Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea. Its autocephaly was recognised by Shenouda III, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993. Tewaḥido is cognate to Arabic tawhid. According to the Orthodox Encyclopedia article on the Henoticon: around 500 bishops within the Patriarchates of Alexandria and Jerusalem refused to accept the "two natures" doctrine decreed by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, thus separating themselves from the future Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches; this separate Christian communion came to be known as Oriental Orthodoxy. Oriental Orthodox Churches, which today include the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church of India, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, are referred to as "Non-Chalcedonian"; these Churches themselves describe their Christology as miaphysite, but outsiders incorrectly describe them as "monophysite".
Tewahedo Orthodoxy is a major ethnoreligious group in the largest Christian group there. Christianity has been the majority religion since the 4th century and remains still the largest population, they spoke Ge'ez, which belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. However, the language is now extinct, has been limited to liturgical use since the 10th century. Tewahedo now speak Tigrinya. Most adhere to the Tewahdo Orthodox Church. Tewahdo is a religion as well for the adherent of Eritrean Tewahdos; the Eritrean Orthodox Church claims its origins from Philip the Evangelist. It became the state church of the Kingdom of Aksum under Ezana in the 4th century through the efforts of a Syrian Greek named Frumentius, known in the church as Abba Selama, Kesate Birhan; as a boy, Frumentius had been shipwrecked with his brother Aedesius on the Eritrean coast. The brothers managed to be brought to the royal court, where they rose to positions of influence and converted Emperor Ezana to Christianity, causing him to be baptised.
Ezana sent Frumentius to Alexandria to ask the Patriarch, Athanasius of Alexandria, to appoint a bishop for Axum. Athanasius appointed Frumentius himself, who returned to Axum as Bishop with the name of Abune Selama. For fifteen centuries afterward, the pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria always named a Copt to be Abuna "metropolitan bishop" of the Ethiopian Church. Little else is known of church history down to the period of Jesuit influence, which broke the connection with Egypt. Union with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria continued after Arab conquests in Egypt. Abu Saleh records in the 12th century that the patriarch sent letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, until Al Hakim stopped the practice. Coptic patriarch Cyril II sent Severus as bishop, with orders to suppress the practice of polygamy and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all churches; these examples show the close relations of the two churches concurrent with the Middle Ages.
Early in the 16th century the church was brought under the influence of a Portuguese mission. In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yaqob, a religious discussion between Abba Giyorgis and a French visitor had led to the dispatch of an embassy from Ethiopia to the Holy See. In 1507 Matthew, an Armenian, had been sent as Ethiopian envoy to Portugal to ask aid against the Adal Sultanate. In 1520 an embassy under Rodrigo de Lima landed in Ethiopia. An account of the Portuguese mission, which remained for several years, was written by the chaplain, Francisco Álvares. Ignatius of Loyola wished to essay the task of conversion, but this did not happen. Instead, the pope sent out João Nunes Barreto as Patriarch of the East Indies, with Andrés de Oviedo as bishop. After repeated failures, some measure of success was achieved under Susenyos I, but not until 1624 did the Emperor make a formal declaration of communion with Pope Urban VIII. Susenyos made the Catholic Church the official state church, but was met with heavy resistance and, in 1632, had to abdicate in favour of his son, who promptly restored Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity as the official religion of the country.
He expelled the Society of Jesus in 1633, in 1665 Fasilides ordered all Jesuit books be burned. In the 1920s the Italian colonial power in Eritrea started the first attempts to found a separate Eritrean Orthodox Church; until the Orthodox Church in Eritrea was part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, with a strong link to Aksum in Tigray as the traditional centre of the Church structure. This was, against the interest of the colonizer: Eritrea as a separate colony was supposed to have a church independent from the neighbor's influence, in order to be integrated into the colonial system; the separate Eritrean Church was short-lived. When it was still not established, the Italians invaded Ethiopia in 1935, formed a unified territory, Africa Orientale Italiana, encompassing Eritrea and Italian Somalia. Eritrea was unified with the northe
The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking His Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yeshua, meaning "YHWH is salvation". According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy with John the Baptist. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus; the Annunciation is a key topic in Christian art in general, as well as in Marian art in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A work of art depicting the Annunciation is sometimes itself called an Annunciation. In the Bible, the Annunciation is narrated in Luke 1:26–38: 26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, 27 to a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David.
The virgin’s name was Mary. 28 The angel went to her and said, “Greetings, you who are favored! The Lord is with you.” 29 Mary was troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be. 30 But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary. 31 You will conceive and give birth to a son, you are to call him Jesus. 32 He will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever. 34 “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” 35 The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God. 36 Even Elizabeth your relative is going to have a child in her old age, she, said to be unable to conceive is in her sixth month. 37 For no word from God will fail.” 38 “I am the Lord’s servant,” Mary answered. “May your word to me be fulfilled.” The angel left her. A separate, briefer annunciation is given to Joseph in Matthew 1:18–22: 18 This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit.
19 Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. 20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, they will call him Immanuel”. Manuscript 4Q246 of the Dead Sea Scrolls reads: shall be great upon the earth. O king, all people shall make peace, all shall serve him, he shall be called the son of the Great God, by his name shall he be hailed as the Son of God, they shall call him Son of the Most High. It has been suggested that the similarity in content is such that Luke's version may in some way be dependent on the Qumran text.
The Annunciation is described in the Quran, in Sura 003:045 verses 45–51: 45 Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of those nearest to Allah. In the Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Feast of the Annunciation is one of the twelve "Great Feasts" of the liturgical year, is among the eight of them that are counted as "feasts of the Lord". Throughout the Orthodox Church, the feast is celebrated on March 25. In the churches that use the new style Calendar, this date coincides with March 25 on the civil calendar, while in those churches using the old style Julian calendar, March 25 is reckoned to fall on April 7 on the civil calendar, will fall on April 8 starting in the year 2100; the traditional hymn for the feast of the Annunciation goes back to St Athanasius. It runs: As the action initiating the Incarnation of Christ, Annunciation has such an important place in Orthodox Christian theology that the festal Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is always celebrated on the feast if it falls on Great and Holy Friday, the day when the crucifixion of Jesus is remembered.
Indeed, the Divine Liturgy is celebrated on Great and Holy Friday only when the latter coincides with the feast of the Annunciation. If the Annunciation falls on Pascha itself, a coincidence, called Kyriopascha it is celebrated jointly with the Resurrection, the focus of Easter. Due to these and similar rules, the rubrics surrounding the celebration of the feast are the most complex of all in Orthodox Christian liturgics. St Ephraim taught that the date of the conception of Jesus Christ fell on 10 Nisan on the Hebrew calendar, the day in which the passover lamb was selected according to Exodus 12; some years 10 Nisan falls on March 25, the traditional date for the Feast of the Annunciation and is an offi
John the Evangelist
John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, or John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by modern scholars; the Gospel of John refers to an otherwise unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved", who "bore witness to and wrote" the Gospel's message. The author of the Gospel of John seemed interested in maintaining the internal anonymity of the author's identity, although interpreting the Gospel in the light of the Synoptic Gospels and considering that the author names Peter, that James was martyred as early as 44 AD it has been believed that the author was the Apostle John Christian tradition says that John the Evangelist was John the Apostle; the Apostle John was a historical figure, one of the "pillars" of the Jerusalem church after Jesus' death. He was one of the original twelve apostles and is thought to be the only one to have lived into old age and not be killed for his faith.
It is believed that he was exiled to the Aegean island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. However, some attribute the authorship of Revelation to another man, called John of Patmos or to John the Presbyter. Orthodox Roman Catholic scholarship, most Protestant churches, the entire Eastern Orthodox Church attribute all of the Johannine literature to the same individual, the "Holy Apostle and Evangelist, John the Theologian", whom it identifies with the "Beloved Disciple" in the Gospel of John; the authorship of the Johannine works has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. The main debate centers on who authored the writings, which of the writings, if any, can be ascribed to a common author. Orthodox tradition attributes all the books to John the Apostle. In the 6th century, the Decretum Gelasianum argued that Second and Third John have a separate author known as "John, a priest". Historical criticssometimes reject the view. Most modern scholars believe that the apostle John wrote none of these works, although some, such as J.
A. T. Robinson, F. F. Bruce, Leon Morris, Martin Hengel, hold the apostle to be behind at least some, in particular the gospel. There may have been a single author for the three epistles; some scholars conclude the author of the epistles was different from that of the gospel, although all four works originated from the same community. The gospel and epistles traditionally and plausibly came from Ephesus, c. 90–110, although some scholars argue for an origin in Syria. In the case of Revelation, most modern scholars agree that it was written by a separate author, John of Patmos, c. 95 with some parts dating to Nero's reign in the early 60s. The feast day of Saint John in the Catholic Church, which calls him "Saint John and Evangelist", in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Calendars, which call him "John and Evangelist", is on 27 December, the third day of Christmastide. In the Tridentine Calendar he was commemorated on each of the following days up to and including 3 January, the Octave of the 27 December feast.
This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. The traditional liturgical color is white. John is traditionally depicted in one of two distinct ways: either as an aged man with a white or gray beard, or alternatively as a beardless youth; the first way of depicting him was more common in Byzantine art, where it was influenced by antique depictions of Socrates. In Medieval works of painting and literature, Saint John is presented in an androgynous or femininized manner. Historians have related such portrayals to the circumstances of the believers for whom they were intended. For instance, John's feminine features are argued to have helped to make him more relatable to women. Sarah McNamer argues that because of John's androgynous status, he could function as an'image of a third or mixed gender' and'a crucial figure with whom to identify' for male believers who sought to cultivate an attitude of affective piety, a emotional style of devotion that, in late-medieval culture, was thought to be poorly compatible with masculinity.
Legends from the Acts of John contributed much to Medieval iconography. One of John's familiar attributes is the chalice with a snake emerging from it. According to one legend from the Acts of John, John was challenged to drink a cup of poison to demonstrate the power of his faith; the chalice can be interpreted with reference to the Last Supper, or to the words of Christ to John and James: "My chalice indeed you shall drink". According to the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, some authorities believe that this symbol was not adopted until the 13th century. Another common attribute is a scroll, in reference to his writings. In France the saint is symbolically represented by an eagle, one of the creatures envisioned by Ezekiel and in the Book of Revelation. John the Evangelist Churches dedicated to St. John the Evangelist Eagle of St. John Luke the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist "Saint John the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Answers.com St. John the Evangelist at the Christian Iconography web site Caxton's translations of the Golden Legend's two chapters on St. John: Of St. John the Evangelist and The History of St. John Port Latin
Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun.
The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades.
There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally. The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; the most accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.
In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more formed Christian festival of Pascha begins to appear in the mid-2nd century; the earliest extant primary source referring to East
Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt and the Middle East. The head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark, who carries the title of Coptic Pope; the See of Alexandria is titular, today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. The church follows the Alexandrian Rite for its liturgy and devotional patrimony. With 18–22 million members worldwide, whereof about 15 to 20 million are in Egypt, it is the country's largest Christian church. According to its tradition, the Coptic Church was established by Saint Mark, an apostle and evangelist, during the middle of the 1st century. Due to disputes concerning the nature of Christ, it split from the rest of the Christendom after the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, resulting in a rivalry with the Byzantine Orthodox Church. In the 4–7th centuries the Coptic Church expanded due to the Christianization of the Aksumite empire and of two of the three Nubian kingdoms and Alodia, while the third Nubian kingdom, recognized the Coptic patriarch after being aligned to the Byzantine Orthodox Church.
After AD 639 Egypt was ruled by its Islamic conquerors from Arabia, the treatment of the Coptic Christians ranged from tolerance to open persecution. In the 12th century, the church relocated its seat from Alexandria to Cairo; the same century saw the Copts become a religious minority. During the 14th and 15th centuries, Nubian Christianity was supplanted by Islam. In 1959, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was granted independence; this was extended to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church in 1998 following the successful Eritrean War of Independence from Ethiopia. Since the Arab Spring in 2011, the Copts have been suffering increased religious discrimination and violence; the Egyptian Church is traditionally believed to be founded by St Mark at around AD 42, regards itself as the subject of many prophecies in the Old Testament. Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, a pillar to the LORD at its border".
The first Christians in Egypt were common people. There were Alexandrian Jewish people such as Theophilus, whom Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the introductory chapter of his gospel; when the church was founded by Saint Mark during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, a great multitude of native Egyptians embraced the Christian faith. Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark's arrival in Alexandria, as is clear from the New Testament writings found in Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year AD 200, a fragment of the Gospel of John, written in Coptic, found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the 2nd century. In the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, scriptures were translated into the local languages, namely Coptic; the Coptic language is a universal language used in Coptic churches in every country. It uses Greek letters. Many of the hymns in the liturgy have been passed down for several thousand years.
The language is used to preserve Egypt's original language, banned by the Arab invaders, who ordered Arabic to be used instead. Some examples of these hymns are Coptic: translit. Ep.ouro, lit.'The King',Coptic: Ⲉⲕⲥⲙⲁⲣⲱⲟⲩⲧ, translit. Ek.esmaro'oot, lit.' Blessed', Coptic: Ⲧⲁⲓϣⲟⲩⲣⲏ, translit. Tai.shouri, lit.'This Censer', many more. The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. St. Jerome records. Around AD 190, under the leadership of the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement and the native Egyptian Origen, considered the father of theology and, active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Many scholars such as Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars; the scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write.
The Theological college of the catechetical school was re-established in 1893. The new school has campuses in Ireland, New Jersey, Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, the Coptic language and art – including chanting, music and tapestry. Many Egyptian Christians went to the desert during the 3rd century, remained there to pray and work and dedicate their lives to seclusion and worship of God; this was the beginning of the monastic movement, organized by Anthony the Great, Saint Paul of Thebes, the world's first anchorite, Saint Macarius the Great and Saint Pachomius the Cenobite in the 4th century. Christian monasticism was born in Egypt and was instrumental in the formation of the Coptic Orthodox Church character of submission and humility, thanks to the teachings and writings of the Great Fathers of Egypt's Deserts. By the end of the 5th century, the
The liturgical year known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years. Distinct liturgical colours may appear in connection with different seasons of the liturgical year; the dates of the festivals vary somewhat between the different churches, though the sequence and logic is the same. The liturgical cycle divides the year into a series of seasons, each with their own mood, theological emphases, modes of prayer, which can be signified by different ways of decorating churches, colours of paraments and vestments for clergy, scriptural readings, themes for preaching and different traditions and practices observed or in the home. In churches that follow the liturgical year, the scripture passages for each Sunday are specified in a lectionary.
After the Protestant Reformation and Lutherans continued to follow the lectionary of the Roman Rite. Following a decision of the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church revised that lectionary in 1969, adopting a three-year cycle of readings for Sundays and a two-year cycle for weekdays. Adaptations of the revised Roman Rite lectionary were adopted by Protestants, leading to the publication in 1994 of the Revised Common Lectionary for Sundays and major feasts, now used by many Protestant denominations, including Methodists, United, etc; this has led to a greater awareness of the traditional Christian year among Protestants among mainline denominations. Scholars are not in agreement about whether the calendars used by the Jews before the Babylonian exile were solar, lunisolar like the present-day Jewish calendar of Hillel II, or purely lunar, as the Hijri calendar; the first month of the Hebrew year was called אביב, evidently adopted by Moses from Ipip as the eleventh month of the non-lunar Egyptian calendar, meaning the month of green ears of grain.
Having to occur at the appropriate time in the spring, it thus was part of a tropical calendar. At about the time of the Babylonian exile, when using the Babylonian civil calendar, the Jews adopted as the name for the month the term ניסן, based on the Babylonian name Nisanu. Thomas J Talley says that the adoption of the Babylonian term occurred before the exile. In the earlier calendar, most of the months were called by a number; the Babylonian-derived names of the month that are used by Jews are: Nisan Iyar Sivan Tammuz Av Elul Tishrei Marcheshvan Kislev Tevet Shevat Adar In Biblical times, the following Jewish religious feasts were celebrated: Pesach – 14 Nisan, 15 Nisan Shavuot – Fiftieth day counted from Passover 6 Sivan "Day of Blowing Shofar/Trumpet" – 1 Tishrei Yom Kippur – 10 Tishrei Sukkot – 15 Tishrei Hanukkah – 25 Kislev Purim – 14 Adar The Liturgical Calendar of the Catholic churches of East Syriac Rite is fixed according to the flow of salvation history. With a focus upon the historical life of Jesus Christ, believers are led to the eschatological fulfilment through this special arrangement of liturgical seasons.
The liturgical year is divided into 8 seasons of 7 weeks each but adjusted to fit the solar calendar. The arrangement of the Seasons in the Liturgical Year is based on seven central events on celebrations of the Salvation History, they are: Nativity of Christ Epiphany of Christ Resurrection of Christ Pentecost Transfiguration Glorious Cross Parousia The biblical reading and prayers during Mass and Liturgy of the Hours varies according to different seasons in liturgical calendar. The various seasons of the liturgical calendar of Syro Malabar Church and Chaldean Catholic Church are given below. Weeks of Annunciation is the first season of the liturgical year; the liturgical year begins with the proclamation and celebration of the historical encounter between God and man in the person of Jesus Christ, the human appearance of the Divine Person. The Syriac word Subara,'Annunciation', with which the Church qualify the first five or six weeks of her liturgical year, is, in fact, an announcement and proclamation with celebration with this supreme glad news of divine condescension to the human frailty in order to raise it up to the divine sublimity.
The season begins on the Sunday just before the first of December and ends with the feast of Epiphany, the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord. This season is developed in the context of the mystery of incarnation completed in the fullness of time; the Church recalls during these days the announcement of the birth of John the Baptist, the predecessor of Jesus, the joyful event of the birth of John the Baptist. As a preparation for the celebration of the mystery of incar
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of early Christianity, his feast day is celebrated on April 25, his symbol is the winged lion. According to William Lane, an "unbroken tradition" identifies Mark the Evangelist with John Mark, John Mark as the cousin of Barnabas. However, Hippolytus of Rome in On the Seventy Apostles distinguishes Mark the Evangelist, John Mark, Mark the cousin of Barnabas. According to Hippolytus, they all belonged to the "Seventy Disciples" who were sent out by Jesus to disseminate the gospel in Judea. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, Herod Agrippa I, in his first year of reign over the whole of Judea, killed James, son of Zebedee and arrested Peter, planning to kill him after the Passover. Peter was saved miraculously by angels, escaped out of the realm of Herod. Peter went to Antioch through Asia Minor, arrived in Rome in the second year of Emperor Claudius.
Somewhere on the way, Peter took him as travel companion and interpreter. Mark the Evangelist wrote down the sermons of Peter, thus composing the Gospel according to Mark, before he left for Alexandria in the third year of Claudius. According to the Bible, Mark went to Cyprus with Barnabas after the Council of Jerusalem. According to tradition, in AD 49, about 19 years after the Ascension of Jesus, Mark travelled to Alexandria and founded the Church of Alexandria – today, the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Coptic Catholic Church claim to be successors to this original community. Aspects of the Coptic liturgy can be traced back to Mark himself, he became the first bishop of Alexandria and he is honored as the founder of Christianity in Africa. According to Eusebius, Mark was succeeded by Annianus as the bishop of Alexandria in the eighth year of Nero but not due to his coming death. Coptic tradition says that he was martyred in 68. Bart Ehrman argues the Gospel of Mark was written by an anonymous author, rather than direct witnesses to the reported events.
Evidence for Mark the Evangelist's authorship of the Gospel that bears his name originates with Papias. Scholars of the Trinity Evangelical Divinity School are "almost certain" that Papias is referencing John Mark. Catholic scholars have argued that identifying Mark the Evangelist with John Mark and Mark the Cousin of Barnabas has led to the downgrading of the character of Barnabas from a "Son of Comfort" to one who favored his blood relative over principles. Identifying Mark the Evangelist with John Mark led to identifying him as the man who carried water to the house where the Last Supper took place, or as the young man who ran away naked when Jesus was arrested; the Coptic Church accords with identifying Mark the Evangelist with John Mark, as well as that he was one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Christ, as Hippolytus confirmed. Coptic tradition holds that Mark the Evangelist hosted the disciples in his house after Jesus' death, that the resurrected Jesus Christ came to Mark's house, that the Holy Spirit descended on the disciples at Pentecost in the same house.
Furthermore, Mark is believed to have been among the servants at the Marriage at Cana who poured out the water that Jesus turned to wine. According to the Coptic tradition, Saint Mark was born in Cyrene, a city in the Pentapolis of North Africa; this tradition adds that Mark returned to Pentapolis in life, after being sent by Paul to Colossae, serving with him in Rome. When Mark returned to Alexandria, the pagans of the city resented his efforts to turn the Alexandrians away from the worship of their traditional gods. In AD 68, they dragged him through the streets until he was dead; the Feast of St Mark is observed on April 25 by the Eastern Orthodox Churches. For those Churches still using the Julian Calendar, April 25 according to it aligns with May 8 on the Gregorian Calendar until the year 2099; the Coptic Orthodox Church observes the Feast of St Mark on Parmouti 30 according to the Coptic Calendar which always aligns with April 25 on the Julian Calendar. Where Saint John Mark is distinguished from Saint Mark, the composer of the earliest Gospel that we have, Saint John Mark is celebrated on September 27 and the writer of the Gospel on April 25.
In addition to Saint John Mark's in Jerusalem, the Parish Church of Chester Hill with Sefton in the Diocese of Sydney is Saint John Mark's and it celebrated its patronal festival on September 27. An icon of Saint John Mark on Cyprus, painted by a Russian Orthodox monk at Walsingham, was in that church and is now in Christ Church Saint Laurence in Sydney. In 828, relics believed to be the body of Saint Mark were stolen from Alexandria by two Venetian merchants with the help of two Greek monks and taken to Venice. A mosaic in St Mark's Basilic