Titus Cornelius known as Titus and famously as Colonel Tye, was a slave of African descent in the Province of New Jersey who fought as a Black Loyalist during the American Revolutionary War. He fought with a volunteer corps of escaped Virginia Colony slaves in the Ethiopian Regiment and the "Black Brigade" associators. Tye died from tetanus and lockjaw from a musket wound in the wrist following a short siege in September 1780 against Captain Joshua Huddy. Tye was one of the most feared and effective guerrilla leaders opposing the American patriot forces in central New Jersey. Titus Cornelius was born into slavery in Colt's Neck, Monmouth County, Province of New Jersey and owned by John Corlies, a Quaker. Corlies's farm was located along the Navesink River, near the town of Shrewsbury, Titus worked there in his early life. At the onset of the American Revolution, there were about 8,200 slaves in the Province of New Jersey, second only to the Province of New York among the northern American colonies, in both the number and percentage of African-Americans.
Corlies, Titus's owner, held slaves despite his denomination's increasing opposition to slavery. By the 1760s, it was Quaker practice to teach slaves how to read and write and to free them at age 21. Yet, Corlies gave his slaves "no learning not inclined to give them any". Known to be hard on his slaves, Corlies whipped them for minor causes. Corlies kept his slaves past the age of 21, he was one of the last slaveholders in the region. In late 1775, a delegation from the Shrewsbury Meeting of the Society of Friends approached Corlies about his treatment of his slaves; the group of Quakers disapproved of Corlies's refusal to provide his slaves an education and his lack of adherence to the 1758 Quaker edict to end slavery. Corlies responded by saying that "he has not seen it his duty to give their freedom". Titus learned on his own about property, wealth and the political leanings of the families in the area. In 1778, the Society of Friends revoked Corlies's membership because of his unyielding refusal to emancipate his slaves.
In November 1775, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation offering freedom to all slaves and indentured servants who would leave American masters and join the British. Lord Dunmore's act prompted conspiracy among slaves in the Atlantic region, as many African Americans left their rebel masters to join the British; the proclamation and the disruption of the war contributed to an estimated nearly 100,000 slaves escaping during the Revolution, some to join the British. Planters considered Dunmore's offer a "diabolical scheme". Titus Cornelius coincidentally escaped from Corlies's property the day after Dunmore's proclamation and he joined British forces. Titus observed the Quakers' unsuccessful attempts to persuade Corlies to free his slaves. Reaching his twenty-first birthday inspired Titus to escape, as it marked the age when most Quakers freed their slaves. Carrying only a small amount of clothing "drawn up at one end with string", Titus left Corlies's property and walked toward Williamsburg, Virginia.
Corlies placed advertisements in Pennsylvania newspapers, promising a reward of "three pounds of proclamation money" for capturing Titus. Assuming the adopted name of "Tye", Titus enlisted in the Ethiopian Regiment. In his first experience seeing action at the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778, Tye captured Captain Elisha Shepard of the Monmouth militia and brought him to his imprisonment at the Sugar House in British-occupied New York City. Fought near Freehold, New Jersey, the Battle of Monmouth proved to be indecisive militarily, but it introduced British and Patriot forces to Tye's great ability as a soldier. Colonel Tye's knowledge of the topography of Monmouth County and his bold leadership soon made him a well-known and feared Loyalist guerrilla commander; the British paid him and his group, to destabilize the region. Orchestrated by Royal Governor William Franklin, the Loyalist son of Benjamin Franklin, this plan was an act of retaliation, in response to the Patriot confiscation of Tory properties.
When Monmouth Patriots began to hang captured Tories under the vigilante law that governed Monmouth County at the time and other British officials took action to raid Patriot towns. On July 15, 1779, accompanied by a Tory named, John Moody and fifty African Americans, Tye executed a daring raid on Shrewsbury, New Jersey, during which they captured eighty cattle, twenty horses, William Brindley and Elisha Cook, two well-known inhabitants. British officers paid his men five gold guineas for their successful raids. Tye and his fellow guerrilla fighters operated out of a forested base called Refugeetown in Sandy Hook, they targeted wealthy, slaveholding Patriots during their assaults, which took place at night. Tye led several successful raids during the summer of 1779, seizing food and fuel, taking prisoners, freeing many slaves. By the winter of 1779, Colonel Tye served with the "Black Brigade", a group of twenty-four black Loyalists. Tye's group worked in tandem with a white Loyalist unit, known as the "Queen's Rangers", to defend British-occupied New York City.
Traveling undetected into the towns of Monmouth County and his men seized cattle and silverplate, returned the resources to the weakened British forces. The Black Brigade helped to usher escaping slaves to their freedom inside British lines, assisted their transportation to Nova Scotia for resettlement, they raided patriot sympathizers in New Jersey, captured them, broug
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
The Queen's Rangers known as the Queen's American Rangers, Simcoe's Rangers, were a Loyalist military unit of the American Revolutionary War. They were named for Queen Charlotte, consort of George III. Formed as a light corps in the tradition of the ranging companies in British service during the Seven Years' War, the Queen's Rangers operated on the flanks and in advance of Crown forces, manning outposts and patrolling, as well as carrying out reconnaissance and raiding operations. A small number of Black Loyalists, who had served in the Black Brigade and Butler's Rangers, were merged into the Queen's Rangers. After the war, the Rangers moved to the British Nova Scotia colony, now Saint John, New Brunswick, disbanded, but were re-formed in Upper Canada before disbanding again in 1802; the origins of the Queen's Rangers began in the Seven Years' War, during which France and Great Britain fought for territories in the New World. At first, French-Canadian habitants and their Indian allies were quite effective by employing guerrilla tactics against the British regulars.
To counter the French tactics, Robert Rogers raised companies of New England frontiersmen for the British and trained them in woodcraft and irregular warfare, sending them on raids along the frontiers of French Canada as Rogers' Rangers. The Rangers soon gained a considerable reputation in the campaigning in upstate New York around Fort Ticonderoga and Lake Champlain, they launched a long-range raid to destroy Indian allies in the St. Lawrence valley, gained the first lodgement in the amphibious landings on Cape Breton to capture Louisbourg, took the surrender of the French outposts in the Upper Great Lakes at the conclusion of the war; when the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, about fifty Loyalist regiments were raised, including the Butler's Rangers, the King's Royal Regiment, the Maryland and Pennsylvania Loyalists. Robert Rogers again raised a unit, this time in New York, from western Connecticut, with men from the Queen's Loyal Virginia Regiment; the new unit was named in honour of Queen Consort Charlotte, the wife of King George III.
It first assembled on Staten Island in August 1776 and grew to 937 officers and men, organized into eleven companies of about thirty men each, an additional five troops of cavalry. The unit set about building fortresses and redoubts, including the one that stood at Lookout Place. Rogers did not prove successful in this command and he left the unit on January 29, 1777; the regiment had suffered serious losses in the Battle of Mamaroneck, a surprise attack on their outpost position at Mamaroneck, New York, on October 22, 1776. Eleven months on September 11, 1777, they distinguished themselves at the Battle of Brandywine, suffering many casualties while attacking entrenched American positions, they were commanded by Major James Wemyss. On October 15, 1777, John Graves Simcoe was given command, when the unit became known informally as "Simcoe's Rangers". John Graves Simcoe turned the Queen's Rangers into one of the most successful British regiments in the war, they provided patrol duty around Philadelphia.
The unit surrendered at Yorktown and its rank and file were imprisoned at Winchester, Virginia. Earlier, on May 2, 1779 the regiment was taken into the American establishment as the 1st American Regiment and was on December 25, 1782, taken into the British establishment. In 1783, when the war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, the Queen's Rangers left New York for Nova Scotia, where it was disbanded. Many of the men from the unit formed New Brunswick on land grants. After 1791, when Simcoe was named lieutenant governor of the newly created Upper Canada, the Queen's Rangers was revived to form the core of the defence forces; the leaders were veterans of the American War of Independence. Although there was little military action during this period, the Rangers were instrumental in building Upper Canada through Simcoe's road building campaign. In 1795–6 they blazed the trail for Yonge Street, turned to Dundas Street and Kingston Road, they built the original Fort York, where they were stationed. The Queen's Rangers were again disbanded in 1802 with most of the men joining the York Militia—from which many would take an active role in the War of 1812.
During the Rebellions of 1837, Samuel Peters Jarvis raised a new Queen's Rangers out of the York Militia to fight the rebels, which again disbanded soon after being raised. A Canadian Army Reserve Regiment called The Queen's York Rangers traces its roots to the original Roger's Rangers. In 2012 the Rangers were assigned the perpetuation of three War of 1812 units and received battle honours accordingly. An Ontario historical plaque was erected in Yorktown, Virginia, by the province to commemorate the Queen's Rangers' role in Ontario's heritage. Lieutenant Colonel Robert Rogers: Commanded August 26, 1776, to January 29, 1777. Former commander of Roger's Rangers during the French and Indian War. Major Christopher French: Temporary Commander January 30 to May 4, 1777. Came from and returned to the 22nd Regiment of Foot. Major James Wemyss: Commanded May 5 to October 14, 1777. Came from the 40th Regiment of Foot. Served as field comman
Monmouth County, New Jersey
Monmouth County is a county located in Central New Jersey, in the United States within the New York metropolitan area, the northernmost county along the Jersey Shore. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 626,351, making it the state's fifth-most populous county, representing a decrease of 0.6% from the 2010 Census, when the population was enumerated at 630,380, in turn an increase of 15,079 from 615,301 at the 2000 Census. As of 2010, the county fell to the fifth-most populous county in the state, having been surpassed by Hudson County, its county seat is Freehold Borough. The most populous place was Middletown Township, with 66,522 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Howell Township covered 61.21 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $69,410, the fifth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 74th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Monmouth County ranked 38th among the highest-income counties in the United States as of 2011, placing it among the top 1.2% of counties by wealth.
As of 2009, it was ranked 56th in the United States by personal per-capita income. In 1609, the English navigator, Henry Hudson, his crew aboard the Dutch vessel Half Moon spotted land in what is now Monmouth County, most off Sandy Hook. Among the first European settlers and majority landowners in the area were Richard and Penelope Stout. Penelope miraculously survived her wounds from a native attack in Sandy Hook and further lived to the age of 110. Additionally, a group of Quaker families from Long Island settled the Monmouth Tract, an early land grant from Richard Nicolls issued in 1665, they were followed by a group of Scottish settlers who inhabited Freehold Township in about 1682–85, followed several years by Dutch settlers. As they arrived in this area, they were greeted by Lenape Native Americans, who lived in scattered small family bands and developed a amicable relationship with the new arrivals. Enslaved Africans were present in the area from at least 1680, by 1726 made up 9% of the total population of the county.
Monmouth County was established on March 1683, while part of the province of East Jersey. On October 31, 1693, the county was partitioned into the townships of Freehold and Shrewsbury, its name may come from the Rhode Island Monmouth Society or from a suggestion from Colonel Lewis Morris that the county should be named after Monmouthshire in Wales, Great Britain. Other suggestions include that it was named for James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, who had many allies among the East Jersey leadership. In 1714, the first county government was established. At the June 28, 1778, Battle of Monmouth, near Freehold Township, General George Washington's soldiers battled the British under Sir Henry Clinton, in the longest land battle of the American Revolutionary War, it was at Monmouth that the tactics and training from Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben developed at Valley Forge during the winter encampment were first implemented on a large scale. At independence, Monmouth's population included 1,640 slaves, as well as an undetermined number of free African Americans.
The number of enslaved persons fell steeply after 1820, though a small number remained until at least 1850. Monmouth's free African American population climbed from 353 in 1790 to 2,658 in 1860. Ocean County was carved out of Monmouth County in 1850. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 665.32 square miles, including 468.79 square miles of land and 196.53 square miles of water. Much of Monmouth County remains flat and low-lying far inland. However, there are some low hills in and around Holmdel Township, one of them, Crawford Hill, the former site of a radar facility, is the county's highest point, variously listed at 380 to 391 feet above sea level; the top portion of the hill is owned by Alcatel-Lucent and houses a research laboratory of Bell Laboratories. The northeastern portion of the county, in the Locust section of Middletown Township and the boroughs of Highlands and Atlantic Highlands, are very hilly; the lowest point is sea level. Along with adjacent Ocean County, Monmouth County is a mecca of fishing.
Its waterways include several rivers and bays that flow from the Raritan Bayshore into Raritan Bay and Lower New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean. The Manasquan Inlet is located in the county, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the estuary of the Manasquan River, a bay-like body of saltwater that serves as the starting point of the Intracoastal Waterway, which attracts as many as 1,600 boats each weekend during the peak season; the county adjoins: Middlesex County, New Jersey – northwest Ocean County, New Jersey – south Mercer County, New Jersey – west Burlington County, New Jersey – southwest Richmond County, New York - north Gateway National Recreation Area As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 630,380 people, 233,983 households, 163,320.134 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,344.7 per square mile. There were 258,410 housing units at an average density of 551.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.60% White, 7.37% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 4.96% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.89% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.67% of the population. There were 233,983 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with n
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
West Yorkshire Regiment
The West Yorkshire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. In 1958 it amalgamated with the East Yorkshire Regiment to form the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire which was, on 6 June 2006, amalgamated with the Green Howards and the Duke of Wellington's Regiment to form the Yorkshire Regiment; the regiment was raised by Sir Edward Hales in 1685, by order of King James II. One of the nine new regiments of foot, raised to meet the Monmouth Rebellion it was termed Hales's Regiment; the regiment served in Flanders between 1693 and 1696 and gained its first battle honour at Namur in 1695.1715 saw the regiment moved to Scotland to fight the Jacobite risings. In 1727, the regiment played a major part in defending Gibraltar against the Spanish, where it remained garrisoned for the next 15 years. 1745 saw the regiment in Flanders fighting at Fontenoy before being recalled to Scotland by Cumberland to fight the'45 Rebellion. Fighting at Falkirk and Culloden, it became the 14th Regiment of Foot in 1751.
The regiment returned to Gibraltar in 1751 for another 8-year stay. In 1765, when stationed at Windsor, it was granted royal permission for the grenadiers to wear bearskin caps with the White Horse of Hanover signifying the favour of the King. In 1766, the regiment was stationed in Nova Scotia; the 14th although at the ready in their barracks did not play a part in the Boston Massacre. Captain Thomas was the officer of the day in charge of the duty detail that faced the crowds outside of the Customs House; the crowd that gathered began taunting the detail until a shot volley was fired into the crowd, three civilians were killed outright and two more died later. Captain Preston and the detail went to trial and were defended by Lawyer John Adams thus ending tensions between the crown and the citizens of Boston for the time being; the 14th would remain part of the Boston Garrison until 1772. In 1772, the 14th arrived in St Vincent as part of the force to subjugate the maroons. Due to bush fighting and disease the regiment was depleted in numbers, it stayed for two years and was scheduled to return to England in 1774.
Due to the rising tensions in the colonies the regiment's return was cancelled and instead it was redeployed piecemeal, under Major Jonathan Furlong to St. Augustine and Providence Island in the Bahamas. At dawn on 1 January 1776, the fleet opened fire on Norfolk. Between the firing of the buildings and the fleet firing on the town, Norfolk burned for three days. 863 buildings were destroyed. After the fleet left, the rebels reoccupied what remained of the town but soon decided to burn that to keep Lord Dunmore from using it. After all was said and done, 1,298 buildings were destroyed and the 5th largest city in colonial America ceased to exist. After Norfolk, the fleet left for Turkey Point near Portsmouth. While at Turkey Point, there were a series of small skirmishes; the fleet would stay at Turkey point only until late May. In August, the fleet headed to New York; the 14th was withdrawn from service, it being under strength from disease and battle in both the Caribbean and Virginia. In New York, the remaining men of the regiment were used to supplement other regiments in the area.
The officers were sent back to Britain to recruit a new regiment. In 1777, while in training in England, one company each of the 14th and the 15th regiments were placed under the command of Col. Patrick Ferguson and sent to America to test the concept of the rifle company with the Colonel's new rifle; the rifle companies fought well at the battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania on 11 September. After the experimental rifle companies returned to England, they were made the light companies of their respective regiments. In 1782, the 14th was named The 14th Regiment; the outbreak of the French Revolution and the subsequent French invasion of the Low Countries led to a British force commanded by the Duke of York being sent to join troops of the Imperial Austrian army. The 14th distinguished themselves in numerous actions, at Famars and Valenciennes in 1793 and at Tournai in 1794, for which they were subsequently granted the battle honour'Tournay'. At the Battle of Famars, in order to encourage the men, Lieutenant-Colonel Welbore Ellis Doyle, the commanding officer, ordered the band of the 14th to play the French revolutionary song “Ça Ira”.
This was subsequently chosen as the Regimental march. In the final, unsuccessful attempt to check the French invasion of the Netherlands, the 14th suffered heavy casualties in the hard-fought rearguard action at Geldermalsen on 8 January 1795. There followed the disastrous winter retreat into Germany. Returning to England the following May, the Regiment was posted to the West Indies, where it was on duty until 1803. In February 1797, the regiment participated in the bloodless invasion of Trinidad; the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803 led to the expansion of the British Army. The 14th formed a second battalion in Belfast in 1804, a third battalion in 1813; the 1st Battalion spent much of the war on garrison duty in Bengal. In 1809, the Regiment was re-titled The 14th Regiment; the 1st Battalion served in India for 25 years until 1831. During this period, the 1st Battalion took part in campaigns against the French in Mauritius in 1810, the Dutch in Java in 1811, with Java adding another Battle Honour.
In 1808-9, the 2nd Battalion gained the Battle honour Corunna. The 2nd Battal
Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organisations, principally military and policing forces. The alternate spelling, "serjeant", is used in The Rifles and other units that draw their heritage from the British Light Infantry, its origin is the Latin "serviens", "one who serves", through the French term "sergent". The term "sergeant" refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer below a lieutenant or, in the UK, below an inspector. In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad. In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank corresponding to a four-soldier fireteam leader. More senior non-commissioned ranks are variations on sergeant, for example staff sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. Many countries use sergeant rank, whether in English or using a cognate with the same origin in another language; the equivalent rank in Arab armies is "raqeeb", meaning "overseer" or "watcher".
In medieval European usage, a sergeant was any attendant or officer with a protective duty. Any medieval knight or military order of knighthood might have "sergeants-at-arms", meaning servants able to fight if needed; the etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant "servant, court official, soldier", from Middle Latin servientem "servant, soldier". A "soldier sergeant" was a man of what would now be thought of as the "middle class", fulfilling a junior role to the knight in the medieval hierarchy. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well trained professional infantry, either spearmen or crossbowmen. Most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the "sergeant" class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops; the sergeant class was deemed to be'worth half of a knight' in military value. A specific kind of military sergeant was the serjeant-at-arms, one of a body of armed men retained by English lords and monarchs.
The title is now given to an officer in modern legislative bodies, charged with keeping order during meetings and, if necessary, forcibly removing disruptive members. The term had civilian applications quite distinct and different from the military sergeant, though sharing the etymological origin - for example the serjeant-at-law an important and prestigious order of English lawyers. "Sergeant" is the lowest rank of sergeant, with individual military entities choosing some additional words to signify higher ranking individuals. What terms are used, what seniority they signify, is to a great extent dependent on the individual armed service; the term "sergeant" is used in many appointment titles. In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of sergeant are non-commissioned officers ranking above privates and corporals, below warrant officers and commissioned officers; the responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units.
Sergeants are team leaders in charge of an entire team of constables to senior constables at large stations, to being in charge of sectors involving several police stations. In country areas, sergeants are in charge of an entire station and its constabulary. Senior sergeants are in specialist areas and are in charge of sergeants and thus act as middle management. Sergeant is a rank in both the Royal Australian Air Force; the ranks are equivalent to the Royal Australian Navy rank of petty officer. Although the rank insignia of the RAAF rank of flight sergeant and the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant are identical, flight sergeant in fact outranks the rank of staff sergeant in the classification of rank equivalencies; the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies and the next promotional rank is warrant officer class two. Chief petty officers and flight sergeants are not required to call a warrant officer class two "sir" in accordance with Australian Defence Force Regulations 1952.
The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is of higher ranking than a constable or senior constable, but lower than an inspector. The sergeant structure varies among state police forces two sergeant ranks are classed as non-commissioned officers: Sergeant. A brevet sergeant is less senior than a sergeant. New South Wales Police Force has the additional rank of incremental sergeant; this is an incremental progression, following appointment as a sergeant for seven years. An incremental sergeant rank is less senior than a senior sergeant but is more senior than a sergeant. Upon appointment as a sergeant or senior sergeant, the sergeant is given: A warrant of appointment under the commissioner's hand and seal. A navy blue backing A navy blue nameplate A silver chinstrap positioned above his peaked cap on his headdress, replacing a black chinstrap. Within the New South Wales Police Force, sergeant is a team leader or supervisory rank