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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ethnosymbolism

Ethnosymbolism is a school of thought in the study of nationalism that stresses the importance of symbols, myths and traditions in the formation and persistence of the modern nation state. It emerges as the critical theory of modernism, which argues the antiquity and la longue durée of nation while modernists believe nation's purely modern appearance. John A. Armstrong, Anthony D. Smith and John Hutchinson are regarded as important theorists of ethnosymbolism; the term was first used as "ethno-symbolist approach" in an article by Daniele Conversi, Smith's former student at the London School of Economics. However, Conversi was critical, arguing: "if we focus on the power of the past and its symbols, we miss two other key features of nationalism: first, its relationship with political power, with the state. Armstrong's contribution to ethnosymbolism is his myth-symbol complexes in Nations before Nationalism published in 1982, which firstly underlined the significance of la longue durée according to Anthony D. Smith.

Armstrong believes that ethnic consciousness has existed for long, whose traces could be found in ancient civilisations such as Egypt, nationalism is "the final stage of a larger cycle of ethnic consciousness reaching back to the earliest forms of collective organization". Therefore, similar to the longue durée of Annales School, formation of ethnic identity should be examined in time dimensions of many centuries, he emphasised the boundaries for human identity by adopting the social interaction model of Fredrik Barth and argues that "groups tend to define themselves not by reference to their own characteristics but by exclusion, that is, by comparison to'strangers'". In other words, the character of a group is never fixed, in accordance with group member's individual perceptions the boundaries of identities vary. Hence, comparing to the objective group characteristics, the boundary mechanisms of distinguishing a particular group from others should be studied more, his conception of ethnic group defined by exclusion rules out any definitional way to distinguish ethnicity from other collective identity including religious and class identities, for which reason himself is more concerned with the shifting interactions among class, ethnic religious loyalties than with "compartmentalizing definitions".

For Armstrong, "myth, symbol and cluster of associated attitudinal factors are more persistent than purely material factors", which indicates his emphasis on the persistence of these symbolic boundary mechanisms. He further analysed several factors that ensure such persistence; the first such factor the most general one, is ways of life and the experiences associated with them. There are two fundamentally different ways of life: the sedentary; the second factor is religion, exemplified by Christianity and Islam both of which gave birth to different civilisations and the myths/symbols. The third factor is city, whose effect upon ethnic identification'requires examination of a host of factors ranging from the impact of town planning to the unifying of centrifugal effects of various legal codes the Lübeck and Magdeburg law; the fourth factor is imperial polities' role, whose central question is "how could the intense consciousness of loyalty and identity established through face-to-face contact in the city-state transferred to the larger agglomerations of cities and countryside known as empires"?

The Mesopotamian myth of the polity as a reflection of heavenly rule, being called mythomoteur by Armstrong, is exemplified as "myth transference for political purposes" since it was used as vehicle for incorporating city-state loyalties in a larger framework. The last factor is language. Uniquely, Armstrong concludes that "the significance of language for ethnic identity is contingent" in pre-modern era, its significance relied on allegiances for centuries. Nonetheless, in his works, he agrees with most modernists including Benedict Anderson and Eric Hobsbawm that national identity had been an invention, the only remaining disagreement would be "over the antiquity of some inventions and the repertory of pre-existing group characteristics that inventors were able to draw upon". Although a former student of Ernest Gellner, considered to represent modernism, Anthony D. Smith has perspectives of nationalism that differentiate him from his teacher, he is the last contributor to the "LSE debate" on nationalism.

His central thesis is that "modern state cannot be understood without taking pre-existing ethnic components into account, the lack of, to create a serious impediment to'nation-building'." Smith has suggested theorists to define key terms such as "nation" and "nationalism" beyond the theoretical limitation of both modernism and primordialism. In his opinion, the problem of modernism is that modernists define nation as "modern nation" with characters of European nations of 18th and 19th centuries, making their definition Eurocentric and partial. Instead, he proposes an ideal-typical definition of the nation: "a named human population sharing an historic territory, common myths and historical memories, a mass, public culture, a common economy and common legal rights and duties for all members", he introduces the important term ethnie, a French word meaning "ethnic group", used to describe the pre-modern ethnic communities and contains six main attributes: a collective proper name a myth of common ancestry shared historical memories one or more differentiating elements of common culture an association with a specific "homeland" a sense of solidarity for significant sectors of the population.

These six

Victory Park, Dushanbe

Victory Park is a park in honor of the Great Patriotic War located in the mountainous part of Dushanbe in Tajikistan. The park was completed in 1985. Victory Park was opened in honor of the 40th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, the architectural and sculptural memorial complex was built in 1975; the central area is filled with an eternal fire, alley of Heroes with high relief and sculpture Mother. At the foot of the stair is a granite slab with inscriptions in Tajik soldiers that were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union; the park provided a cascade near the monument. On holidays, Victory Day parades are in the park such as in 2015 and 2017

Lead Mosque, Shkodër

The Lead Mosque known as the Buşatlı Mehmet Pasha Mosque, is a historical mosque in Shkodër, northwestern Albania. It took the name Lead Mosque; the Lead Mosque was built in 1773 by the Albanian pasha Mehmed Bushati of the noble Bushati family, vizier of Pashalik of Scutari at the time. Through this act, he intended to give his city of birth, the feeling of the capital, it is said. Mehmed Bushati was involved with the construction and stones were incised under his patronage; every day, he stepped down from his residence, the Rozafa Castle, to follow the progress of the works. The first Imam of the mosque was Haxhi Ahmet Misria, of Egyptian origin, he came to Albania after the contacts he had with Mehmed Bushati. After him, other Imams served and took care of the mosque. During the 1900s, the mosque begun to be damaged and the lead that covered the cupolas was stolen. In 1916, the remaining lead was removed by the Austrian army during the Austrian rule in Albania. In 1967, lightning destroyed its minaret, reconstructed in 1920 by Xhelal Bushati, descendant of Mehmed Bushati.

In 1967, Lead Mosque was closed down, just like the other religious institutions, after the anti-religious communist leader Enver Hoxha declared Albania an atheist state. Unlike many mosques that were destroyed during this time, it survived from the communist regime because it was declared a Cultural Monument in 1948. On 16 November 1990, the Lead Mosque preceded other mosques in Albania to reopen when religion was again allowed in the country; the first religious rally was held in this mosque by Hafiz Sabri Koçi, after 23 years of state atheism. The Lead Mosque has an Ottoman architecture, unlike most other mosques in Albania which follow an Arab architecture, it mirrors the classical Ottoman architecture of Istanbul, pioneered by architect Mimar Sinan of the 16th century. The mosque is built with hewn stones of the same size, which creates a pleasant construction symmetry. Stones were brought from the nearby village of Gur i Zi by people who aligned to each other over kilometers passing the stones to reach the construction point.

The mosque has been repaired numerous times during its lifetime: in 1863, 1920 and in 1963. Islam in Albania Lead Mosque at Shkodër.net

Autostrada A3 (Italy)

The Autostrada A3 is a motorway in Southern Italy, which runs from Naples to Salerno, in the region Campania. Until 2017 the route was much longer. Due to sections not being constructed to anywhere near Motorway standard and to the notoriously poor conditions of maintenance, to the difficult terrain along some of the route, the motorway has been taken as a symbol of the backwardness and economical problems of southern Italy. Italian historian Leandra D'Antone has defined it "a true Italian shame"; the European Union declines to classify the road as a “motorway” due to the decades-long roadwork restrictions on a modern road and seeks recompense for its financial contributions. On 22 December 2016 the Salerno-Reggio Calabria freeway was declared'complete', 55 years after the first works started, with the opening of Larìa tunnel in Cosenza. In a ceremony held in Reggio Calabria, prime minister Paolo Gentiloni begged pardon "for the delay" and the road name was changed from "A3 Salerno-to-Reggio Calabria" to "A2 Autostrada del Mediterraneo".

The first stretch of the road to be completed was the Naples-Pompeii section, finished on 22 June 1929. The connection onward to Salerno was completed on 16 July 1961. In 1964 the Italian government decided to build a motorway which connected the rest of Italy to Calabria, so far considered a kind of "Third Island", due to the nature of its terrain, which made it problematic to reach the region; the new motorway was built in a total of 8 years, the works being delivered on 13 June 1974. The road built by 1974 is more similar to a sub-standard freeway than to the other autostrade in Italy. Queues became a common feature in summer. To solve the situation, the Italian government funded renovation works in 1997; as of 2010, many of them are still ongoing, despite it being announced in 1993 that the works would be completed by 2003. The EU antifraud investigation of works undertaken between 2007 and 2010 together with the repayment of over €300m to the EU in July 2012 have delayed completion of the upgrade works further.

The cost of the upgrade was projected to reach over €10bn by the time it was completed envisaged as by 2018. The section from Salerno to Reggio Calabria alone, 442 km long, would cost €10bn with the rest spent on widening/upgrades completed between Naples and Salerno. €7.443 Bn had been spent up to 2011 on parts of the 442 km section between Salerno and Reggio Calabria. Most of the works were completed by 2015; the entire road was constructed as a substandard freeway by the mid 1970s and an upgrade program from Naples to Reggio Calabria started in the early 1990s. The section with three lanes in each direction has a length of 105 km, between Naples and RA02 which goes towards Potenza; the section from the interchange with the A1 motorway in Naples to the Pompeii exit, built during the 1920s, originated as a local turnpike, was retrofitted to motorway standard. Many of the junctions along the original A3 route completed in the 1970s had tight corners and limited deceleration fields. Hard shoulders only appeared along the route as part of the post 1990 upgrades, with only occasional emergency bays at infrequent locations on the sections that have not been upgraded yet.

Much of the route is congested where upgraded. The concession of the Northern part was owned by Autostrade Meridionali, a company listing in Borsa Italiana and a subsidiary of Autostrade per l'Italia, which in turn a subsidiary of Atlantia; the southern segment is maintained by ANAS, the state agency for public routes. Located in a mountainous area, it is prone to high levels of traffic and is known for the bad state of maintenance compared to other Italian motorways. ANAS has been upgrading this section during the last three decades; the motorway underwent heavy modernisation, in many cases a new parallel motorway was built alongside the original A3 and involved in most cases a complete rebuilding or replacement of the road where the alignment was retained. By August 2014, works on 391 km of the road were completed. 16 more km of rebuilding/modernization was due to be completed. A number of new junctions were to be constructed, in some cases to service certain towns with no direct access at present.

In May 2015 prime minister Renzi indicated that the upgrade programme would be terminated by 2016. By March 2016 68 km remained to be done. Plans to upgrade 58 km were abandoned and changed from Motorway Construction projects to "Maintenance" Sections to be'maintained' in future rather than upgraded to Motorway standard are: Morano Calabro - Firmo, from km 185 + 000 to km 206 + 500: 21 km *Former Macrolotto 3.4 Cosenza - Altilia, from km 259 + 700 to km 286: 26 km *Former Macrolottos 4.1 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 Pizzo Calabro - S. Onofrio, from km 337 + 800 to km 348 + 600: 11 km *Former Macrolotto 5 Maintenance will involve pavement and structural renewal and is projected to cost €1bn between 2016 and 2021 instead of the €3bn that ANAS projected as the cost of upgrading the 3 remaining sections; these total 58 km of the new length of 435 km from Salerno to Campo Calabria and do not include the final 10 km from Campo Calabria t

PP-17 (Rawalpindi-XII)

PP-17 is a Constituency of Provincial Assembly of Punjab. General elections were held on 11 May 2013. Ijaz Khan won this seat with 35836 votes. All candidates receiving over 1,000 votes are listed here. From 2018 PP-11 Become PP-17 With Some changes has follow The following Census Charges of Rawalpindi City Charge No.18 Charge No.19 Charge No.20 Charge No.21 Circle No. 1 and 2 Charge No.27 and Charge No.28 of Rawalpindi District. General elections are scheduled to be held on 25 July 2018. PP-6 PP-7 PP-8 PP-9 PP-10 PP-11 PP-12 PP-13 PP-14 PP-15 PP-16 PP-17 PP-18 PP-19 PP-20 Election commission Pakistan's official website Awazoday.com check result Official Website of Government of Punjab

Jesus Christ Superstars

Jesus Christ Superstars is the fifth studio album by Slovenian industrial/electronic music group Laibach. It was released in 1996 and is a collection of cover versions and originals on the theme of religion. Unlike the albums before it, Jesus Christ Superstars has a much more guitar driven sound, with the overall result being reminiscent of the bands belonging to the genre of industrial metal. "God Is God" – 3:43 "Jesus Christ Superstar" – 5:45 "Kingdom of God" – 5:37 "Abuse and Confession" – 6:14 "Declaration of Freedom" – 5:33 "Message from the Black Star" – 5:50 "The Cross" – 4:54 "To the New Light" – 5:00 "Deus Ex Machina" – 4:00