The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
European Chemicals Agency
The European Chemicals Agency is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals. ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern, it is located in Finland. The agency headed by Executive Director Bjorn Hansen, started working on 1 June 2007; the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most used substances have been registered; the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment.
This gives European consumers the right to ask retailers whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU; this worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals and how to use products safely because the labels on products are now the same throughout the world. Companies need to notify ECHA of the labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100 000 substances; the information is available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products. Biocidal products include, for example, insect disinfectants used in hospitals; the Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is enough information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation; the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the import of hazardous chemicals.
Through this mechanism, countries due to receive hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have serious effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1; these are substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment and do not break down. Other substances considered. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0,1% weight of the article, have legal obligations, they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy. Once a substance has been identified in the EU as being of high concern, it will be added to a list; this list is available on ECHA's website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs.
Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list. This means that, after a given date, companies will not be allowed to place the substance on the market or to use it, unless they have been given prior authorisation to do so by ECHA. One of the main aims of this listing process is to phase out SVHCs where possible. In its 2018 substance evaluation progress report, ECHA said chemical companies failed to provide “important safety information” in nearly three quarters of cases checked that year. "The numbers show a similar picture to previous years" the report said. The agency noted that member states need to develop risk management measures to control unsafe commercial use of chemicals in 71% of the substances checked. Executive Director Bjorn Hansen called non-compliance with REACH a "worry". Industry group CEFIC acknowledged the problem; the European Environmental Bureau called for faster enforcement to minimise chemical exposure. European Chemicals Bureau Official website
Fumigation is a method of pest control that fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within. It is used to control pests in buildings, soil and produce, is used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms; this method affects the structure itself, affecting pests that inhabit the physical structure, such as woodborers and drywood termites. Fumigation involves the following phases: First the area intended to be fumigated is covered to create a sealed environment. If successful, the fumigated area is now pest free. Structural fumigation techniques differ from building to building, but in houses a rubber tent are placed over the entire house while the pesticides are being released into the vacant residence; this process is called tent fumigation or "tenting". The sealed tent concentrates the poisonous gases and prevents them from escaping into the neighborhood; the process can take up to a week depending on the fumigant used, in turn dependent on the temperature and the pest.
Fumigation of hospital rooms with high concentrations of toxic chemicals has been proposed to reduce microbial agents on hospital surfaces and to control surgical site infections. For this formaldehyde fumigation has long been an accepted method for areas where microbiological cleanliness is required. Fumigation with formaldehyde vapor is the recognized and most used method because of its cost effective procedure. However, due to safety and efficacy concerns there is a need for alternative methods. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide is a dry gaseous method, used as a reliable alternative for aseptic processing isolators and more for room/facility decontamination. Methyl bromide was among the most used fumigants until its production and use was restricted by the Montreal Protocol due to its role in ozone depletion. 1,3-dichloropropene dazomet chloropicrin DBCP formaldehyde hydrogen cyanide iodoform methyl isocyanate phosphine sulfuryl fluoride Fumigation is a hazardous operation. It is a legal requirement that the operator who carries out the fumigation operation holds official certification to perform the fumigation as the chemicals used are toxic to most forms of life, including humans.
Post operation ventilation of the area is a critical safety aspect of fumigation. It is important to distinguish between the pack or source of the fumigant gas and the environment, fumigated. While the fumigant pack may be safe and spent, the space will still hold the fumigant gas until it has been ventilated. ISPM 15 W. G. Johnson, Fumigation Methods National Pesticide Information Center
Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, long shelf life. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, figs, peaches and pears; these are referred to as "conventional" or "traditional" dried fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, cherries and mango are infused with a sweetener prior to drying; some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi fruit and pineapple are most candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most of the nutritional value of fresh fruits; the specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart and the processing method.
Traditional dried fruit such as raisins, dates and apples have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. This is due to their early cultivation in the Middle Eastern region known as the Fertile Crescent, made up by parts of modern Iran, southwest Turkey, Lebanon and northern Egypt. Drying or dehydration happened to be the earliest form of food preservation: grapes and figs that fell from the tree or vine would dry in the hot sun. Early hunter-gatherers observed that these fallen fruit took on an edible form, valued them for their stability as well as their concentrated sweetness; the earliest recorded mention of dried fruits can be found in Mesopotamian tablets dating to about 1700 BC, which contain what are the oldest known written recipes. These clay slabs, written in Akkadian, the daily language of Babylonia, were inscribed in cuneiform and tell of diets based on grains and fruits such as dates, apples and grapes; these early civilizations used dates, date juice evaporated into syrup and raisins as sweeteners.
They included dried fruits in their breads for which they had more than 300 recipes, from simple barley bread for the workers to elaborate, spiced cakes with honey for the palaces and temples. Because cuneiform was complex and only scribes who had studied for years could read it, it is unlikely that the tablets were meant for everyday cooks or chefs. Instead they were written to document the culinary art of the times. Many recipes are quite elaborate and have rare ingredients so we may assume that they represent "Mediterranean haute cuisine"; the date palm was one of the first cultivated trees. It was domesticated in Mesopotamia more than 5,000 years ago, it grew abundantly in the Fertile Crescent and it was so productive that dates were the cheapest of staple foods. Because they were so valuable they were well recorded in Assyrian and Babylonian monuments and temples; the villagers in Mesopotamia ate them as sweets. Whether fresh, soft-dried or hard-dried, they helped to give character to meat dishes and grain pies.
They were recommended as stimulants against fatigue. Figs were prized in early Mesopotamia and Egypt where their daily use was greater than or equal to that of dates; as well as appearing in wall paintings, many specimens have been found in Egyptian tombs as funerary offerings. In Greece and Crete, figs grew readily and they were the staple of poor and rich alike in their dried form. Grape cultivation first began in Armenia and the eastern regions of the Mediterranean in the 4th century BC. Here, raisins were manufactured by burying grapes in the desert sun. Viticulture and raisin production spread across northern Africa including Morocco and Tunisia; the Phoenicians and the Egyptians popularized the production of raisins due to the perfect environment for sun drying. They allotted them to the different temples by the thousands, they included them in their breads and their various pastries, some made with honey, some with milk and eggs. From the Middle East, these fruits spread through Greece to Italy where they became a major part of the diet.
Ancient Romans ate raisins in spectacular quantities and all levels of society, including them as a key part of their common meals, along with olives and fruits. Raisined breads were common for breakfast and were consumed with their grains and cultured milks. Raisins were so valued that they transcended the food realm and became rewards for successful athletes as well as premium barter currency. Having dried fruits was a must in ancient Rome as these instructions for housekeepers around 100 BC tell: "She must keep a supply of cooked food on hand for you and the servants, she must have plenty of eggs. She must have a large store of dried pears, figs, sorbs in must, preserved pears and grapes and quinces, she must keep preserved grapes in grape-pulp and in pots buried in the ground, as well as fresh Praenestine nuts kept in the same way, Scantian quinces in jars, other fruits that are preserved, as well as wild fruits. All these she must store away diligently every year."Figs again were popular in Rome.
Dried figs were formed a major part of the winter food of country people. They were rubbed with spices such as cumin and fennel seeds, or toasted sesame, wrapped in fig leaves and stored in jars. Plums and peaches had their origins in Asia. Th
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H, it is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates. Industrially formic acid is produced from methanol. Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, not unlike the related acetic acid, it is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons. In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules. Owing to its tendency to hydrogen-bond, gaseous formic acid does not obey the ideal gas law. Solid formic acid consists of an endless network of hydrogen-bonded formic acid molecules; this complicated compound forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water and liquid formic acid tends to supercool.
In nature, formic acid is found in stingless bees of the Oxytrigona genus. The wood ants from the genus Formica can spray formic acid on their prey, it is found in the trichomes of stinging nettle. Formic acid is a occurring component of the atmosphere due to forest emissions. In 2009, the worldwide capacity for producing formic acid was 720,000 tonnes/annum equally divided between Europe and Asia while production was below 1000 tonnes/annum in all other continents, it is commercially available in solutions of various concentrations between 85 and 99 w/w %. As of 2009, the largest producers are BASF, Eastman Chemical Company, LC Industrial, Feicheng Acid Chemicals, with the largest production facilities in Ludwigshafen, Nakhon Pathom and Feicheng. 2010 prices ranged from around €650/tonne in Western Europe to $1250/tonne in the United States. When methanol and carbon monoxide are combined in the presence of a strong base, the result is methyl formate, according to the chemical equation: CH3OH + CO → HCO2CH3In industry, this reaction is performed in the liquid phase at elevated pressure.
Typical reaction conditions are 40 atm. The most used base is sodium methoxide. Hydrolysis of the methyl formate produces formic acid: HCO2CH3 + H2O → HCO2H + CH3OHEfficient hydrolysis of methyl formate requires a large excess of water; some routes proceed indirectly by first treating the methyl formate with ammonia to give formamide, hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid: HCO2CH3 + NH3 → HCNH2 + CH3OH 2 HCNH2 + 2H2O + H2SO4 → 2HCO2H + 2SO4A disadvantage of this approach is the need to dispose of the ammonium sulfate byproduct. This problem has led some manufacturers to develop energy-efficient methods of separating formic acid from the excess water used in direct hydrolysis. In one of these processes the formic acid is removed from the water by liquid-liquid extraction with an organic base. A significant amount of formic acid is produced as a byproduct in the manufacture of other chemicals. At one time, acetic acid was produced on a large scale by oxidation of alkanes, by a process that cogenerates significant formic acid.
This oxidative route to acetic acid is declining in importance, so that the aforementioned dedicated routes to formic acid have become more important. The catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid has long been studied; this reaction can be conducted homogeneously. Formic acid can be obtained by aqueous catalytic partial oxidation of wet biomass. A Keggin-type polyoxometalate is used as the homogeneous catalyst to convert sugars, waste paper or cyanobacteria to formic acid and CO2 as the sole byproduct. Yields of up to 53% formic acid can be achieved. In the laboratory, formic acid can be obtained by heating oxalic acid in glycerol and extraction by steam distillation. Glycerol acts as a catalyst. If the reaction mixture is heated to higher temperatures, allyl alcohol results; the net reaction is thus: C2O4H2 → CO2H2 + CO2Another illustrative method involves the reaction between lead formate and hydrogen sulfide, driven by the formation of lead sulfide. Pb2 + H2S → 2HCOOH + PbS Formic acid is named after ants which have high concentrations of the compound in their venom.
In ants formic acid is derived from serine through a 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate intermediate. The conjugate base of formic acid, formate occurs in nature. An assay for formic acid in body fluids, designed for determination of formate after methanol poisoning, is based on the reaction of formate with bacterial formate dehydrogenase. A major use of formic acid is as a antibacterial agent in livestock feed. In Europe, it is applied on silage to promote the fermentation of lactic acid and to suppress the formation of butyric acid. Formic acid arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer, so it is used to preserve winter feed for cattle. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to feed to kill E. coli bacteria. Use as preservative for silage and animal feed constituted 30% of the global consumption in 2009. Formic acid is significantly used in the production of leather
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For example, water at 93.4 °C at 1,905 metres altitude. For a given pressure, different liquids will boil at different temperatures; the normal boiling point of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, 1 atmosphere. At that temperature, the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and allow bubbles of vapor to form inside the bulk of the liquid; the standard boiling point has been defined by IUPAC since 1982 as the temperature at which boiling occurs under a pressure of 1 bar.
The heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure. Liquids may change to a vapor at temperatures below their boiling points through the process of evaporation. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon in which molecules located near the liquid's edge, not contained by enough liquid pressure on that side, escape into the surroundings as vapor. On the other hand, boiling is a process in which molecules anywhere in the liquid escape, resulting in the formation of vapor bubbles within the liquid. A saturated liquid contains as much thermal energy. Saturation temperature means boiling point; the saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition. If the pressure in a system remains constant, a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy is removed.
A liquid at saturation temperature and pressure will boil into its vapor phase as additional thermal energy is applied. The boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the surrounding environmental pressure. Thus, the boiling point is dependent on the pressure. Boiling points may be published with respect to the NIST, USA standard pressure of 101.325 kPa, or the IUPAC standard pressure of 100.000 kPa. At higher elevations, where the atmospheric pressure is much lower, the boiling point is lower; the boiling point increases with increased pressure up to the critical point, where the gas and liquid properties become identical. The boiling point cannot be increased beyond the critical point; the boiling point decreases with decreasing pressure until the triple point is reached. The boiling point cannot be reduced below the triple point. If the heat of vaporization and the vapor pressure of a liquid at a certain temperature are known, the boiling point can be calculated by using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, thus: T B = − 1, where: T B is the boiling point at the pressure of interest, R is the ideal gas constant, P is the vapour pressure of the liquid at the pressure of interest, P 0 is some pressure where the corresponding T 0 is known, Δ H vap is the heat of vaporization of the liquid, T 0 is the boiling temperature, ln is the natural logarithm.
Saturation pressure is the pressure for a corresponding saturation temperature at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. Saturation pressure and saturation temperature have a direct relationship: as saturation pressure is increased, so is saturation temperature. If the temperature in a system remains constant, vapor at saturation pressure and temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as the system pressure is increased. A liquid at saturation pressure and temperature will tend to flash into its vapor phase as system pressure is decreased. There are two conventions regarding the standard boiling point of water: The normal boiling point is 99.97 °C at a pressure of 1 atm. The IUPAC recommended standard boiling point of water at a standard pressure of 100 kPa is 99.61 °C. For comparison, on top of Mount Everest, at 8,848 m elevation, the pressure is about 34 kPa and the boiling point of water is 71 °C; the Celsius temperature scale was defined until 1954 by two points: 0 °C being defined by the wate