1960 Summer Olympics
The 1960 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London. On June 15, 1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, Rome won the rights to host the 1960 Games, having beaten Brussels, Mexico City, Detroit and Lausanne. Tokyo and Mexico City would subsequently host the proceeding 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics respectively. Toronto was interested in the bidding, but appears to have dropped out during the final phase of the bid process; this was the first of five unsuccessful attempts by Toronto to secure the Summer Olympics from until the 2008 games. Swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title. Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth consecutive gold medal in the team sabre event.
The Japanese men's gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds. The United States men's national basketball team—led by promising college players Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson and Jerry West—captured its fifth straight Olympic gold medal. Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class. Others to emulate his performance in an individual event are Al Oerter, Carl Lewis, Michael Phelps, Kaori Icho and, if the Intercalated Games of 1906 are included, Ray Ewry. German Armin Hary won the 100 metres in an Olympic record time of 10.2 seconds. Wilma Rudolph, a former polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track, she was acclaimed as "the fastest woman in the world". Jeff Farrell won two gold medals in swimming, he underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials. Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing's light-heavyweight gold medal.
Ramon "Buddy" Carr was one of the coaches. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men's 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history. Rafer Johnson defeated his rival and friend C. K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time; the future Constantine II, last King of Greece won his country a gold in sailing: dragon class. The Pakistani Men's Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian team victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistan's first Olympic gold medal. Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, Doug Blubaugh, who wrestled together growing up, won gold medals in their respective weight classes. Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and died in the hospital, it was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics.
South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime. It would not be allowed to return until 1992, by. Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, to become its national flag after independence, as the British had granted it self-government a year earlier. Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category, the first time that an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal. Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a field shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target, in so doing he dropped from second place to fourth. Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, competed in yachting for Venezuela; the future Queen Sofía of Spain represented her native Greece in sailing events. CBS paid US$394,000 in today's dollars for the exclusive right to broadcast the Games in the United States; this was the first Summer Olympic games to be telecast in North America. In addition to CBS in the United States, the Olympics were telecast for the first time in Canada and in Mexico.
Since television broadcast satellites were still two years into the future, CBS, CBC, TSM shot and edited videotapes in Rome, fed the tapes to Paris where they were re-recorded onto other tapes which were loaded onto jet planes to North America. Planes carrying the tapes landed at Idlewild Airport in New York City, where mobile units fed the tapes to CBS, to Toronto for the CBC, to Mexico City for TSM. Despite this arrangement, many daytime events were broadcast in North America on CBS and CBC, the same day they took place. Olympic Stadium² - opening/closing ceremonies, equestrian events Flaminio Stadium¹ - football finals Swimming Stadium¹ - swimming, water polo, modern pentathlon Sports Palace¹ - basketball, boxing Olympic Velodrome¹ - cycling, field hockey Small Sports Palace¹ - basketball, weightlifting Marble Stadium² - field hockey preliminaries Baths of Caracalla - gymnastics Basilica of Maxentius - wrestling Palazzo dei Congressi - fencing Umberto I Shooting Range¹ - modern pentathlon, shooting Roses Swimming Pool¹ - water polo Lake Albano, Castelgandolfo - rowing, canoeing Piazza di
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Abebe Bikila was an Ethiopian marathon runner. A double Olympic marathon champion, he won the first at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome while running barefoot, setting a world record, he is Africa's first world record breaking athlete in any sport and the first sub-Saharan African Olympic gold medallist. At the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Abebe became the first athlete to defend an Olympic marathon title, breaking his own world record in the process, he was a member of the Ethiopian Imperial Guard, an elite infantry division that safeguarded the Emperor of Ethiopia. Enlisting as a soldier before his athletic career, he rose to the rank of shambel. In Ethiopia, Abebe is formally known as Shambel Abebe Bikila, he was a pioneer in long-distance running. Mamo Wolde, Juma Ikangaa, Tegla Loroupe, Paul Tergat, Haile Gebrselassie—all recipients of the New York Road Runners' Abebe Bikila Award—are a few of the athletes who have followed in his footsteps to establish East Africa as a force in long-distance running.
Abebe participated in a total of sixteen marathons, winning twelve and finishing fifth in the 1963 Boston Marathon. In July 1967, he sustained the first of several sports-related leg injuries which prevented him from finishing his last two marathons. On March 22, 1969, Abebe was paralysed as a result of a car accident. Although he regained some upper-body mobility, he never walked again. Abebe competed in archery and table tennis at the 1970 Stoke Mandeville Games in London, an early predecessor of the Paralympic Games, while receiving medical treatment in England, he competed in both sports at a 1971 competition for the disabled in Norway, won its cross-country sleigh-riding event. Abebe died at age 41 on October 25, 1973, of a cerebral hemorrhage related to his accident four years earlier, he received a state funeral, Emperor Haile Selassie declared a national day of mourning. Many schools and events, including Abebe Bikila Stadium in Addis Ababa, are named after him; the subject of biographies and films documenting his athletic career, Abebe is featured in publications about the marathon and the Olympics.
Abebe was born on August 7, 1932, in the small community of Jato part of the Debre Berhan district of Shewa. His birthday coincided with the 1932 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon. Abebe was her second husband, Bikila Demissie. During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, his family was forced to move to the remote town of Gorro. By Wudinesh had divorced Abebe's father and married Temtime Kefelew; the family moved back to Jato, where they had a farm. As a young boy Abebe played gena, a traditional long-distance hockey game played with goalposts sometimes miles apart. Around 1952, he joined the 5th Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Guard after moving to Addis Ababa the year before. During the mid-1950s, Abebe ran 20 km from the hills of Sululta to back every day. Onni Niskanen, a Swedish coach employed by the Ethiopian government to train the Imperial Guard, soon noticed him and began training him for the marathon. In 1956, Abebe finished second to Wami Biratu in the Ethiopian Armed Forces championship. According to biographer Tim Judah, his entry in the Olympics was a "long planned operation" and not a last-minute decision, as was thought.
Abebe married 15-year-old Yewebdar Wolde-Giorgis on March 16, 1960. Although the marriage was arranged by his mother, Abebe was happy and they remained married for the rest of his life. In July 1960, Abebe won his first marathon in Addis Ababa. A month he won again in Addis Ababa with a time of 2:21:23, faster than the existing Olympic record held by Emil Zátopek. Niskanen entered Abebe Bikila and Abebe Wakgira in the marathon at the 1960 Rome Olympics, which would be run on September 10. In Rome, Abebe Bikila purchased new running shoes, he decided to run barefoot instead. The late-afternoon race started at the foot of the Capitoline Hill staircase and finished at the Arch of Constantine, just outside the Colosseum; the course twice passed Piazza di Porta Capena, where the Obelisk of Axum was located. When the runners passed the Obelisk the first time Abebe was at the rear of the lead pack, which included Great Britain's Arthur Keily, Moroccan Rhadi Ben Abdesselam, Ireland's Bertie Messitt, Belgian Aurèle Vandendriessche.
Between 5 km and 20 km, the lead changed hands several times. By about 25 km, however and ben Abdesselam moved away from the rest of the pack. Trailing by about two minutes at the 30 km mark were New Zealand's Barry Magee, to finish third in 2:17:18.2 and Sergei Popov, the world marathon record holder at the time, who finished fifth. Abebe and ben Abdesselam remained together until the last 500 m. Nearing the Obelisk again, Abebe sprinted to the finish. In the early-evening darkness, his path along the Appian Way was lined with Italian soldiers holding torches. Abebe's winning time was 2:15:16.2, twenty-five seconds faster than ben Abdesselam at 2:15:41.6, breaking Popov's world record by eight tenths of a second. After crossing the finish line Abebe began to touch his toes and run in place, said that he could have run another 10–15 km. Abebe returned to his homeland a hero, he was greeted by a large crowd, many dignitaries and the commander of the Imperial Guard, Brigadier-General Mengistu Neway.
Abebe was paraded through the streets of Addis Ababa along a procession route lined with thousands of people and presented to Emperor Haile Selassie. The emperor awarded him the Star of Ethiopia and promoted him to the rank of asiraleqa (c
Athletics at the 1960 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres
These are the official results of the Men's 100 metres event at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy. The competition was held at the Olympic Stadium on 1 September. Sixty-five competitors from 48 nations entered. Since winning the 1958 European Championship, Armin Hary was a known commodity, his incredible reaction time had been clocked using high speed cameras at.03 of a second, while normal humans react from.15 upward. Some of his competitors thought. Along with Enrique Figuerola asking for a pause, the proceedings to start this 10 second race took 20 minutes. Hary's incredible reaction to the gun and sprint form through the acceleration phase has been studied for generations, needless to say it put him in the lead, on the outside of the track in lane 6, putting nearly a 2 metre gap on Peter Radford to his inside. Dave Sime was the slowest out of the blocks with a deficit to make up across the track from Hary in lane 1, but make up the deficit he did, gaining with every step, passing the field by 70 metres and gaining until he was running stride for stride against Hary at the line.
Hary held Sime off. With the fastest closing speed over the last 20 metres, Radford made up a big gap, to take the slight edge over Figueola and Frank Budd all finishing together; as a professor of sports science, Radford said he thinks he figured out the "tell" Hary used to anticipate the gun."He'd wait until we were all on our fingertips in the set position. He'd take up his place, pause momentarily – and run, he might get caught with a false start, but he might get away with it." Hary ran representing EUA, a combined team of German athletes from East and West Germany. Armin Hary and Dave Sime tied the Olympic record. Wind speed = -0.0 m/s. Heat one Heat two Heat three Heat four Heat five Heat six Heat seven Heat eight Heat nine The top three runners in each of the four heats advanced to the semifinals. Heat one Heat two Heat three Heat four The top three runners in each of the two semifinals advanced to the final. Heat one Heat two Olympic Report 1960 Volume 2
Athletics at the 1960 Summer Olympics – Men's marathon
These are the official results of the men's marathon at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, held on Saturday September 10, 1960. There were a total number of 69 participants from 35 nations. Official report