Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H
Racism in the work of Charles Dickens
Although Charles Dickens is known as a writer, sympathetic to the disadvantaged in Britain, in common with many eminent writers of his time he expressed attitudes that can be interpreted as racist and xenophobic in his journalism and fiction. While it cannot be said that he opposed fundamental freedoms of minorities in British society or supported legal segregation or employment discrimination, he defended the privileges of colonial Europeans and was dismissive of what he believed were primitive cultures; the Oxford Dictionary of English Literature describes Dickens as nationalistic stigmatising foreign European cultures and taking his attitude to "colonized people" to "genocidal extremes", albeit based on a vision of British virtue, rather than any concept of heredity. Ledger and Ferneaux do not believe he advocated any form of "scientific racism" regarding heredity – but still had the highest possible antipathy for the lifestyles of native peoples in British colonies, believed that the sooner they were civilised, the better.
Dickens scholar Grace Moore sees Dickens' racism as having abated in his years, while cultural historian Patrick Brantlinger and journalist William Oddie see it as having intensified. Moore contends that while Dickens in life became far more sensitive to unethical aspects of British colonialism and came to plead mitigation of cruelties to natives, he never lost his distaste for those whose life style he regarded as "primitive". Many scholars have noted the paradox between Dickens' support for various liberal causes and his racism, nationalist chauvinism and imperialist mentality. Biographer Peter Ackroyd in his 1990 biography of Dickens duly notes Dickens' sympathy for the poor, opposition to child labour, campaigns for sanitation reform, opposition to capital punishment, he asserts that "In modern terminology Dickens was a "racist" of the most egregious kind, a fact that ought to give pause to those who persist in believing that he was the epitome of all, decent and benign in the previous century."
Ackroyd notes that Dickens did not believe that the North in the American Civil War was genuinely interested in the abolition of slavery, he nearly publicly supported the South for that reason. Ackroyd twice notes that Dickens' major objection to missionaries was that they were more concerned with natives abroad than with the poor at home. For example, in his novel Bleak House Dickens mocks Mrs. Jellyby, who neglects her children for the natives of a fictional African country; the disjunction between Dickens' criticism of slavery and his crude caricatures of other races has been noted by Patrick Brantlinger in his A Companion to the Victorian Novel. He cites Dickens' description of an Irish colony in America's Catskill mountains a mess of pigs and dunghills. Dickens views them as a "racially repellent" group. Jane Smiley writing in the Penguin Lives bio of Dickens writes "we should not interpret him as the kind of left-liberal we know today-he was racist, sometimes antisemitic, a believer in harsh prison conditions, distrustful of trade unions.
An anthology of Dickens' essays from Household Words warns the reader in its introduction that in these essays "Women, the Irish and Aborigines are described in biased, stereotypical or otherwise less than flattering terms.... We..encourage you to work towards a more positive understanding of the different groups that make up our community" The Historical Encyclopedia of Anti-Semitism notes the paradox of Dickens both being a "champion of causes of the oppressed" who abhorred slavery and supported the European liberal revolutions of the 1840s, his creation of the antisemitic caricature of the character of Fagin. Authors Sally Ledger and Holly Furneaux, in their book Dickens in Context examine this puzzle as to how one can square away Dickens' racialism with concern with the poor and the downcast, they argue this can be explained by saying that Dickens was a nativist and "cultural chauvinist" in the sense of being ethnocentric and ready to justify British imperialism, but not a racist in the sense of being a "biological determinist" as was the anthropologist Robert Knox.
That is, Dickens did not regard the behaviour of races to be "fixed". However, "Dickens views of racial others, most developed in his short fiction, indicate that for him'savages' functioned as a handy foil against which British national identity could emerge." The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature notes that while Dickens praised middle-class values, Dickens militancy about this catalog of virtues had nationalistic implications, since he praised these middle-class moral ideals as English national values. Conversely, he stigmatized foreign cultures as lacking in these middle-class ideas, representing French and American characters, in particular, as slothful and deceitful, his attitudes toward colonized peoples sometimes took these moral aspersions to genocidal extremes. In the wake of the so-called Indian Mutiny of 1857, he wrote..."I should do my utmost to exterminate the Race upon whom the stain of the late cruelties rested.." To be fair, Dickens did support the antislavery movement...and excoriated what he saw as English national vices William Oddie argues that Dickens's racism "grew progressively more illiberal over the course of his career" after the Indian rebellion.
Grace Moore, on the other hand, argues that Dickens, a staunch abolitionist and opponent of imperialism, had views on racial matters that were a good deal more complex than previous critics have suggested in her work Dickens and Empire: She suggests that overemphasisin
Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution. Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, to a lesser extent other parts of India. Outside India, several other languages are recognized as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri; such languages include Fiji Hindi, official in Fiji, Caribbean Hindustani, a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani; as a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin and English.
Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. The term Hindī was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus, it was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī, meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India". The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa, which emerged in the 7th century A. D. Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal period, underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.
In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard. After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. Standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script; the form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Notwithstanding anything in clause, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. Article 351 of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directi
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change. Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not solid food. In cases where an entity has or is able to obtain custody of the hunger striker, the hunger strike is terminated by the custodial entity through the use of force-feeding. Fasting was used as a method of protesting injustice in pre-Christian Ireland, where it was known as Troscadh or Cealachan, it was detailed in the contemporary civic codes, had specific rules by which it could be used. The fast was carried out on the doorstep of the home of the offender. Scholars speculate. Allowing a person to die at one's doorstep, for a wrong of which one was accused, was considered a great dishonor. Others say that the practice was to fast for one whole night, as there is no evidence of people fasting to death in pre-Christian Ireland.
The fasts were undertaken to recover debts or get justice for a perceived wrong. There are legends of the patron saint of Ireland, using the hunger strike as well. In India, the practice of a hunger protest, where the protester fasts at the door of an offending party in a public call for justice, was abolished by the government in 1861; this Indian practice is ancient, going back to around 400 to 750 BC. This can be known since it appears in the Ramayana, composed around that time; the actual mention appears in the Ayodhya kanda, in Sarga 103. Bharata has gone to ask the exiled Rama to rule the kingdom. Bharata tries many arguments, none of which work, at which point he decides to engage in a hunger strike, he announces his intention to fast, calls for his charioteer Sumantra to bring him some sacred Kusha grass, lies down upon the grass in front of Rama. Rama, however, is able to persuade him to abandon the attempt. Rama mentions it as a practice of the brahmanas. In the first three days, the body is still using energy from glucose.
After that, the liver starts processing body fat, in a process called ketosis. After depleting fat, the body enters a "starvation mode". At this point the body "mines" the muscles and vital organs for energy, loss of bone marrow becomes life-threatening. There are examples of hunger strikers dying after 46 to 73 days of strike, for example the 1981 Irish hunger strike. In the early 20th century suffragettes endured hunger strikes in British prisons. Marion Dunlop was the first in 1909, she was released. Other suffragettes in prison undertook hunger strikes; the prison authorities subjected them to force-feeding, which the suffragettes categorized as a form of torture. Emmeline Pankhurst's sister Mary Clarke died shortly after being force-fed in prison, others including Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton are believed to have had serious health problems caused by force feeding. In 1913 the Prisoners Act 1913 changed policy. Hunger strikes were tolerated but prisoners were released when they became sick; when they had recovered, the suffragettes were taken back to prison to finish their sentences.
Like their British counterparts, American suffragettes used this method of political protest. A few years prior to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a group of American suffragettes led by Alice Paul engaged in a hunger strike and endured forced feedings while incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia. Hunger strikes have deep roots in the Irish psyche. Fasting in order to bring attention to an injustice which one felt under his lord, thus shame him, was a common feature of early Irish society and this tactic was incorporated into the Brehon legal system; the tradition is most part of the still older Indo-European tradition of which the Irish were part. The tactic was used by physical force republicans during the 1916–23 revolutionary period. Early use of hunger strikes was countered with force-feeding, culminating in 1917 in the death of Thomas Ashe in Mountjoy Prison. During the Anglo-Irish war, in October 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike in Brixton prison.
Two other Cork IRA men, Joe Murphy and Michael Fitzgerald, died in this protest. Over a period of 94 days, from August 11 to November 12, 1920 John and Peter Crowley, Thomas Donovan, Michael Burke, Michael O'Reilly, Christopher Upton, John Power, Joseph Kenny and Seán Hennessy, demanding reinstatement of political status and release from prison, undertook a hunger strike at the Cork County Gaol. Arthur Griffith called off the strikes after the deaths of MacSwiney and Fitzgerald. During the 1920s, the vessel HMS Argenta was used as a military base and prison ship for the holding of Irish Republicans by the British government as part of their internment strategy post Bloody Sunday. Cloistered below decks in cages which held 50 internees, the prisoners were forced to use broken toilets which overflowed into their communal area. Deprived of tables, the weakened men ate off the floor succumbing to disease and illness as a result. There were several hunger strikes, including a major strike involving upwards of
Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against, the Islamic religion or Muslims especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism. The term was first used in the early 20th century and it emerged as a neologism in the 1970s it became salient during the 1980s and 1990s, it reached public policy prominence with the report by the Runnymede Trust's Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia entitled Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All; the introduction of the term was justified by the report's assessment that "anti-Muslim prejudice has grown so and so in recent years that a new item in the vocabulary is needed". The causes and characteristics of Islamophobia are still debated; some commentators have posited an increase in Islamophobia resulting from the September 11 attacks, the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, some from multiple terror attacks in Europe and the United States, while others have associated it with the increased presence of Muslims in the United States and in the European Union.
Some people question the validity of the term. The academics S. Sayyid and Abdoolkarim Vakil maintain that Islamophobia is a response to the emergence of a distinct Muslim public identity globally, the presence of Muslims in itself not being an indicator of the degree of Islamophobia in a society. Sayyid and Vakil maintain that there are societies where no Muslims live but many institutionalized forms of Islamophobia still exist in them. There are a number of other possible terms which are used in order to refer to negative feelings and attitudes towards Islam and Muslims, such as anti-Muslimism, intolerance against Muslims, anti-Muslim prejudice, anti-Muslim bigotry, hatred of Muslims, anti-Islamism, demonisation of Islam, or demonisation of Muslims. In German and Islamfeindlichkeit are used; the Scandinavian term Muslimhat means "hatred of Muslims". When discrimination towards Muslims has placed an emphasis on their religious affiliation and adherence, it has been termed Muslimphobia, the alternative form of Muslimophobia, Islamophobism and antimuslimism.
Individuals who discriminate against Muslims in general have been termed Islamophobes, anti-Muslimists, islamophobiacs, anti-Muhammadan, Muslimphobes or its alternative spelling of Muslimophobes, while individuals motivated by a specific anti-Muslim agenda or bigotry have been described as being anti-mosque, anti-Shiites. Anti-Sufism and anti-Sunni; the word Islamophobia is a neologism formed from Islam and -phobia, a Greek suffix used in English to form "nouns with the sense'fear of – –','aversion to – –'."According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word means "Intense dislike or fear of Islam, esp. as a political force. The University of California at Berkeley's Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project suggested this working definition: "Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global power structure, it is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve'civilizational rehab' of the target communities.
Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended." In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex. The Commission's report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was published in November 1997 by the Home Secretary, Jack Straw. In the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination." Johannes Kandel, in a 2006 comment wrote that Islamophobia "is a vague term which encompasses every conceivable actual and imagined act of hostility against Muslims", proceeds to argue that five of the criteria put forward by the Runnymede Trust are invalid. In 2008, a workshop on'Thinking Thru Islamophobia' was held at the University of Leeds, organized by the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, the participants included S.
Sayyid, Abdoolkarim Vakil, Liz Fekete, Gabrielle Maranci among others. The symposium proposed a definition of Islamophobia which rejected the idea of Islamophobia as being the product of closed and open views of Islam, focused on Islamophobia as performative which problematized Muslim agency and identity; the symposium was an early attempt to bring insights from critical race theory and decolonial thought to bear on the question of Islamophobia. At a 2009 symposium on "Islamophobia and Religious Discrimination", Robin Richardson, a former director of the Runnymede Trust and the editor of Islamophobia: a challenge for us all, said that "the disadvantages of the term Islamophobia are significant" on seven different grounds, including that it implies it is a "severe mental illness" affecting "only a tiny minority of people".
The Meitei people are the majority ethnic group of Manipur, a northeastern state of India. Meitei is an autonym while Manipuri is an exonym, they settle in the central plain region of Manipur. A significant population of the Meitei are settled in domestic neighboring states such as Assam and Tripura, they have settled in Bangladesh and Myanmar. The Meitei people are made up of seven major clans, known as Salai Taret, their written history has been documented to 1445 BC. The Meitei people speak a Tibeto-Burman language, it is known as Manipuri. Meitei is one of the recognized languages of India, included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India in 1992. Meitei is written in their indigenous Meitei Mayek script until it got lost and was replaced by Bengali Script in the early 18th century, however the revival of the Meitei script started in the 20th century. For the domestic group called Kinship, Meiteis reckon relationship both through affinal and consanguineal relationship; the Meitei word for kin is mari mata and the relationship mari-mata thoknaba means, to have relationship.
Schematically, there are two types of kinship 1. Luhonglaga thok naba mari 2. Ee-gi mari leinaba Meitei kinship is classified at the kin system at lineage and at the family level; the bulk of Meitei population is divided into seven clans: Mangang, Khuman, Moirang, Khaba-Nganba, Sarang-Leishangthem. Under which there are many sageis. However,Meitei Bamons do not fall under the rubic of Yek -Salai; the kinship terms in Meitei are unilineal and patrilocal. Meitei kinship terms are classificatory with an exception of some descriptive terms. There are only four descriptive kin terms in Meiteilon, they are: 1. Ima ‘mother’ 2. Ipa ‘father’ 3. Iku/ikubok ‘father-in-law’, 4. Inem/inembok ‘mother-in-law’ Meetei have their own calendar called Maliyafam Palcha Kumsing; the Maliyafam Palcha Kumsing calendar has 12 months, like the Gregorian Calendar. Before the arrival of European colonialism in South Asia, there had been many tribal wars in Nagaland and Manipur and raids from Burma by Burmese army on Meitei people and others in India's northeast region.
The Meitei kings succeeded in defending their territory ultimately. The Meitei ethnic group, represents about 53% of the population of India's Manipur state. Most of the rich culture of Manipur can be credited to the Meiteis. Since ancient times the valley region of Manipur was trading crossroads between India and Myanmar and the valley portion of Manipur became the melting pot of Indo-Burman culture; the famous Manipuri dance form had its roots from the Lai Haraoba dance form. The Manipuri martial art Thang-ta is a combative sport which had its origin from the Meitei knights during the kings rule, it involves various fighting techniques with spears. According to 2011 census, 14% of Meiteis traditionally believe in Sanamahi religion; the vast majority of Meiteis on the Manipur Valley follow Hinduism,but follow traditional Sanamahi cultures alongside, For example, they worship him in the South-west corner of their home. Around 10% of Meiteis are Muslim. Rice and fish are staple food of the Meiteis.
Rice is accompanied by several sides. The vegetables are either made as stews with less oil used in sauteing, or stir fried directly in oil and many spices to make an oily spicy side dish. Roasted dried fish or fried fresh fish is added in most of the stews and curry to impart special taste; the vegetables and fruits consumed in the region are more similar to those in East Asian cuisines such as Myanmar, etc. E.g. treebean, culantro, lime basil and many others, which are not cultivated in northern India. One of the most important ingredients in Meitei cooking is Ngari. Roasted ngari is used in iromba. A variety of fermented bamboo shoots as well as fresh bamboo shoots, fermented soya beans form an important of Meitei cuisine. All meals are served with some fresh aromatic herbs on the side. A typical every day Meitei meal will have rice, vegetable or fish curry, a piquant side dish, a champhut, a Kanghou. Meitei women wear Phanek, a kind of Sarong but has a unique style, they are either horizontal stripe pattern, called Phanek mayeknaibi or single block colour.
The ends are decorated with high embroidery. It is accompanied by a blouse and a matching enaphi, like a Dupatta but transparent, they introduced polo to the west. It is locally called Sagol Kangjei, it is believed. According to Chaitharol-Kumbaba, a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba who ruled Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairen Pakhangba introduced Polo. Kang Sanaba is a game played under a shed of building on an earth ground smoothly levelled to suit the course of the'Kang' the target on the court, it is well marked for the respective positions of the players of both to hit the target on the court. It has rules and regulations formed by the associations to suit the
Unity in diversity
Unity in diversity is a concept of "unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation" that shifts focus from unity based on a mere tolerance of physical, linguistic, religious, ideological and/or psychological differences towards a more complex unity based on an understanding that difference enriches human interactions. It has applications in many fields, including ecology, philosophy and politics; the idea and related phrase is old and dates back to ancient times in both Western and Eastern Old World cultures. The concept of unity in diversity was used by both the indigenous peoples of North America and Taoist societies in 400–500 B. C. In premodern Western culture, it has existed in an implicit form in certain organic conceptions of the universe that developed in the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome."Unity in diversity" is used as a popular slogan or motto by a variety of religious and political groups as an expression of harmony and unity between dissimilar individuals or groups.
The phrase is a deliberate oxymoron, the rhetorical combination of two antonyms, unitas "unity, oneness" and varietas "variety, variousness". When used in a political context, it is used to advocate federalism and multiculturalism; the diversity is a permanent human condition. The concept of unity in diversity can be traced back to Sufi philosopher Ibn al-'Arabi, who advanced the metaphysical concept of the "oneness of being", that reality is one, that God's is the only true existence. Abd al-Karīm al-Jīlī expanded on Al-'Arabi's work, using it to describe a holistic view of the universe which reflects "unity in diversity and diversity in unity". Leibniz used the phrase as a definition of "harmony" in his Elementa verae pietatis, sive de amore dei super omnia; the Old Javanese poem Kakawin Sutasoma, written by Mpu Tantular during the reign of the Majapahit empire sometime in the 14th century, contains the phrase Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, translated as "unity in diversity" or "out of many, one". Bhinneka Tunggal Ika is now the official national motto of Indonesia.
The poem is notable as it promotes tolerance between Hindus and Buddhists, stating that although Buddha and Shiva are different in substance, their truths are one: Unity in diversity is a prominent principle of the Bahá'í Faith. In 1938, in his book The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, said that "unity in diversity" was the "watchword" for the religion.`Abdu’l-Bahá, the head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 to 1921, explained this principle in terms of the oneness of humanity: In Meher Baba's Final Declaration, he stated that "Unity in the midst of diversity can be made to be felt only by touching the core of the heart. This is the work. I have come to sow the seed of love in your hearts so that, in spite of all superficial diversity which your life in illusion must experience and endure, the feeling of oneness through love is brought about amongst all the nations, creeds and castes of the world." Unity in diversity is a slogan utilized by the disciples of Swami Sivananda.
They came to America to spread the true meaning of Unity in Diversity. In modern politics it was first used, as In varietate unitas, by Ernesto Teodoro Moneta in the context of Italian Unification. Adélard Godbout, while Premier of Quebec, published an article entitled "Canada: Unity in Diversity" in the Council on Foreign Relations journal, he asked, The phrase has since become somewhat of a staple of Canadian multiculturalism in general. The phrase was invoked in the Interdisciplinary Research Seminar at Wilfrid Laurier University in the 1970s. Ervin Laszlo presented his paper entitled "Framework for a General Systems Theory of World Order" as one of the first seminar Papers that led to the establishment of the IRS in 1975; the motto of the province of Saskatchewan, adopted in 1986, is a variation, Multis e gentibus vires. In 2000, the European Union adopted'United in Diversity' as official motto, a reference to the many and diverse member states of the Union in terms of culture. Apart from its English form, the European Union's motto is official in 23 other languages.
"Unity in diversity" was selected by means of a competition involving students from member nations. According to the European Union official website Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India and leader of the Indian National Congress, vigorously promoted unity in diversity as an ideal essential to national consolidation and progress, he wrote at length on this topic. The diversity of India is tremendous, it concerns itself with physical appearances as well as with certain traits. There is little in common, to outward seeming, between the Pathan of the North-West and the Tamil in the far South, their racial stocks are not the same, though there may be common strands running through them... Yet, with all these differences, there is no mistaking the impress of India on the Pathan, as this is obvious on the Tamil; the Pathan and the Tamil are two extreme examples. All of them have their distinctive features, all of them have still more the distinguishing mark of India. Though outwardly there was diversity and infinite variety among our people, everywhere there was that treme