close friends. In his Introduction to Scientology Ethics, published in 1968, Hubbard wrote that no Scientologist could be punished "for any action taken against a Suppressive Person or Group during the period that person or group is'fair game'."
He made it clear elsewhere in his writings that the policy would be applied to external organizations, including governments, that interfered with Scientology's activities. He told Scientologists: If the Internal Revenue Service continues to act up or if the FDA does sue we can of course Comm Ev them and if found guilty and publish them as a Suppressive Group and fair game... one is fair game until he or she declares against us. In a 1967 policy titled Penalties for Lower Conditions, Hubbard wrote that opponents who are "fair game" may be "deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist. May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed."In a policy letter dated July 21, 1968, Hubbard explicitly cancelled these penalties. The new list of Penalties for Lower Conditions now said that someone in a condition of Enemy "ay be restrained or imprisoned. May not be protected by any rules or laws of the group he sought to injure. May not be trained or processed or admitted to any."
The same list says that in a condition of Treason, a person, "May not be protected by the rights and fair practices he sought to destroy for others. May be debarred. Not covered by amnesties." Another policy letter from October that year announces: "The practice of declaring people FAIR GAME will cease. FAIR G
Supernatural abilities in Scientology doctrine
In the Church of Scientology doctrine, supernatural or superhuman abilities are a recurring subject, appearing throughout Scientology and Dianetics materials, from the most basic introductory texts to the highest-level Operating Thetan information. All of these concepts were authored by the church's founder, L. Ron Hubbard, have not been subjected to testing outside the Church; the Church of Scientology have never offered any externally accepted, peer-reviewed evidence that Scientologists possess any of these abilities. MEST is an acronym Hubbard coined which stands for matter, energy and time, the component parts of the physical universe, it is claimed that by completing Scientology courses, it is possible to attain "cause over MEST" — the ability to control matter and spacetime in the physical universe, free of the encumbrance of the body. According to the Church of Scientology: In Scientology, a state of complete spiritual freedom is attainable, it has been achieved not on a temporary basis but on a stable plane of full awareness and ability, unqualified by accident or deterioration.
And it is not limited to a few. It is called, in Scientology, “Operating Thetan.” The definition of the state of Operating Thetan is “knowing and willing cause over life, matter, energy and time. Hubbard first introduced Dianetics to the general public in April 1950, in an article published in the Astounding Science Fiction pulp magazine, followed with the book Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health that same summer. Dianetics postulates that there is a part of our psyche called the reactive mind, that most of our mental and physical problems are psychosomatic, thus they can be solved by eliminating this portion of our minds; this mental state of self-mastery is called Clear. In the 1992 Hardcover edition of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, Hubbard writes: "A Clear, for instance, has complete recall of everything which happened to him, or anything he studied, he does mental computations, such as those in chess, for example, which a normal would do in half an hour, in ten or fifteen seconds.".
Speaking on the subject of "Exteriorization - communication in Theta and MEST", Hubbard said that an individual thetan has the ability to generate electricity by putting a "beam" inside a vacuum tube, or a bell jar that has had the air evacuated: The truth of the matter is an individual can activate a vacuum tube. By the way, he can activate a vacuum tube because he isn't trying to go through the terrific insulative quality of air. I've forgotten what an inch of air insulates. An inch of air represents maybe a something on that order, he would have to be as big as a lightning storm to get across any space of air. But he can do it in a vacuum tube, he could do it in a bell jar from which the air could be exhausted, while he himself was outside the bell jar, he puts a beam inside the bell jar connecting two electrodes and you would get a registry on a meter inside the bell jar." Some of the miracles of life have been exposed to full view for the first time on the OT levels. Not the least of these miracles is knowing immortality and freedom from the cycle of birth and death.
The "immortality" referred to is not immortality of the body, but of the thetan, Scientology does not claim that it causes the thetan's immortality, but makes a Scientologist aware of that immortality and alleviates the distress that might otherwise be felt at the prospect of death: The subject of death is never a serious one to a Scientologist beyond the fact that he feels kind of sorry for himself sometimes.... was thoughtless enough to dispose of his body and go out of communication. A person sometimes feels pretty unhappy about it and thinks it's a thoughtless thing for a friend to do. On page 121 of the 1992 Hardcover edition of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, Hubbard writes: "Clears do not get colds." It is hinted that achieving the state of Clear prolongs lifespan: "What the lifespan of a Clear is cannot be answered now. Hubbard has claimed on numerous occasions that it is possible for Scientologists to use mind over matter to increase one's body weight, although why someone would want to do this is not explained.
In his book Understanding the E-meter, Hubbard wrote that this assertion can be tested by "mocking up" mental pictures in one's imagination. "This test has been made and an increase of as much as thirty pounds measured on scales, has been added to and subtracted from a body by creating'mental energy.'" In December 1954, Hubbard declared before a crowd at a lecture: Just mock up something, pull it in, mock it up and pull it in, mock it up and pull it in. Mock up heavy planets, mock up dense things and pull them in. You shoot a person's weight up - if he's working pretty well, you do this insistently, you insist on density and mass - you can put a person on a set of accurate Toledo scales, have him do this process for a few hours, put him back on the scales and find out his weight has gone up about thirty pounds. In 1957, Hubbard claimed that he was contacted by physicists from a scientific congress in Boston: "They wanted to know if I had any proof I could offer that thought created matter".
Hubbard said he gave them all his data about using Scientology's mental "mock-ups" to increase body weight, reported "I got back a enthusiastic wire saying that my data, as sent to them, had been of great assistance." Scientologists are taught to administer the "Touch Assist", a procedure designed by
Since its inception in 1954, the Church of Scientology has been involved in a number of controversies, including its stance on psychiatry, Scientology's legitimacy as a religion, the Church's aggressive attitude in dealing with its perceived enemies and critics, allegations of mistreatment of members, predatory financial practices, for example the high cost of religious training:191 and perceived exploitative practices. When mainstream media outlets have reported alleged abuses, representatives of the church have tended to deny such allegations; the church maintains strict control over the use of its symbols and religious texts. Although U. S. intellectual property law allows for "fair use" of material for commentary, educational purposes, etc. critics of the church such as Gerry Armstrong have argued the church unfairly and illegally uses the legal system to suppress "fair" uses, including suppressing any mention of the space opera aspects of the religion, including the story of Xenu.:371-383One example critics cited is a 1995 lawsuit against the Washington Post newspaper et al.
The Religious Technology Center, the corporation controlling L. Ron Hubbard's copyrighted materials, sued to prevent a Post reporter from describing church teachings at the center of another lawsuit, claiming copyright infringement, trade secret misappropriation, the circulation of their "advanced technology" teachings would cause "devastating, cataclysmic spiritual harm" to those not prepared. In her judgment in favor of the Post, Judge Leonie Brinkema noted: When the RTC first approached the Court with its ex parte request for the seizure warrant and Temporary Restraining Order, the dispute was presented as a straight-forward one under copyright and trade secret law. However, the Court is now convinced that the primary motivation of RTC in suing Lerma, DGS and the Post is to stifle criticism of Scientology in general and to harass its critics; as the vitriolic rhetoric of its briefs and oral argument now demonstrates, the RTC appears far more concerned about criticism of Scientology than vindication of its secrets.
There have been a number of controversies between Scientology and psychiatry since the founding of the Church of Scientology in 1952. Scientology is publicly, vehemently, opposed to both psychiatry and psychology. Scientologists view psychiatry as a barbaric and corrupt profession and encourage alternative care based on spiritual healing. According to the Church of Scientology, psychiatry has a long history of abusive care; the group's views have been disputed and condemned by experts in the medical and scientific community and been a source of public controversy. The Church of Scientology's objection to secular ideas about mental health are religious in nature, based on the conviction that humans are divine beings who have been marred by negative experiences acquired over several lifetimes. Scientology purports that the secular perception of what is mentally normal are not based on science, a contradiction to the claims of psychiatry and psychology; the Church founded an anti-psychiatry organization called Citizens Commission on Human Rights, which operates a museum in Hollywood, California called Psychiatry: An Industry of Death.
The museum is dedicated to criticizing what it describes as "an industry driven by profit". It has a variety of displays and exhibits that highlight physical psychiatric treatments, such as restraints, psychoactive drugs, electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery. Scientology has a reputation for hostile action toward anyone. Journalists, former Scientologists and various anti-cult groups have made accusations of wrongdoing against Scientology since the 1960s, Scientology has targeted these critics - without exception - for retaliation, in the form of lawsuits and public counter-accusations of personal wrongdoing. Many of Scientology's critics have reported they were subject to threats and harassment in their private lives; the organization's actions reflect a formal policy for dealing with criticism instituted by L. Ron Hubbard, called "attack the attacker". Hubbard codified this policy in the latter half of the 1960s in response to government investigations into the organization. In 1966, Hubbard wrote a criticism of the organization's behavior and noted the "correct procedure" for attacking enemies of Scientology: Spot, attacking us.
Start investigating them promptly for felonies or worse using own professionals, not outside agencies. Double curve our reply by saying we welcome an investigation of them. Start feeding lurid, sex, crime actual evidence on the attackers to the press. Don't tamely submit to an investigation of us. Make it rough, rough on attackers all the way. You can lose. Sure we break no laws. Sure we have nothing to hide. BUT attackers are an anti-Scientology propaganda agency so far as we are concerned, they have proven they will only lie no matter what they discover. So BANISH all ideas that any fair hearing is intended and start our attack with their first breath. Never wait. Never talk about us—only them. Use their blood, crime to get headlines. Don't use us. I speak from 15 years of experience in this. There has never yet been an attacker, not reeking with crime. All we had to do was look for it and murder would come out. In 2007 a BBC documentary on Scientology by reporter John Sweeney came under scrutiny by Scientologists.
Sweeney alleged "While making our BBC Panorama film Scientology and Me I have been shouted at
Church of Scientology editing on Wikipedia
A series of incidents in 2009 led to Church of Scientology-owned networks being banned from making edits to Wikipedia articles relating to Scientology. The Church of Scientology has long had a controversial history on the Internet, has initiated campaigns to manipulate material and remove information critical of itself from the web. From early in Wikipedia's history, conflict arose within the topic of Scientology on the website. Disputes began in earnest in 2005, with users disagreeing about whether or not to describe Scientology as an abusive cult or religion. By 2006, disagreements concerning the topic of Scientology on Wikipedia had grown more specific. Wikipedia user and Scientology critic David Gerard commented to The Daily Telegraph in 2006 that some articles were neutral due to a requirement to reference stated facts. Revelations from software produced by Virgil Griffith in 2007 called WikiScanner made public the nature of edits on Wikipedia which were able to be traced directly back to Church of Scientology-controlled computers.
CBS News and The Independent reported that edits by the Church of Scientology were made in attempts to remove criticism from the main article on the topic. The Times and Forbes noted that Scientologist computers were used to remove links between the Church of Scientology and a former anti-cult organization, since taken over by Scientology, the Cult Awareness Network. Der Spiegel reported that Wikiscanner revealed Scientology computers were used to promote Scientology's critical view of psychiatry, including adding links to the Scientology-founded Citizens Commission on Human Rights and to websites of other groups affiliated with Scientology. In January 2009, The Register reported on a case involving Scientology before Wikipedia's Arbitration Committee; the Arbitration Committee on Wikipedia is composed of a group of volunteers elected by the editing community to resolve difficult conflicts. Wikipedia administrators presented evidence during the case that Scientology-controlled computers were used to promote the organization, using multiple user accounts.
One user going by the pseudonym "COFS" admitted this pattern of editing, stated the edits from Scientology computers would continue. In May 2009, the Arbitration Committee decided to restrict editing from IP addresses belonging to the Church of Scientology, to prevent biased edits by editors within Church of Scientology-administered networks; the decision accorded Scientology-controlled IP addresses the same blockable status as open proxies on the site. A large number of Scientology critics were banned as well; the committee concluded that both sides had "gamed policy" and resorted to "battlefield tactics", with articles on living persons being the "worst casualties". Arbitration Committee member Roger Davies wrote the majority of the decision, commented to The New York Times that due to the controversial nature of the case, the decision was crafted so as not to focus directly upon any particular individual. Wikipedia media contact Dan Rosenthal emphasized in a statement to ABC News that it was accepted procedure on the site to ban users that had violated policy intended to prevent them from promoting propaganda.
Wikimedia Foundation spokesman and head of communications Jay Walsh said to Bloomberg BusinessWeek the Arbitration decision was intended to help restore Scientology-related articles to an acceptable state on the site. Wikimedia Germany spokesperson Catrin Schoneville stated to Computerwoche that the decision impacted the English Wikipedia, noted it was unclear whether a similar ruling might be applied to the German Wikipedia. Statements from Scientology spokeswoman Karin Pouw labelled the Arbitration ruling as a routine matter, maintained there were still "gross inaccuracies" on the Scientology article. In a statement to CNN, Pouw denied the presence of an organized campaign by the Church of Scientology to manipulate Wikipedia. Scientology representative Tommy Davis emphasized to the St. Petersburg Times that users critical of the organization were banned, denied that Scientology leadership arranged a campaign to manipulate entries on Wikipedia; the Church of Scientology has a controversial history on the Internet.
It has been criticized for attempting to restrict freedom of speech on the Internet. The Net; the organization has attempted to maintain power over its public image on the web. Early lawsuits involved in this dispute have included Religious Technology Center v. Netcom, as well as Religious Technology Center v. F. A. C. T. Net. Writing in his book, Cyber Rights: Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age, author Mike Godwin noted, "In one of the earliest publicized sets of cases involving intellectual property on the Net, the Church of Scientology has been exploring the uses of copyright and trade secret law when it comes to silencing its critics, many of them former members of the church." The Guardian noted, "According to insiders and security experts, Scientologists have been conducting concerted campaigns for more than a decade to remove online information critical of the organisation." In response to criticism over its actions on the Internet, Scientology has stated its efforts are aimed at defending the copyrights over its secretive spiritual documents.
Legal cases have involved a newsgroup focused on the topic called alt.religion.scientology, which revealed information from advanced Scientology methods including the Operating Thetan levels that describe the story of Xenu. In 1995, attorneys representing the Church of Scientology tried to get alt.religion.scientology removed from Usenet. This maneuver had the opposite impact for Scientology, serving to drive up popularity of alt.religion.scientology and result
Xenu called Xemu, according to Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, the dictator of the "Galactic Confederacy" who 75 million years ago brought billions of his people to Earth in DC-8-like spacecraft, stacked them around volcanoes, killed them with hydrogen bombs. Official Scientology scriptures hold that the thetans of these aliens adhere to humans, causing spiritual harm; these events are known within Scientology as "Incident II", the traumatic memories associated with them as "The Wall of Fire" or "R6 implant". The narrative of Xenu is part of Scientologist teachings about extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in earthly events, collectively described as "space opera" by Hubbard. Hubbard detailed the story in Operating Thetan level III in 1967, warning that the "R6 implant" was "calculated to kill anyone who attempts to solve it". Within the Church of Scientology, the Xenu story is part of the church's secret "Advanced Technology", considered a sacred and esoteric teaching, only revealed to members who have completed a lengthy sequence of courses costing large amounts of money.
The church avoids mention of Xenu in public statements and has gone to considerable effort to maintain the story's confidentiality, including legal action on the grounds of copyright and trade secrecy. Officials of the Church of Scientology deny or try to hide the Xenu story. Despite this, much material on Xenu has leaked to the public via court documents, copies of Hubbard's notes, the Internet. In commentary on the impact of the Xenu text, academic scholars have discussed and analyzed the writings by Hubbard and their place within Scientology within the contexts of science fiction, UFO religions and creation myths; the story of Xenu is covered in OT III, part of Scientology's secret "Advanced Technology" doctrines taught only to advanced members who have undergone many hours of auditing and reached the state of Clear followed by Operating Thetan levels 1 and 2. It is described in more detail in the accompanying confidential "Assists" lecture of October 3, 1968, is dramatized in Revolt in the Stars.
Hubbard wrote that Xenu was the ruler of a Galactic Confederacy 75 million years ago, which consisted of 26 stars and 76 planets including Earth, known as "Teegeeack". The planets were overpopulated; the Galactic Confederacy's civilization was comparable to our own, with aliens "walking around in clothes which looked remarkably like the clothes they wear this minute" and using cars and boats looking the same as those "circa 1950, 1960" on Earth. Xenu was about to be deposed from power, so he devised a plot to eliminate the excess population from his dominions. With the assistance of psychiatrists, he gathered billions of his citizens under the pretense of income tax inspections paralyzed them and froze them in a mixture of alcohol and glycol to capture their souls; the kidnapped populace was loaded into spacecraft for transport to the site of extermination, the planet of Teegeeack. The appearance of these spacecraft would be subconsciously expressed in the design of the Douglas DC-8, the only difference being.
When they had reached Teegeeack, the paralyzed citizens were off-loaded, placed around the bases of volcanoes across the planet. Hydrogen bombs were lowered into the volcanoes and detonated killing all but a few aliens. Hubbard described the scene in his film script, Revolt in the Stars:'Simultaneously, the planted charges erupted. Atomic blasts ballooned from the craters of Loa, Shasta, Fujiyama and many, many others. Arching higher and higher, up and outwards, towering clouds mushroomed, shot through with flashes of flame and fission. Great winds raced tumultuously across the face of Earth, spreading tales of destruction...' The now-disembodied victims' souls, which Hubbard called thetans, were blown into the air by the blast. They were captured by Xenu's forces using an "electronic ribbon" and sucked into "vacuum zones" around the world; the hundreds of billions of captured thetans were taken to a type of cinema, where they were forced to watch a "three-D, super colossal motion picture" for thirty-six days.
This implanted what Hubbard termed "various misleading data"' into the memories of the hapless thetans, "which has to do with God, the Devil, space opera, etcetera". This included all world religions; the two "implant stations" cited by Hubbard were said to have been located on Hawaii and Las Palmas in the Canary Islands. In addition to implanting new beliefs in the thetans, the images deprived them of their sense of personal identity; when the thetans left the projection areas, they started to cluster together in groups of a few thousand, having lost the ability to differentiate between each other. Each cluster of thetans gathered into one of the few remaining bodies; these became what are known as body thetans, which are said to be still clinging to and adversely affecting everyone except Scientologists who have performed the necessary steps to remove them. A government faction known as the Loyal Officers overthrew Xenu and his renegades, locked him away in "an electronic mountain trap" from which he has not escaped.
Although the location of Xenu is sometimes said to be the Pyrenees on Earth, this i
Death of Kaja Ballo
Kaja Bordevich Ballo was a university student in the French town of Nice. On March 28, 2008 Kaja Ballo took the personality test run by the Church of Scientology, committed suicide the same day. Family and friends stated that Ballo was happy prior to taking the test, that her mood shifted after receiving the results, she committed suicide hours after getting the results of the test back. In addition to a note, her family found the Scientology personality test among her belongings. French police investigated connections between Scientology and Ballo's death, interviewed two leaders of the organization in France. Prosecutors stated in December 2008 that they were unable to establish a causative link between the Scientology test and Ballo's death. A Scientology representative in France asserted that the Scientology personality test was not created by the Church of Scientology, that it was not related to Ballo's death; the Church of Scientology's information chief in Norway, Matthias Fosse stated that the test was not dangerous and that the organization did not bear any responsibility for Ballo's death.
Ballo's father retained a lawyer to investigate his daughter's death, the family considered filing a lawsuit against Scientology. 500 people attended Ballo's funeral on April 2008 at Grefsen Church in Oslo, Norway. The incident received significant media coverage in Norway, Verdens Gang and Dagbladet devoted multiple cover stories to investigating the controversy; the media faced criticism for its extensive coverage of Ballo's death. Norway parliament member Inga Marte Thorkildsen commented that she thought indications were that Scientology had a role in Ballo's suicide. Psychologist Rudy Myrvang told Aftenposten that the Scientology personality test was designed to break down an individual. Scientology critic Andreas Heldal-Lund stated parents of those involved in Scientology contacted him with similar concerns; the Norwegian Psychological Association warned individuals against taking such types of personality tests. Ballo's father wrote a book about his daughter's death, refrained from interviews with the press until the book was published in 2009.
Titled Kaja: 1988–2008, the book became a bestseller in Norway. It reached second place on the bestseller list of the Bestseller Association in Norway for general literature, in May 2009; the author stated he wrote the book as an expository method to both process his grief, inform his family about the controversy, educate the public about suicide. Kaja Bordevich Ballo was the daughter of a member of the Norwegian Parliament, her stepmother was Heidi Sørensen, a former member of the Norwegian Parliament, State Secretary in the Ministry of the Environment. Kaja Ballo took a personality test given by the Church of Scientology in Nice, France on March 28, 2008; the test is known either as Oxford Capacity Analysis. The testing location was situated close to her residential area in student housing, in a nearby storefront shopping facility, it was located only a few meters from her dormitory. According to representatives for Scientology, Ballo spent a total of one hour at the facility, she received a negative result from the test.
It indicated that some of her responses were situated on what is referred to in Scientology as "an unacceptable level". The test consists of 200 questions. Ballo missed 100 points on the test, this was seen as "unstable"; the Scientology test stated she had a "very limited" IQ. Ballo's friends and family members said. Family said. Ballo's uncle Heljar Ballo stated on a program on public broadcaster NRK that the results of the Scientology personality test were "devastating" to her, he served as a spokesperson for the family during an intense period of their grief. He described her as "bubbly", prior to taking the Scientology test. Heljar Ballo stated, "We can only relate the facts, that she was doing well in France, was happy and had many good friends, that she took this test." Ballo committed suicide, hours after hearing the results of the personality test conducted by Scientology. She jumped from the fourth floor of her dorm room in Nice, two hours after getting the results of the test, she left behind a note, along with the results of the Scientology personality test.
The results of the personality test were found among her belongings by her family. In April 2008, Aftenposten noted that the French police were investigating connections between Scientology and Ballo's death; the investigation was being headed by a judge in France. In April 2008 the French police interviewed two leaders of Scientology in France. Prosecutor Eric de Montgolfier opened an investigation into the incident in France, in April 2008. A French investigating prosecutor told Dagbladet, "We are convinced that it is a suicide, but the question is whether something encouraged her to this." Prosecutors stated in December 2008 that they could not determine a direct link between the Scientology personality test and Ballo's death. Agnes Bron, a Scientology representative in France, denied that the test was related to Ballo's death, asserted that the Scientology personality test was not created by the Church of Scientology. Scientologists pay royalties to the Hubbard Foundation for use of the test.
She said that Ballo never received the results of her personality test. A spokesperson for Scientology asserted to Verdens Gang that the results of the personality test are se