SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ethnogenesis

Ethnogenesis is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification. The term is a mid-20th century neologism, refers to the observable phenomenon of emergence of new social groups that are identified as having a cohesive identity, i.e. an "ethnic group" in anthropological terms. Relevant sciences do not only observe this search for explanation of its causes; the term ethnogeny is used as a variant of ethnogenesis. Ethnogenesis can occur passively, in the accumulation of markers of group identity forged through interaction with the physical environment and religious divisions between sections of a society and other processes, for which ethnic subdivision is an unintended outcome, it can occur as persons deliberately and directly'engineer' separate identities to attempt to solve a political problem – the preservation or imposition of certain cultural values, power relations, etc.

Since the late eighteenth century, such attempts have been related to language revival or creation of a new language, in what becomes a "national literature". In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, societies challenged by the obsolescence of those narratives which afforded them coherence have fallen back on ethnic or racial narratives as a means of maintaining or reaffirming their collective identity, or polis. Ethnogenesis can be promoted to include or exclude any ethnic minority living within a certain country. In France, the integrationalist policy of the French Republic was inclusive; the law did not make racial categories in between the "French" people. All people in France were Frenchmen and became citizens of the French Republic as far the country's law was concerned. Language has been a critical asset for authenticating ethnic identities; the process of reviving an antique ethnic identity poses an immediate language challenge, as obsolescent languages lack expressions for contemporary experiences.

In Europe in the 1990s, examples of proponents of ethnic revivals were from Celtic fringes in Wales and nationalists in the Basque Country. Activists' attempts since the 1970s to revive the Occitan language in Southern France are a similar example. In the 19th century, the Fennoman Grand Duchy of Finland aimed to raise the Finnish language from peasant-status to the position of an official national language, only Swedish for some time; the Fennoman founded the Finnish Party to pursue their nationalist aims. The publication in 1835 of the Finnish national epic, was a founding stone of Finnish nationalism and ethnogenesis. Finnish was recognized as the official language of Finland only in 1892. Fennomans were opposed by the Svecomans, headed by Axel Olof Freudenthal, he supported continuing the use of Swedish as the official language. In line with contemporary scientific racism theories, Freudenthal believed that Finland had two "races", one speaking Swedish and the other Finnish; the Svecomans claimed.

In Ireland, revival of the Irish language was part of the reclaiming of Irish identity in the republic. Language has been an important and divisive political force in Belgium between the Dutch and Germanic Flemings and Franco-Celtic Walloons since the kingdom was created in 1831. Switzerland is divided among Alemannic German-speaking or Deutschschweizer against the French-speaking Romands or Arpitians, the Italian/Lombard and Romansh-speaking minorities in the south and east; the set of cultural markers that accompanies each of the major religions may become a component of distinct ethnic identities, but they never exist in isolation. Ethnic definitions are subject to change both within and outside groups. For example, 19th-century Europeans classified Jews and Arabs as one'ethnic' bloc, the Semites or Hamites; the term Hamites came to be associated with Sub-Saharan Africans instead. Christian, Jewish and Muslim followers have been aligned with ethnicities speaking different languages and having different cultures that arise on the basis of the languages that followers of each religion favoured:.

The sources of religious differentiation are contested among sociologists and among anthropologists, as much as between the faith groups themselves. The line between a well-defined religious sect and a discrete ethnicity cannot always be defined. Sects that most observers would accept as constituting a separate ethnicity have, as a minimum, a firm set of rules related to maintenance of endogamy, censuring those who'marry out' or who fail to raise their children in the proper faith. Examples might include the Jews, Druze, Sikhs and Zoroastrians Geographical factors can lead to both cultural and genetic isolation from larger human societies. Groups which settle remote habitats and intermarry over generations will acquire distinctive cultural and genetic traits, evolving from cultural continuity and through interaction with their unique environmental circumstances. Ethnogenesis in these circumstances results in an identity, less value-laden than one forged in contradistinction to competing popul

Whitehall Street

Whitehall Street is a four-block-long street in the South Ferry/Financial District neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, near the southern tip of Manhattan Island. The street begins at the intersection with Stone Street. Whitehall Street stretches south to the southern end of FDR Drive, adjacent to the Staten Island Ferry's Whitehall Terminal, on landfill beyond the site of Peter Stuyvesant's 17th-century house; the street is one-way southbound for three blocks from Bowling Green to Pearl Street, one-way northbound up from the FDR Drive to Pearl Street. The southernmost block, adjacent to the ferry terminal, provides access from FDR Drive to the Battery area. Near the foot of the street is the site of the Governor's house built by Peter Stuyvesant. On the Castello map Whitehall, with its white roof, stands on a jutting piece of land at Manhattan's tip, facing along the waterfront strand that extends along the East River; the only extensive pleasure gardens in seventeenth-century Nieuw Amsterdam/New York are seen to extend behind it, laid out in a patterned parterre of four squares.

Other grounds in the center of blocks behind houses are commons and market gardens. The mansion is long since gone, now the name survives only as the short north-south Whitehall Street. In the 2000s the Metropolitan Transportation Authority renovated the Topps Corporation office building at 2 Broadway, to use as a new headquarters. There are several other office buildings and low-density shops on that street. From 1884 to the end of the Vietnam War, the Army Building, used as offices, a military recruiting center, an Armed Forces Examination and Entrance Station, was located at 39 Whitehall Street, at the intersection of White Hall and Water Streets. Nearly three million Americans were inducted at the Army building before being closed after two bombings by war resisters; the damage was superficial and the building has been repurposed as a glass-skinned condominium, with retail space and the alternate address: 3 New York Plaza. There is an active passenger ferry terminal at the southern tip of Whitehall Street: the Whitehall Terminal, which serves the Staten Island Ferry.

However, its facilities in use have shifted over the decade. The original Whitehall Terminal served Brooklyn, Governors Island, Staten Island, Jersey City, New Jersey, it was served by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company's elevated train lines at South Ferry station. Furthermore, the terminal once served vehicular traffic. However, the subways have replaced the els, cars now use fixed crossings such as the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel; the structure was renovated in the 1950s and reopened in 1956. It was destroyed by fire in 1991, it was renovated in 1992–2005. The Battery Maritime Building, housing the ferry to Governors Island, is located just east of the Whitehall Terminal, it is open to the public from April through October. The terminal was renovated in 2001–2005; the building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Whitehall Street–South Ferry station of the New York City Subway is located on Whitehall Street. Entrances are located at the southern ends of the street; the Bowling Green subway station, just steps away from the Alexander Hamilton U.

S. Custom House, is on Whitehall Street; the former military induction center at 39 Whitehall Street was made famous in Arlo Guthrie's "Alice's Restaurant."

Geir Langslet

Geir Langslet is a Norwegian jazz pianist and band leader raised in Fredrikstad. Langslet is a graduate of the Berklee College of Music, he was a member of the Heavy metal-rock band Cats for LIFE for 20 years, participated in numerous recordings and tours in the 1980s and 1990s. He has been orchestra conductor for NRK for several years, including for Melodi Grand Prix 5 times, from 1995 to 1999, he had conducted the Norwegian entries in the Eurovision Song Contest 3 times in 1995, 1997 and 1998. He has been band leader for "The show must go on", a Queen tribute concert show with Åge Sten Nilsen. 1984: Spellemannprisen in the class heavy metal, within cats for LIFE Within cats for LIFE1980: Lava 1981: Cruisin 1982: Prime Time 1984: Fire 1985: Prime Cuts, Compilation 1990: Rhythm of Love 1996: The Very Best of Lava, Compilation 2003: Polarity 2005: Alibi 2009: Symphonic Journey, live albumWith Jahn Teigen1979: En Dags Pause With Alex1979: Hello I Love You! 1980: Daddy's Child 1981: Alex' Beste, CompilationWith Trond Granlund1981: Pleasant Surprise With Stein Ove Berg1981: Bergtatt With Anita Skorgan1981: Pastell With Prima Vera1981: Ha Ha He He Ho!

1983: Her Kommer Olavs Menn With Olav Stedje1982: Tredje Stedje 2006: Livstegn 2011: Ikkje Utan Deg With Kjell Fjalsett1982: Forandring With Ketil Bjørnstad1983: Aniara, Rock operaWith Terje Bakke & Test 11983: Høyt Spill Within Silhouette1984: Silhouette Within Doxa1984: Så Langt... 1986: Noe Som Spirer With Lill Lindfors1985: Människors Makt With Sissel Kyrkjebø1986: Sissel 1986: Glade Jul 1994: Se Ilden Lyse With Pål Thowsen1986: Call Me Stranger With Rita Eriksen1988: Back From Wonderland With Egil Eldøen1988: Here We Go Again With Elisabeth Andreassen1996: Bettans Jul Geir Langslet on Myspace