Geʽez is an ancient South Semitic language of the Ethiopic branch. The language originates from the region encompassing southern Eritrea and northern Ethiopia regions in the Horn of Africa. Today, Geʽez is used only as the main language of liturgy of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo churches, the Ethiopian and Eritrean Catholic churches, the Beta Israel Jewish community. However, in Ethiopia, Amharic or other local languages, in Eritrea and Ethiopia's Tigray Region, Tigrinya may be used for sermons. Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre are related to Geʽez; the closest living languages to Geʽez are Tigre and Tigrinya with lexical similarity at 71% and 68%, respectively. Some linguists do not believe that Geʽez constitutes a common ancestor of modern Ethiosemitic languages, but that Geʽez became a separate language early on from another hypothetical unattested language, which can be seen as an extinct sister language of Amharic and Tigrinya; the foremost Ethiopian experts such as Amsalu Aklilu point to the vast proportion of inherited nouns that are unchanged, spelled identically in both Geʽez and Amharic.
A /æ/ < Proto-Semitic *a. Geʽez is transliterated according to the following system: Because Geʽez is no longer a spoken language, the pronunciation of some consonants is not certain. Gragg writes "The consonants corresponding to the graphemes ś and ḍ have merged with ሰ and ጸ in the phonological system represented by the traditional pronunciation—and indeed in all modern Ethiopian Semitic.... There is, however, no evidence either in the tradition or in Ethiopian Semitic what value these consonants may have had in Geʽez." A similar problem is found for the consonant transliterated ḫ. Gragg notes that it corresponds in etymology to velar or uvular fricatives in other Semitic languages, but it was pronounced the same as ḥ in the traditional pronunciation. Though the use of a different letter shows that it must have had some other pronunciation, what that pronunciation was is not certain; the chart below lists /ɬ/ and /ɬʼ/ as possible values for ś and ḍ respectively. It lists /χ/ as a possible value for ḫ.
These values are tentative, but based on the reconstructed Proto-Semitic consonants that they are descended from. In the chart below, IPA values are shown; when transcription is different from the IPA, the character is shown in angular brackets. Question marks follow phonemes. In Geʽez, emphatic consonants are phonetically ejectives; as is the case with Arabic, emphatic velars may be phonetically uvular. Geʽez consonants have a triple opposition between voiceless and ejective obstruents; the Proto-Semitic "emphasis" in Geʽez has been generalized to include emphatic p̣. Geʽez has phonologized labiovelars, descending from Proto-Semitic biphonemes. Geʽez ś ሠ Sawt is reconstructed. Like Arabic, Geʽez merged Proto-Semitic š and s in ሰ. Apart from this, Geʽez phonology is comparably conservative. Geʽez distinguishes two genders and feminine, which in certain words is marked with the suffix -t; these are less distinguished than in other Semitic languages, in that many nouns not denoting persons can be used in either gender: in translated Christian texts there is a tendency for nouns to follow the gender of the noun with a corresponding meaning in Greek.
There are two numbers and plural. The plural can be constructed either by suffixing - by internal plural. Plural using suffix: ʿāmat – ʿāmatāt'year', māy – māyāt'water'. Internal plural: bet – ʾābyāt'house, houses'. Nouns have two cases, the nominative, not marked and the accusative, marked with final -a. Internal plurals follow certain patterns. Triconsonantal nouns follow one of the following patterns. Quadriconsonantal and some triconsonantal nouns follow the following pattern. Triconsonantal nouns that take this pattern must have at least one long vowel Noun phrases have the following overall order: noun - Adjectives and determiners agree with the noun in gender and number: Relative clauses are introduced by a pronoun which agrees in gender and number with the preceding noun: As in many Semitic languages, possession by a noun phrase is shown through the construct state. In Geʽez, this is formed by suffixing /-a/ to the possessed noun, followed by the possessor, as in the following examples: Possession by a pronoun is indicated by a suffix on the possessed noun, as seen in the following table: The following examples show a few nouns with pronominal possessors: Another common way of indicating possession by a noun phrase combines the pronominal suffix on a noun with the possessor preceded by the preposition /la=/'to, for' (Lambdin
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the blacks", referring to West Africa and northern Central Africa; the Arabic name was translated as Negroland on older English maps. The name was understood to denote the western part of the Sahel region, it thus encompassed the geographical belt between the Sahara and the coastal West Africa. In modern usage, the phrase "The Sudan" is used in a separate context to refer to the present-day country of Sudan, the western part of which forms part of the larger region, from which South Sudan gained its independence in 2011; the Sudan region extends in some 5,000 km in a band several hundred kilometers wide across Africa. It stretches from the border of Senegal, through southern Mali, Burkina Faso, southern Niger, northern Nigeria, northern Ghana, southern Chad, the western Darfur region of present-day Sudan, South Sudan.
To the north of the region lies the Sahel, a more arid Acacia savanna region that in turn borders the Sahara Desert further north, to the east the Ethiopian Highlands. In the southwest lies the West Sudanian Savanna, a wetter, tropical savanna region bordering the tropical forests of West Africa. In the center is Lake Chad, the more fertile region around the lake, while to the south of there are the highlands of Cameroon. To the southeast is the East Sudanian Savanna, another tropical savanna region, bordering the forest of Central Africa; this gives way further east to the Sudd, an area of tropical wetland fed by the water of the White Nile. The people of the Sudan region share similar lifestyles, dictated by the geography of the region; the economy is pastoral, while sorghum and rice are cultivated in the southern parts of the region. The region was governed in colonial times by European powers, including the French ann the latter half of the 20th century. Sub-Saharan Africa Sudanian Savanna East Sudanian Savanna West Sudanian Savanna Readers Digest: Atlas of the World, Rand-McNally ISBN 0-276-42001-2
Sub-Saharan Africa is, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries that are or located south of the Sahara, it contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab states within the Arab world. The states of Somalia, Djibouti and the Arabic speaking Mauritania are however geographically in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are members of the Arab League as well; the UN Development Program lists 46 of Africa’s 54 countries as “sub-Saharan,” excluding Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Somalia and Tunisia. The Sahel is the transitional zone in between the Sahara and the tropical savanna of the Sudan region and farther south the forest-savanna mosaic of tropical Africa. Since 3500 BCE, the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts.
The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a Wet Sahara phase, during which larger lakes and more rivers existed; the use of the term has been criticized because it refers to the South only by cartography conventions and projects a connotation of inferiority. Geographers divided the region into several distinct ethnographic sections based on each area's respective inhabitants. Commentators in Arabic in the medieval period used the general term bilâd as-sûdân for the vast Sudan region, or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa to Western Sudan, its equivalent in Southeast Africa was Zanj, situated in the vicinity of the Great Lakes region. The geographers drew an explicit ethnographic distinction between the Sudan region and its analogue Zanj, from the area to their extreme east on the Red Sea coast in the Horn of Africa. In modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea was Al-Habash or Abyssinia, inhabited by the Habash or Abyssinians, who were the forebears of the Habesha.
In northern Somalia was Barbara or the Bilad al-Barbar, inhabited by the Eastern Baribah or Barbaroi, as the ancestors of the Somalis were referred to by medieval Arab and ancient Greek geographers, respectively. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the populations south of the Sahara were divided into three broad ancestral groups: Hamites and Semites in the Horn of Africa and Sahel related to those in North Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family; the ancient Greeks sometimes referred to sub-Saharan Africa as Aethiopia, but sometimes applied this name more to the land which became Ethiopia. Sub-Saharan Africa has a wide variety of climate biomes. South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in particular are considered Megadiverse countries, it has a wet summer season. The Sahel shoots across all of Africa at a latitude of about 10° to 15° N. Countries that include parts of the Sahara Desert proper in their northern territories and parts of the Sahel in their southern region include Mauritania, Niger and Sudan.
The Sahel has a hot semi-arid climate. South of the Sahel, there is a belt of savanna, widening to include most of South Sudan and Ethiopia in the east; the Horn of Africa globally includes hot desert climate along the coast but hot semi-arid climate can be found much more in the interior, contrasting with savannah and moist broadleaf forests in the interior of Ethiopia. Tropical Africa encompasses tropical rainforest stretching along the southern coast of West Africa and across most of Central Africa west of the African Great Lakes The Eastern miombo woodlands are an ecoregion of Tanzania and Mozambique; the Serengeti ecosystem extends to southwestern Kenya. The Kalahari Basin includes the Kalahari Desert, surrounded by a belt of semi-desert; the Bushveld is a tropical savanna ecoregion of Southern Africa. The Karoo is a semi-desert in western South Africa. According to paleontology, early hominid skull anatomy was similar to that of their close cousins, the great African forest apes and chimpanzee.
However, they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands, giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. This occurred 10 million to 5 million years ago. By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern and central Africa, they were tool users rather than tool manufacturers. The next major evolutionary step occurred around 2.3 million BCE, when primitive stone tools were used to scavenge the carcasses of animals killed by other predators, both for their meat and their marrow. In hunting, H. habilis was most not capable of competing with large predators and was more prey than hunter, although H. habilis did steal eggs from nests and may have been able to catch small game and weakened larger prey such as
The Ethiopian Regiment better known as Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment was the name given to a British colonial military unit organized during the American Revolution by John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, last Royal Governor of Virginia. It has nothing to do with the present day country of Ethiopia. Composed of slaves who had escaped from Patriot masters, it was led by British officers and sergeants. Black Loyalists served in guerrilla units such as the elite Black Brigade, as well as together with British troops and white Loyalist militia recruited in the colonies. In 1775, Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation offering freedom to all slaves of revolutionaries who were willing to join him under arms against the rebels in the American Revolutionary War. Five hundred Virginia slaves promptly abandoned their Revolutionary masters and joined Dunmore's ranks; the governor formed them into the Ethiopian Regiment known as Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment. During the war, tens of thousands of slaves escaped, having a substantial economic effect on the American South.
An estimated 25,000 slaves escaped in South Carolina. Slaves escaped in New England and New York joining the British forces occupying New York for freedom. While thousands went to the British lines for freedom, others took advantage of the wartime confusion to migrate to other areas of the colonies."Smallpox ruined the British plan to raise an army of slave and indentured servants by promising them freedom after the war- the disease killed off most of the Ethiopian Regiment as it assembled."Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, composed of escaped slaves, was the first black regiment in the service of the Crown during the revolution. By December 1775 the regiment had nearly 300 black people, including its most famous member, an escaped slave called Titus known as Tye. In years, he became known as Colonel Tye as an honorary title for his military skills. Private Tye and his comrades believed that they were fighting not just for their own individual freedom but for the freedom of enslaved black people in North America.
The Ethiopian Regiment saw service from 1775 to 1776. The Ethiopians saw action for the first time at the Battle of Kemp's Landing in November 1775; the Earl of Dunmore defeated the rebellious colonial militia. Two of its colonels were captured. One colonel was taken by one of his former slaves; the black regiment in British service was a symbol of hope for Americans of African descent. That black people were trained to bear arms and kill was a revolutionary idea at the time as they were with one of the world's best armies. In 1775 the Queen's Own Loyal Virginia Regiment, the Ethiopian Regiment, the 14th Regiment of Foot occupied Norfolk and Dunmore established his headquarters there. Virginia's Committee of Safety ordered Colonel William Woodford in command of 500 Virginia rebels to Norfolk to oppose Dunmore, his men and others gathered at one end of a key bridge, on a causeway that connected the mainland to the port of Norfolk. Dunmore's forces, including some of the Ethiopians, had constructed Fort Murray at the other end of the bridge, Colonel Woodford entrenched on his side of Great Bridge.
Woodford sent a black man to Dunmore as a double agent with false news of Woodford's strength The spy further said the force were "green" recruits who would be frightened off. Captain Samuel Leslie ordered Captain Charles Fordyce to lead 120 men of the 14th Foot down the causeway to attack the rebel position; the Ethiopian Regiment stood ready on Great Bridge supported by British cannon. Rebel sentries, notably the William Flora, slowed the British advance with "buck and ball". Alerted by the noise of battle, the rebels manned the breastwork; the Revolutionaries did not fire, waited until the British were close. Emboldened by the lack of an all-out assault, the British rushed forward. "The day is ours!" declared Captain Fordyce. Silence was followed by gunfire; the Americans cut down 12 privates. Of the wounded, two were former slaves who belonged to the Ethiopian Regiment: James Sanderson was wounded in the forearm. Woodford marched some of his men through the swamps and attacked the Ethiopian Regiment's flank, forcing them back in confusion.
The revolutionaries seized two British cannon, the British retreated back into their fort. In the following days, the British evacuated the fort and Norfolk, occupied by revolutionary forces including Woodford and his men. Titus was a slave who had run away from his master in Monmouth County, New Jersey before Lord Dunmore's proclamation of emancipation to slaves of rebels who would join his ranks, he heard of Lord Dunmore's proclamation, went to Virginia to enlist in Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment. Ethiopian Regiment regimental uniforms had sashes inscribed with the words, "Liberty to Slaves". Although the men were used for foraging and other labor, they saw battle. Dunmore's defeat was the first significant engagement of the American Revolutionary War in the South. Dunmore disbanded the Ethiopian Regiment in 1776 on Staten Island, although many of its members served as Black Pioneers during the occupation of New York. Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment was formed under white officers and noncommissioneds, although it is probable that some of the black recruits became sergeants.
Nothing is known of Tye's activitie
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
The Ethiopian Serenaders was a blackface minstrel troupe from the 1840s. Their first major performance was for John Tyler at the White House in 1844 as part of the "Especial Amusement of the President of the United States, His Family and Friends". After this success, the troupe altered its act to make it more "refined" and to appeal to a higher-class audience than had traditionally patronized blackface entertainment, they billed their shows as blackface "concerts" and added songs of a sentimental, romantic nature going so far as to perform pieces from popular operas. In exchange, they cut bawdy, humorous material like that used by the Virginia Minstrels and other troupes; the Serenaders saw great success with this formula and left for a tour in England beginning in 1846 performing at the St. James's Theatre for their London seasons. In England, they were mistaken for real black men, a misconception they always denied, asserting that they had not the "least drop of black blood in their veins".
In their absence, rivals such as the Christy Minstrels had gained a following in the United States. Upon their return from England in 1847, the Spirit of the Times wrote that the Serenaders formal style in music and dress was too refined for audiences accustomed to the ribald humor of the Christys. Of a Serenaders performance, the article said, "... we listen and are pleased but leave with little desire to return." At Christys, "we listen and laugh and desire to go again and again." The Serenaders returned to London, this time with the addition of William Henry Lane, a black man known as "Master Juba". The minstrel show remained popular in England through the end of the 19th century. Toll, Robert C.. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press. Watkins, Mel. On the Real Side: Laughing and Signifying—The Underground Tradition of African-American Humor that Transformed American Culture, from Slavery to Richard Pryor. New York: Simon & Schuster. Https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/94502276/