The ancestors of the hunter-gatherer San people are considered to have been the first inhabitants of what is now Botswana and South Africa. The historical presence of the San in Botswana is particularly evident in northern Botswanas Tsodilo Hills region, in this area, stone tools and rock art paintings date back thousands of years. The San were traditionally semi-nomadic, moving seasonally within certain defined areas based on the availability of such as water, game animals. As of 2010, the San population in Botswana numbers about 50,000 to 60,000, from the 1950s through the 1990s, the San switched to farming because of government-mandated modernisation programs. Despite the lifestyle changes, they have provided a wealth of information in anthropology, the San are one of 14 known extant ancestral population clusters. That is, groups of populations with common ancestry, who share ethnicity. The United States Department of State described ongoing discrimination against San, or Basarwa, various terms—including San and Basarwa—have been used to refer to them collectively.
Each of these terms has a history, as they have been used by others to refer to them. In the 1970s, many Western anthropologists adopted the term San to refer to the people collectively, historically San was a derogatory term meaning foragers, applied to them by pastoralist Khoikhoi rivals. The term became associated with people without cattle or people who stole cattle, the term Bushmen is still widely used by others and to self-identify, opinions vary on whether it is appropriate as it is sometimes viewed as pejorative. The consensus of delegates representing the people at various meetings held in the 1990s was in favour of using the term San to refer to them collectively, according to anthropologist Richard Borshay Lee, the term San was in general use by the people themselves by the late 1990s. There are regional variations in nomenclature, The term most commonly used for them in Botswana is Basarwa. Being a Tswana word meaning those who do not rear cattle, the term is in a noun class representing people who are accepted, while an older variant Masarwa is considered offensive now.
In 1996 the different San language groups of Namibia met and agreed to allow the term San to be used externally to refer to them collectively, there are no official terms for them in Angola, Zambia or in Zimbabwe. In Angola they are referred to as mucancalas, or bosquímanos. The terms Amasili and Batwa are sometimes used for them in Zimbabwe, the term San has become favoured in South Africa, and is used in the blazon of the national coat-of-arms. The South African San Council representing San communities in South Africa was established as part of WIMSA in 2001, the people are referred to as Twa by Xhosa people and Baroa by Sotho people. Bushman is considered derogatory by many South Africans, regardless of their race, a 2008 Equality Court ruling nevertheless found that the use of the Afrikaans equivalent boesman by Die Burger newspaper did not amount to hate speech in the context used
A population is the number of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans, Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. This article refers mainly to human population, in population genetics a sexual population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together. This means that they can regularly exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring and this implies that all members belong to the same species. If the gamodeme is very large, and all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbours. This may be viewed as the breaking up of a sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. The overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient, note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the collection is lower than that of the panmictic original – which is known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same. The probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations, in plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilise the effects of dispersion. It can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance and this is so for both allogamous and autogamous gamodemes. In ecology, the population of a species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. As of todays date, the population is estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 7.496 billion. The US Census Bureau estimates the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012, according to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the day on which world population reached 6 billion.
This was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, the population of countries such as Nigeria, is not even known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have probably been born in the last 2000 years, Population growth increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards. In 2007 the United Nations Population Division projected that the population will likely surpass 10 billion in 2055
Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey. Its mission in the 21st century is to ensure the political, educational and their national initiatives included political lobbying, publicity efforts, and litigation strategies developed by their legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of foreign refugees. Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the common term colored people. The NAACP bestows annual awards to people of color in two categories, Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind and its headquarters is in Baltimore, Maryland. The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with regional offices in New York, Georgia, Texas, Colorado. Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region, local and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U. S.
the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was led by its executive secretary. James Weldon Johnson and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were more widely known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action, local chapters are supported by the Branch and Field Services department and the Youth and College department. The Legal department focuses on cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government. The Washington, D. C. bureau is responsible for lobbying the U. S. government, the goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. As of 2007, the NAACP had approximately 425,000 paying and non-paying members, the NAACPs non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organizations official repository since 1964.
The records held there comprise approximately five million items spanning the NAACPs history from the time of its founding until 2003, in 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippis passage of a new constitution in 1890, through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many whites from the political system in southern states. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation, men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not qualify to register
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
Race (human categorization)
Race is the classification of humans into groups based on physical traits, genetics, or social relations, or the relations between them. First used to refer to speakers of a language and to denote national affiliations. The term was used in a general biological taxonomic sense, starting from the 19th century. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits, scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, and generally discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Although still used in contexts, race has often been replaced by less ambiguous and emotionally charged synonyms, people, ethnic groups, or communities. A popular view in American sociology is that the categories that are common in everyday usage are socially constructed. For this reason, there is no current consensus about whether racial categories can be considered to have significance for understanding human genetic variation, when people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved.
In this sense, races are said to be social constructs and these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, and may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups, as a result, racial groups possessing relatively little power often find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes. Racism has led to instances of tragedy, including slavery. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects and this use of racial categories is frequently criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, and promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of stratification, for social scientists studying social inequality. As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction.
Groups of humans have identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups. These features are the features of how the concept of race is used today. As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world, they speculated about the physical, social, a set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectual and moral qualities. Brutal conflicts between groups have existed throughout history and across the world. In the 18th century the differences among human groups became a focus of scientific investigation, Homo sapiens europaeus was described as active and adventurous, whereas Homo sapiens afer was said to be crafty and careless
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
Polyethnicity refers to the proximity of people from different ethnic backgrounds within a country or other specific geographic region. It relates to the ability and willingness of individuals to identify themselves with multiple ethnicities and it occurs when multiple ethnicities inhabit a given area, specifically through means of immigration, trade and post-war land-divisions. Professor William H. McNeill states in his series of lectures on polyethnicity that it is the norm for cultures to be made up of many ethnic groups. This has had political and social implications on countries and regions. Many, if not all, countries have some level of polyethnicity, with countries like the United States and Canada having large levels and countries like Japan and Poland having very small levels. The main thesis throughout the lectures was that it has been the norm for societies to be composed of different ethnic groups. McNeill believes that World War I was the point in time when the desire for homogeneous nations began to weaken, Polyethnicity divides nations, complicating the politics as local and national governments attempt to satisfy all ethnic groups.
Many politicians in countries attempt to find the balance between ethnic identities within their country and the identity of the nation as a whole, Nationalism plays a large part in these political debates, as cultural pluralism and consociationalism are the democratic alternatives to nationalism for the polyethnic state. The idea of nationalism being social instead of ethnic entails a variety of culture, a sense of identity. Culturally plural states vary constitutionally between a decentralized and unitary state and a federal state, Ethnic parties in these polyethnic regions are not anti-state but instead seek maximum power within this state. Many polyethnic countries face this dilemma with their policy decisions, a controversial political issue in recent years has been the question of bilingualism. Many immigrants have come from Hispanic America, who are native Spanish speakers, in the past centuries and have become a significant minority, in New Mexico the Spanish speaking population exceeds 40%.
Disputes have emerged over language policy, since a part of the population. The biggest debates are over bilingual education for minority students, the availability of non-English ballots and election materials. It has evolved into a conflict between the pluralists who support bilingualism and linguistic access and the assimilationists who strongly oppose this. The United States does not have a language, but English is the default national language. Canada has had many political debates between the French speakers and English speakers, particularly in the province of Quebec, Canada holds both French and English as official languages. The politics in Quebec are largely defined by nationalism as French Québécois wish to gain independence from Canada as a whole, the main separatist party, Parti Québécois, attempted to gain sovereignty twice and failed by a narrow margin of 1. 2% in 1995
The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies, which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. Romani are dispersed, with their populations in Europe – especially Central and Southern Europe including Turkey, Spain. Since the 19th century, some Romani have migrated to the Americas, there are an estimated one million Roma in the United States, and 800,000 in Brazil, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe. Brazil includes some Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition in the colonial era, in migrations since the late nineteenth century, Romani have moved to other countries in South America and to Canada. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora, the Romani language is divided into several dialects, which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million.
The total number of Romani people is at least twice as large, many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two, those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani. French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, whence they came, Rom means man or husband in the Romani, it has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati, lom, lomaka loman, roman. Another possible origin is from Sanskrit डोम doma, Sanskrit सिनधु is a river or stream of water in general. In particular, it denotes the river Indus and the country around it, in the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning man of the Roma ethnic group or man, with the plural Roma. The feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni, however, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of all genders. Romani is the adjective, while Romano is the masculine adjective. Some Romanies use Rom or Roma as a name, while others do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.
Sometimes and romani are spelled with a r, i. e. rrom. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/, the rr spelling is common in certain institutions, or used in certain countries, e. g. Romania, to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians. In the English language, Rom is a noun and an adjective, while Romani is a noun, both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. Romani was initially spelled Rommany, while today the Romani spelling is the most popular spelling, the double r spelling mentioned above is encountered in English texts. The term Roma is increasingly encountered during recent decades, as a term for the Romani people
Negro is a term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage. It has various equivalents in other languages, around 1442, the Portuguese first arrived in Southern Africa while trying to find a sea route to India. The term negro, literally meaning black, was used by the Spanish, Negro denotes black in Spanish and Portuguese, derived from the Latin word Niger, meaning black, which itself is probably from a Proto-Indo-European root *nekw-, to be dark, akin to *nokw-, night. Negro was used of the peoples of West Africa in old maps labelled Negroland, from the 18th century to the late 1960s, negro was considered to be the proper English-language term for people of black African origin. According to Oxford Dictionaries, use of the word now seems out of date or even offensive in both British and US English, a specifically female form of the word, was occasionally used. However, like Jewess, it has all but completely fallen from use, Negroid has traditionally been used within physical anthropology to denote one of the three purported races of humankind, alongside Caucasoid and Mongoloid.
The suffix -oid means similar to, Negroid as a noun was used to designate a wider or more generalized category than Negro, as an adjective, it qualified a noun as in, for example, negroid features. Negro superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive, du Bois and Dr. Carter G. Woodson used it in the titles of their non-fiction books, The Negro and The Mis-Education of the Negro respectively. Negro was accepted as normal, both as exonym and endonym, until the late 1960s, after the African-American Civil Rights Movement. One well-known example is the identification by Martin Luther King, Jr. of his own race as Negro in his famous I Have a Dream speech of 1963, malcolm X preferred Black to Negro, but started using the term Afro-American after leaving the Nation of Islam. Since the late 1960s, various terms have been more widespread in popular usage. These include black, Black African, Afro-American and African American, the word Negro fell out of favor by the early 1970s.
However, many older African Americans initially found the term black more offensive than Negro, the United States Census Bureau included Negro on the 2010 Census, alongside Black and African-American, because some older black Americans still self-identify with the term. The U. S. Census now uses the grouping Black, African-American, Negro is used in efforts to include older African Americans who more closely associate with the term. The constitution of Liberia limits Liberian nationality to Negro people, people of other racial origins, even if they have lived for many years in Liberia, are thus precluded from becoming citizens of the Republic. In Spanish, negro is most commonly used for the color black, in Spain and almost all of Latin America, negro means black person. As in English, this Spanish word is used figuratively and negatively, to mean irregular or undesirable. In Venezuela the word negro is similarly used, despite its large West African slave-descended population percentage, in certain parts of Latin America, the usage of negro to directly address black people can be colloquial
The Philistines were an ancient people primarily known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible. Assyrian sources refer to Pilišti and Palaštu, believed to be cognate with Pléšet, the first reference to Philistines in the Hebrew Bible canon is in the Table of Nations, where they are said to descend from Casluhim son of Mizraim. However, the Philistines of Genesis who are friendly to Abraham are identified by Rabbinic sources as distinct from the people described in Deuteronomistic history. This description portrays them at one period of time as among the Kingdom of Israels most dangerous enemies, in contrast, the canon of Eastern Christianity, the LXX, uses the term allophuloi instead of philistines, which means simply other nations. There are several theories about the origins of the Philistines, in 2016, the discovery of a huge Philistine cemetery, containing more than 150 burials, seems to point toward an Aegean origin of the Philistines. Genetic testing of the remains will provide further information.
The English word Philistine and the modern term Palestine come from Old French Philistin, from Classical Latin Philistinus, from Late Greek Philistinoi, from Hebrew Plištim, the Hebrew term pelishtim occurs 286 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. It appears in the Samaritan Pentateuch, in secondary literature the Aramaic Visions of Amram further mentions Philistia. This is datable prior to Antiochus IV and the Hasmonean revolt, possibly to the term of High Priest of Israel Onias II, Jubilees 46, in the Greek version of the Bible called Septuagint, the equivalent term phylistiim occurs 12 times, again in the Pentateuch. Outside of pre-Maccabean Israelite religious literature, evidence for the name, in the remainder of the Hebrew Bible, ha-pelishtim is attested at Qumran for 2 Samuel 5,17. In the Septuagint however 269 references instead use the term allophylos, the Philistines are the subject of research and speculation in biblical archaeology. While the evidence for connections is etymological and has been disputed.
Archaeological research to date has been unable to corroborate a mass settlement of Philistines during the Ramesses III era, a Walistina is mentioned in Luwian texts already variantly spelled Palistina. This implies dialectical variation, a phoneme inadequately described in the script, *Falistina was a kingdom somewhere on the Amuq plain, where the Amurru kingdom had held sway before it. Allen Jones suggests that the name Philistine represents a corruption of the Greek phyle histia and he goes on to suggest that the Philistines introduced the fixed hearth to the Levant. This suggestion was raised before archaeological evidence for the use of the hearths was documented at Philistine sites, literally, it says that those whom Mizraim begat included the Pathrusim and the Caphtorim. There is some debate among interpreters as to whether this verse was intended to signify that the Philistines themselves were the offspring of the Casluhim or the Caphtorim. While the Casluhim or the Caphtorim origin is widely followed by scholars, other scholars such as Friedrich Schwally, Bernhard Stade
It was most commonly used to disparage German Americans or Irish Americans who called for U. S. neutrality in World War I. Former President Theodore Roosevelt was an outspoken anti-hyphenate and Woodrow Wilson followed suit, the term hyphenated American was published by 1889, and was common as a derogatory term by 1904. During World War I the issue arose of the political loyalty of ethnic groups with close ties to Europe, especially German Americans. When I refer to hyphenated Americans, I do not refer to naturalized Americans, some of the very best Americans I have ever known were naturalized Americans, Americans born abroad. The only man who is a good American is the man who is an American, modern style guides most often recommend dropping the hyphen between the two names except when the compound is used as an adjective, some recommend dropping the hyphen even for the adjective form. On the other hand, compounds with name fragments, such as Afro-American and Indo-European, are recommended to be hyphenated, the first term typically indicates a region or culture of origin ancestry paired with American.
Examples, continent or race, African American, Arab American, Asian American, European American, Latino American, Native American, or American Indian, the hyphen is occasionally but not consistently employed when the compound term is used as an adjective. Academic style guides do not use a hyphen in these compounds even when they are used as adjectives, Latin America includes most of the Western Hemisphere south of the United States, including Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean. U. S. nationals with origins in Latin America are often referred to as Hispanic or Latino Americans, or by their country of origin, e. g. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans. Some groups recommend dropping the hyphen because it implies to some people dual nationalism, the Japanese American Citizens League is supportive of dropping the hyphen because the non-hyphenated form uses their ancestral origin as an adjective for American. The term distinguishes whites of European ancestry from those of other ancestries, in 1977, it was proposed that the term European American replace white as a racial label in the US Census, although this was not done.
The term European American is not in use in the US among the general public or in the mass media. Strangers in the Land, Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925, review of Confessions of a Hyphenated American. Were All Ethnics, Hyphenated Americans, Professional Ethnics, and Ethnics By Attraction