Eritrea the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, Djibouti in the southeast; the northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of 117,600 km2, includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands, its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea, first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890. Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around 5 million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Islam; the Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD.
It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien; the creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision, in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament but for foreign affairs and defense it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea, but the Eritreans that argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941, anticipated what was coming and in 1960 organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition.
In 1991, after 30 years of continuous armed struggle for independence, the Eritrean liberation fighters entered the capital city, Asmara, in victory. Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have never been held since independence. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world; the Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires long, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country to avoid; because all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was ranked as having the second-least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index, behind only North Korea. The sovereign state of Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, is an observer in the Arab League alongside Brazil, Venezuela and Turkey; the name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea.
It was first formally adopted with the formation of Italian Eritrea. The name persisted over the course of subsequent British and Ethiopian occupation, was reaffirmed by the 1993 independence referendum and 1997 constitution. At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind and provides a link between hominids and the earliest anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the section of the Danakil Depression in Eritrea was a major player in terms of human evolution, may contain other traces of evolution from Homo erectus hominids to anatomically modern humans. During the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the area was on the route out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World.
In 1999, the Eritrean Research Project Team composed of Eritrean, American and French scientists discovered a Paleolithic site with stone and obsidian tools dated to over 125,000 years old near the Bay of Zula south of Massawa, along the Red Sea littoral. The tools are believed to have been used by early humans to harvest marine resources such as clams and oysters. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley. Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Together with Djibouti, northern Somalia, the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Eritrea is considered the most location of the land which the ancient Egyptians called Punt, first mentioned in the 25th century BC; the ancient Puntites had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the rule of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. This is confirmed by genetic studies of mummified baboons.
In 2010, a study was conducted on baboon mummies that were brought from Punt to Egypt as gifts by the ancient Egyptians. The scientists from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies, preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Ethiopia – United States Mapping Mission
The Ethiopia-United States Mapping Mission known as the Ethi-U. S. Mapping Mission, was an operation undertaken by the United States Army during the 1960s to provide up-to-date topographic map coverage of the entire country of Ethiopia; the soldiers who conducted the mapping operations on the ground during that time used the latest surveying and mapping techniques and were exposed to many hardships and dangers, but they completed their mission near the end of the decade. The maps that were created still serve as the base maps for the country of Ethiopia and are presently being updated and maintained by the Ethiopian Mapping Authority; the Ethiopia-United States Mapping Mission was a mission of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 64th Engineer Battalion, 29th Engineer Company and U. S. Army Map Service U. S. Army Topographic Command, Special Foreign Activity during the Cold War in the 1960s to survey and map the entire country of Ethiopia under the rule of Emperor Haile Selassie I. Aviation support for the Army Map Service was provided by the 572nd Engineer Platoon and civilian pilots under contract, along with some early support from the U.
S. Air Force and Ethiopian Airlines. Battalion Headquarters was located in Leghorn and the Mapping Mission itself was headquartered in Addis Ababa, the nation's centrally located capital; the topographic surveyors and their aviation support pilots and crew served on field parties that endured sweltering heat in this Sub Saharan region of Africa. They struggled to subsist in remote areas of the country that included jungles, dense bush and swamps that harbored deadly snakes, lions, hyenas, cape buffalo, wild dogs, dangerous bees and ants, aggressive tribes of baboons and sometimes hostile natives, not to mention any number of malignant diseases. In addition, these troops and their support personnel were required to conduct their operations in active war zones along the Somalia and Sudan borders, where brutal wars and indiscriminate killing had been going on for years, the area of the country, now Eritrea, where the Eritrean Liberation Front was engaged in armed struggle with imperial Ethiopian forces.
The aerial photography used by the Ethiopia-United States Mapping Mission was flown by the U. S. Air Force at an altitude above 30,000 feet for optimum coverage; the geographic coordinates of the location of the aircraft with respect to known stations on the ground was controlled horizontally by a system known as HIRAN, a large and heavy system that required a large aircraft, such as the RB-50. High-quality horizontal geodetic control was established by the topographic surveyors on the bulky HIRAN ground stations by measuring their cardinal direction distances from nearby photo-identifiable points on which the surveyors established horizontal positions using theodolites and electronic distance meters and triangulation and traverse techniques. A device known as a Terrain Profile Recorder, which used the boiling point of a liquid chemical at a specific altitude and a gyroscopically stabilized radar altimeter was used to determine and maintain the altitude of the aircraft above a known elevation, such as a large body of water, while taking a series of aerial photographs that overlapped in the direction of flight and across flight lines in order to provide stereoscopic photo coverage of the entire area.
Strategically located photo-identifiable points were selected in areas of overlap between photo flight lines and elevations were established on these points by the topographic surveyors using differential levelling techniques. Geographic coordinates and elevations were extended by Army Map Service personnel to other strategically located points on the photos using computers and analytical methods of photogrammetric modeling; these computer-generated photo control points were used to compile, or draw, the planimetric map to the desired scale and delineate its contours from stereo models of the photos using special stereoscopic mapping equipment. Once the map images were drawn in detail to uniform scale and made into detailed map reproducibles through photographic processes, printing plates were produced and maps were printed in volume on an offset printing press, a fast and efficient process, still in use today. Gravimeters, small portable units that provide measurements of the force of gravity, were used by the surveyors to conduct gravity surveys to further understand the topography of the country and the geodetic datum.
Field classification specialists, soldiers as well as civilians from Army Map Service, were utilized to conduct research on the ground in order to provide names of cities and towns and any other prominent named features, as well as classify types of roads, hydrographic features such as lakes and rivers, any other features to be depicted on the maps. Interpreters were used to interview local officials and residents to determine proper names and usage of features; the Ethiopia-U. S. Mapping Mission was activated in July 1963 and during its lifespan involved about a thousand U. S. military and civilian personnel. It was closed out in July 1970. Photogrammetric and cartographic map finishing operations based on these surveys were subsequently completed by Army Map Service/TOPOCOM in Bethesda, Maryland; the primary 1:250,000-scale map series and 1:50,000-scale maps of special interest areas that were created as a result of this operation still serve as the base maps for the country of Ethiopia, are pr
John Robinson (aviator)
John Charles Robinson was an American aviator and activist, hailed as the "Brown Condor" for his service in serving in the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force against Fascist Italy. Robinson pushed for equal opportunities for African-Americans during his early career, was able to open his own eponymous aviation school in addition to initiating a program for black pilots at his college, the Tuskegee Institute. Robinson's achievements as an aviator were in stark contrast to the limited opportunities for most African-Americans in aviation careers, were an important factor in reducing racially based prohibitions in the United States. Robinson is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the Tuskegee Airmen" for inspiring this all-black set of pilots who served during the United States' entry into World War II. Robinson was born in 1903, in Carrabelle and spent his early years in Gulfport, Mississippi, his birth father died when he was a baby, leaving him and his four-year-old sister, with their mother Celeste Robinson, who married Charles Cobb.
Robinson was inspired by flight at an early age. According to one account, in 1910, Robinson was seven years old when he witnessed a float-equipped biplane flown by John Moisant in Gulfport, Mississippi. Robinson completed his education at Gulfport High School for the Colored in 1919, where he developed a strong interest in mechanics and machinery. However, Robinson could not continue his education in Gulfport. Robinson subsequently made preparations to attend the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, he first attended college at the Tuskegee Institute in September 1921 to study automotive mechanical science, graduating three years later. In addition to studying automobiles, he learned math, literature and history, he applied to the Curtiss-Wright School of Aviation in Chicago, but was denied each time. He ended up getting a job there as a janitor and unofficially sat in on classes until an instructor managed to secure a place for him, was the first black student at the school. Prior to entering college, Robinson held a short-term job as shoeshine man before getting a job as warehouse personnel.
After finishing his college degree, Robinson was unable to find a suitable career in his hometown of Gulfport. Robinson attributed this to racial discrimination as many of the local garages were under white ownership; when I talk to about automotive science they smile, look at each other, look at me like I belong behind a mule and a plow."Robinson moved to the Detroit where jobs in the automotive industry might be more plentiful. There, he had difficulty finding a line of work that his college degree would have ensured him due to his extensive knowledge on the trade being unwelcome by those who could not keep up with his intellect. Robinson continued to refuse jobs sweeping or as a messenger boy, managed to become a mechanic's assistant instead. Despite continued discrimination and failure to acknowledge his experience from some of his white coworkers, Robinson's skill was noticed and he was promoted to a full mechanic and was given a pay raise. Sometime he was approached by taxi cab owner named Fitzgerald who offered to double his pay to work for his garage.
Robinson took the job, but was never comfortable working for a business that secretly bootlegged whiskey to Canada during Prohibition Age. Despite his successes as a mechanic, Robinson began searching for means to take to the air, he was directed to a small field, where he met pilots Robert Williamson and Percy, earned his first flight in Robert's WACO-9 after fixing the engine on Percy's Curtiss JN-4D. Robinson was determined as to get back into the air, sought his next best chance to do so in Chicago. After opening a garage for income, he applied for the Curtiss-Wright School of Aviation. Robinson was rejected every time, but circumnavigated this roadblock altogether by becoming a janitor on Saturday nights, thereby being able to listen in on the lessons being taught in the evening class at the time. Becoming exposed to like-minded individuals in the subject, Robinson started the Aero Study Group, one that manage to build its own airplane, tested out by the same night teacher whose class Robinson cleaned, Bill Henderson.
Impressed by the plane, Henderson got Robinson a slot at the school, under the instructions of Mr. Snyder, Robinson became a licensed pilot. Before long, Robinson convinced the school to allow his peers from the Aero Study Group to enroll and become pilots as well. Robinson, along with his friend Cornelius Coffey formed the Challenger Air Pilots Association for African Americans wanting to fly. Deciding that aviation school should not be closed to African-Americans and his friend Cornelius Coffey opened their own airfield in Robbins, the John Robinson School of Aviation. To further promote black pilots, Robinson convinced his old college, the Tuskegee Institute, to open up a school of aviation, as soon as funds were available to do so. In January 1935, Robinson announced his intentions to volunteer to defend Ethiopia in its ongoing conflict with Italy; the announcement took place at a meeting of black business owners and community leaders sponsored by the Associated Negro Press in Chicago. Dr. Melaku Bayen, a cousin of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie, became aware of Robinson's announcement and qualifications, met with Robinson directly.
Bayen subsequently made a favorable recommendation for Robinson
Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, Morningside Park on the west, it is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, south to 96th Street. A Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle. Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century, but African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers during the Great Migration in the 20th century. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929–1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased and from the second half of the 20th century to the early 2000s, most of greater Harlem's residents were black.
Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth. Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10026, 10027, 10030, 10037, 10039, it is patrolled by the 32nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan referred to as Uptown by locals. Greater Harlem stretches from the Harlem River and East River in the east, to the Hudson River to the west. Central Harlem is the name of Harlem proper; this section is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the north. A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem.
The bulk of the area falls under Manhattan Community Board No. 10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets. Central Harlem includes the Mount Morris Park Historic District. West Harlem is composed of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, which collectively comprise Manhattan Community District 9 and are not part of Harlem proper; the two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway on the south. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the east. Manhattanville begins at 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street; the northernmost section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights. East Harlem called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the east, it is not part of Harlem proper. In the 2010s, some real estate professionals started called Morningside Heights "SoHa" in an attempt to gentrify the neighborhood.
New York City politicians have initiated legislative efforts to curtail this practice of neighborhood rebranding. Politically, central Harlem is in New York's 13th congressional district, it is in the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, 9th districts. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most Lenape, occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis; as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established. During the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground, it took a long time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868; the neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian.
The New York and Harlem Railroad, as well as the Interborough Rapid Transit and elevated railway lines, helped Harlem's economic growth, as they connected Harlem to lower and midtown Manhattan. The Jewish and Italian demographic decreased, while the black and Puerto Rican population increased in this time; the early-20th century Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities was fueled by their desire to leave behind the Jim Crow South, seek better jobs and education for their children, escape a culture of lynching violence. In 1910, Central Harlem was about 10% black. By 1930, it had reached 70%. Starting around the time of the end of World War I, Harlem became associated with the New Negro movement, the artistic
Education in Ethiopia
Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the [[Ethiopian Orthodox Church|southern nations of for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. Prior to 1974, Ethiopia had an estimated illiteracy rate well above 90% and compared poorly with the rest of Africa in the provision of schools and universities. After the Ethiopian Revolution, emphasis was placed on increasing literacy in rural areas. Practical subjects were stressed. By 2015, the literacy rate had increased to 49.1%, though this is still poor compared to most of the rest of Africa. There has been massive expansion throughout the educational system. Access to primary is limited to urban locations and they are owned by the private sector and Faith Based organizations. Primary school education consists of two cycles from grades 1 to 4 and grades 5 to 8. Secondary schools have two cycles from grades 9 to 10 and grades 11 to 12. Primary schools have over 90% of 7 year olds enrolled although only about half complete the two cycles.
This situation varies from one region to the other and it is worst in agro-pastoral locations, such as Somali and Afar regions, as well as in the growing regions such as Gambella and Benshangul Gumz. A much smaller proportion of children attend secondary school and fewer attend the second cycle. School attendance is lowest in rural areas due to lack of alternative occupations; the school curriculum in years covers more subjects at a higher level than curricula in most other countries. Low pay and undervaluation of teachers contributes to poor quality teaching; this is exacerbated by large class sizes and poor resources resulting on poor performance on national assessments. There is evidence of corruption including forgery of certificates. Many primary schools have introduced mother-tongue teaching but there have been difficulties where small minority languages are concerned. English medium instruction remains a problem throughout the years of education. Girls' access to education has been improved but early marriage decreases their attendance.
Girls' educational attainment is adversely affected by gender stereotypes, lack of sanitary facilities and the consequences of sexual activity. Jimma University is addressing some problems women experience in higher education. TVETs have introduced competence based assessments. Teacher training has been up-graded. All higher education has been expanding but this has not been accompanied by sufficient expansion in staffing and resources. There have been difficulties in introducing BPR with poorly paid university staff supplementing their incomes where possible. Universities need to match training to market demands. All colleges and universities suffer from the same disadvantages as schools. Library facilities are poor, classes are large and there is lack of equipment. Although the existence of inscriptions prove that literacy preceded the adoption of Christianity as the recognized religion in Ethiopia, by the time of the earliest surviving records formal education was controlled by the church. Educational opportunities were seen as the preserve of Ethiopia's ruling Amhara class.
However, these efforts provided educational opportunities to only a few. The student's second stage comprised the memorization of the first chapter of the first Epistle General of St. John in Geez; the study of writing would also begin at this time, in more modern times some arithmetic might be added. In the third stage the Acts of the Apostles were studied, while certain prayers were learnt, writing and arithmetic continued; the children, who studied signing would now be able to serve as choristers. The fourth stage began with the study of the Psalms of David and was considered an important landmark in a child's education, being celebrated by the parents by a feast in which the teacher, father confessor and neighbors were invited. A boy who had reached this stage would moreover be able to write, might act as a letter writer.... Other work in this stage included the study of Praises to God, the Virgin Mary, the Song of Solomon and the Songs of the Prophets. Many people have learned the song of Solomon.
The higher education the Ethiopian Church provided involved Church music, mathematics, history and manuscript writing. Another field of study was the religious dance performed as part of church services; until the early 1900s, formal education was confined to a system of religious instruction organized and presented under the aegis of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Church schools prepared individuals for other religious duties and positions. In the process, these schools provided religious education to the children of the nobility and to the sons of limited numbers of tenant farmers and servants associated with elite families; such schools served the Amhara and Tigray inhabitants of the Ethiopian highlands. Misguided policies caused few children to receive an education; as a result, Ethiopia did not meet the Educational standards of other African countries in the early 1900s. Toward the end of the nineteenth century Menelik II had permitted the establishment of European missionary schools. At the same time, Islamic schools provided some education for a small part of the