1972 Summer Olympics medal table
The 1972 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, took place in Munich, from 26 August through 11 September 1972. A total of 7,134 athletes from 121 National Olympic Committees competed in 195 events from 23 sports. Men's indoor handball, slalom canoeing and kayaking all made their Olympic debuts, while archery returned to the Olympic program after a 52-year hiatus. Rhodesia, like South Africa, was still segregated in 1972 and yet the International Olympic Committee voted to invite Rhodesia to the 1972 Games. African nations protested this invitation and threatened to boycott the Games. Three days before the opening ceremonies the IOC voted to rescind their invitation and exclude the Rhodesian athletes; the Games were overshadowed by what has come to be known as the Munich massacre. On September 5 a group of eight Palestinian terrorists belonging to the Black September Organization broke into the Olympic Village and took nine Israeli athletes and officials hostage in their apartments.
Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in. Late in the evening of September 5, the terrorists and their hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country; the German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the number of terrorists and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting; the five remaining hostages were machine-gunned by another terrorist. Athletes from 48 NOCs won medals; the Soviet Union edged the United States in gold medals. Another notable rivalry took place between West Germany. Led by gymnast Karin Janz, who won two golds, two silvers and one bronze, East Germany beat West Germany to third place in the total medal count. East Germany would nearly overtake the United States in 1976, finish second in the medal count in 1980 and 1988.
American swimmer Mark Spitz won seven events, breaking the record for most gold medals by a single athlete in a single Olympic Games. Soviet gymnast Olga Korbut delivered another memorable performance, she entered the Olympics as an alternate on the Soviet gymnastics team, replaced an injured teammate before the start of the competition. Korbut performed magnificently during the team competition and captured the global television audience with her personality, she helped the Soviet team win its sixth straight Olympic title and went on to win two more individual gold medals and one silver. Japanese gymnast Sawao Kato won three gold and two silver medals, including the men's individual all-around title; this was the second individual all-around title for Kato, after 1968. Kato would go on to take silver in the all-around competition in 1976 to cap an Olympic career medal total of eight golds, three silvers and one bronze. Finnish runner Lasse Virén won both 10,000 metre races; the 10,000 metres was won in dramatic fashion after he recovered from a fall to win and set a world record.
He would repeat the double at the 1976 Games. The medal table is based on information provided by the International Olympic Committee and is consistent with IOC convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals won by an NOC; the number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically. * Host nation 1972 Winter Olympics medal table Buchanon, Ian. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5574-7. Retrieved 2010-09-08. Wilkinson Johnson, Molly. Training socialist citizens: sports and the state in East Germany. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. ISBN 978-90-04-16957-9. Retrieved 2010-09-08. Woolum, Janet. Outstanding women athletes. Phoenix, United States: The Oryx Press. ISBN 1-57356-120-7. Retrieved 2010-09-08
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972. The sporting nature of the event was overshadowed by the Munich massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September terrorists; the 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. The West German Government had been eager to have the Munich Olympics present a democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "Die Heiteren Spiele", or "the cheerful Games"; the logo of the Games was a blue solar logo by Otl Aicher, the designer and director of the visual conception commission. The Olympic mascot, the dachshund "Waldi", was the first named Olympic mascot; the Olympic Fanfare was composed by Herbert Rehbein.
The Olympic Park is based on Frei Otto's plans. The competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall and the Olympic Stadium, an Olympic village close to the park; the design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time. Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome, over bids presented by Detroit and Montréal. Montréal would host the following Olympic games in 1976; the Games were overshadowed by what has come to be known as the "Munich massacre". Just before dawn on September 5, a group of eight members of the Black September terrorist organization broke into the Olympic Village and took eleven Israeli athletes and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in. Late in the evening of September 5 that same day, the terrorists and their nine remaining hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country.
The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the numbers of their opposition and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting; the 5 remaining hostages were machine-gunned to death. All but three of the terrorists were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, they were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972, in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa jet. Two of those three were hunted down and assassinated by the Mossad. Jamal Al-Gashey, believed to be the sole survivor, is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children; the Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded, Avery Brundage, the International Olympic Committee president, declared that "the Games must go on".
A memorial ceremony was held in the Olympic stadium, the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 24 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics. Security at Olympics was heightened further beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympics, as they were the first to take place after the 2001 September 11 attacks; the massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted after World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9, similar to the British SAS, it led Israel to launch a campaign known as Operation Wrath of God, in which those suspected of involvement were systematically tracked down and assassinated. The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September. An account of the aftermath is dramatized in three films: the 1976 made-for-TV movie 21 Hours at Munich, the 1986 made-for-TV movie Sword of Gideon and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film Munich.
In her film 1972, Artist Sarah Morris interviews Dr. Georg Sieber, a former police psychiatrist who advised the Olympics' security team, about the events and aftermath of Black September; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Avery Brundage. Mark Spitz set a world record when he won seven gold medals in a single Olympics, bringing his lifetime total to nine. Being Jewish, Spitz was asked to leave Munich before the closing ceremonies for his own protection, after fears arose that he would be an additional target of those responsible for the Munich massacre. Spitz's record stood until 2008, when it was beaten by Michael Phelps who won eight gold medals in the pool. Olga Korbut, a Soviet gymnast, became a media star after winning a gold medal in the team competition event, failing to win in the individual all-around after a fall, winning two gold medals in the Balance Beam and the floor exercise events. In the final of the men's basketball, the United States lost to the Soviet Union in what is widely
Degaga "Mamo" Wolde was an Ethiopian long distance runner who competed in track, cross-country, road running events. He was the winner of the marathon at the 1968 Summer Olympics. Degaga was born on 12 June 1932 in Ada'a to an Oromo family, his younger brother, Demissie Wolde, was destined to become an international distance running star. In 1951, Degaga moved to Addis Ababa. At his first Olympic appearance in 1956, Degaga competed in 1,500 m and the 4x400 relay, he didn't compete in the 1960 Summer Olympics, when Abebe Bikila became the first Ethiopian to win a gold medal. Degaga claimed his absence was due to the government's desire to send him on a peacekeeping mission to the Congo during the Congo Crisis. According to him, in the government's ensuing conflict with the Ethiopian Olympic Committee, who wanted him to compete, he didn't get sent to either event. However, athlete Said Moussa Osman, who represented Ethiopia in the 800 m at the 1960 Olympics, stated that Degaga lost at the trials and didn't make it on the team.
Beginning in the 1960s, Degaga's focus changed from middle distance races to long distances. He made Ethiopia's first mark at international cross-country races when he took the International Juan Muguerza in Elgoibar, winning in 1963 and 1964, at the Cross de San Donostin in San Sebastian, Spain, in the same years, he placed fourth in the 10,000 m at the 1964 Summer Olympics, won by Billy Mills of the United States in one of the biggest upsets in the history of Olympic competition. Demissie became a marathon runner. Both brothers competed in the 1964 Olympic marathon. On August 3, 1964, in the Ethiopian Olympic trials, a race held at 8,000 feet, Degaga qualified by running 2:16:19.2, just 4/10ths of a second behind Abebe Bikela, with Demissie finishing 2:19:30, for 3rd place. Although Degaga dropped out early, after being among the leaders for much of the 1964 Olympic race, finished tenth in 2:21:25.2. On April 21, 1965, as part of the opening ceremonies for the second season of the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair and Degaga participated in an exclusive ceremonial half marathon.
They ran from the Arsenal in Central Park at 64th Street & Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to the Singer Bowl at the fair. They carried with them a parchment scroll with greetings from Haile Selassie. In 1967, he repeated his wins in San Sebastian and Elgiobar, won again at the latter event in 1968. In 1968 Summer Olympics, Degaga became the second Ethiopian to win gold in the marathon. Earlier in the same Olympics, he had won the silver medal in the 10,000 m. At the age of 40, Degaga won his third Olympic medal placing third at the 1972 Olympic marathon, while Demissie placed 18th in 2:20:44.0. Degaga won the marathon race in the 1973 All-Africa Games, he blamed his Olympic third place showing in 1972 on ill-fitting shoes forced on him by Ethiopian officials. He became only the second person in Olympic history to medal in successive Olympic marathons. Both medalists who finished ahead of Degaga, Frank Shorter from the U. S. A. and Belgium's Karel Lismont would repeat Degaga's feat in 1976 as they finished second and third behind East Germany's Waldemar Cierpinski.
Cierpinski repeated his win in 1980. Erick Wainaina was the most recent and only other marathoner to accomplish the feat, finished third in Atlanta in 1996 and second in Sydney in 2000. Degaga won the marathon race in the 1973 All-Africa Games. In 1951, Degaga joined the Imperial Guard, he served as a peacekeeper in Korea from 1953 to 1955. In 1993, Degaga was arrested on the accusation that he participated in a Red Terror execution during the regime of the dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam, he argued. The IOC campaigned the Ethiopian government for his release. In early 2002 he was sentenced to six years of imprisonment. Therefore, he was released because he had spent nine years in detention waiting for his trial. On May 26, 2002, Degaga died of liver cancer at age 69, just a few months after his release, he had three children. Degaga is interred in Saint Joseph's Church Cemetery in Addis Ababa. Mamo Wolde at the International Olympic Committee
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Miruts Yifter was an Ethiopian athlete from Tigray and winner of two gold medals at the 1980 Summer Olympics. His date of birth is given as 15 May 1944, though there is some uncertainty about this, his name is sometimes spelled as Muruse Yefter. Born in Adigrat, in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, Yifter spent early parts of his youth working in different factories and as a carriage driver, his talent as a long-distance runner was noticed. Yifter was called to the Ethiopian national team for the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, but he made his Olympic debut four years in Munich Olympics where he won a bronze medal in 10,000 metres. However, he arrived too late for the 5000 metres final. In the 1973 All-Africa Games he won one silver. At the 1st African Championships in 1979 he won two gold medals. Yifter was unable to participate in the 1976 Summer Olympics because his nation boycotted the event. Four years in Moscow, Yifter made up for his disappointments by winning gold in both the 10,000 and 5000 m.
In the final of the 10,000 m he won by ten metres. Five days in the 5000 m final, Yifter was boxed in during the last lap, but with 300 m to go, his Ethiopian teammate, Mohamed Kedir, stepped aside and Yifter again sprinted to victory. Due to his abrupt change in speed when executing his kick to the finish, Yifter acquired the nickname "Yifter the Shifter." At Coamo, Puerto Rico on 6 February 1977, Yifter ran a World Best for the half-marathon of 1:02:57. At the Moscow Olympics, part of the mystery surrounding Yifter was the question of his age, reported to be between 33 and 42. Yifter refused to give a definitive answer, telling reporters: "Men may steal my chickens, but no man can steal my age." The most common versions of his date of birth are 1 January 1938 or 15 May 1944. Yifter continued to compete into the early 1980s, running on Ethiopia's gold medal winning team at the 1982 and 1983 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. Miruts Yifter died at age of 72 on 22 December 2016 in Toronto, Ontario where he had lived since 2000.
According to family members, he had been suffering from respiratory problems. He was buried in the Holy Trinity Cathedral cemetery. Miruts Yifter at IAAF Miruts Yifter at the International Olympic Committee Miruts Yifter at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Cycling at the 1972 Summer Olympics
The cycling competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich consisted of two road cycling events and five track cycling events, all for men only. 359 cyclists from 54 nations competed. International Olympic Committee results database