Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3. It is a flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to that of gasoline; this monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is important in the petrochemical industry as an intermediate in the production of styrene, the precursor to polystyrene, a common plastic material. In 2012, more than 99% of ethylbenzene produced was consumed in the production of styrene. Ethylbenzene occurs in coal tar and petroleum; the dominant application of ethylbenzene is role as an intermediate in the production of polystyrene. Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene gives hydrogen and styrene: C6H5CH2CH3 → C6H5CH=CH2 + H2As of May 2012, greater than 99% of all the ethylbenzene produced is used for this purpose. Ethylbenzene is added to gasoline as an anti-knock agent, meaning it reduces engine knocking and increases the octane rating. Ethylbenzene is found in other manufactured products, including pesticides, cellulose acetate, synthetic rubber and inks. Used in the recovery of natural gas, ethylbenzene may be injected into the ground.
Ethylbenzene is produced in on a large scale by combining benzene and ethylene in an acid-catalyzed chemical reaction. 24,700,000 tons were produced in 1999. Ethylbenzene is produced in on a large scale by combining benzene and ethylene in an acid-catalyzed chemical reaction: C6H6 + C2H4 → C6H5CH2CH3In 2012, more than 99% of ethylbenzene was produced in this way. Thus, manufacturers of ethylbenzene are the major buyers of benzene, claiming more than half of total output. Small amounts of ethylbenzene are recovered from the mix of xylenes by superfractioning, an extension of the distillation process. In the 1980s a zeolite-based process using vapor phase alkylation offered yield. A liquid phase process was introduced using zeolite catalysts; this offers low benzene-to-ethylene ratios, reducing the size of the required equipment and lowering byproduct production. The acute toxicity of ethylbenzene is low, with an LD50 of about 4 grams per kilogram of body weight; the longer term toxicity and carcinogenicity is ambiguous.
Eye and throat sensitivity can occur. At higher level exposure, ethylbenzene can cause dizziness. Once inside the body, ethylbenzene biodegrades to 1-phenylethanol, phenylglyoxylic acid, mandelic acid, benzoic acid and hippuric acid. Ethylbenzene exposure can be determined by testing for the breakdown products in urine; as of September 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency determined that drinking water with a concentration of 30 parts per million for one day or 3 ppm for ten days is not expected to have any adverse effect in children. Lifetime exposure of 0.7 ppm ethylbenzene is not expected to have any adverse effect either. The U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration limits exposure to workers to an average 100 ppm for an 8-hour workday, a 40-hour workweek. Ethylbenzene is classified as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer however, the EPA has not determined ethylbenzene to be a carcinogen; the National Toxicology Program conducted an inhalation study in mice.
Exposure to ethylbenzene resulted in an increased incidence of kidney and testicular tumors in male rats, trends of increased kidney tumors in female rats, lung tumors in male mice, liver tumors in female mice. As with all organic compounds, ethylbenzene vapors form an explosive mixture with air; when transporting ethylbenzene, it is classified as a flammable liquid in class 3, Packing Group II. Ethylbenzene is found as a vapor in the air since it can move from water and soil. A median concentration of 0.62 parts per billion was found in urban air in 1999. A study conducted in 2012 found that in-country air the median concentration was found to be 0.01 ppb and indoors the median concentration was 1.0 ppb. It can be released into the air through the burning of coal and oil; the use of ethylbenzene in the industry contributes to ethylbenzene vapor in the air. After about three days in the air with the help of sunlight, other chemicals break down ethylbenzene into chemicals that can be found in smog.
Since it does not bind to soil it can easily move into groundwater. In surface water, it breaks down when it reacts with chemicals found in water. Ethylbenzene is not found in drinking water, however it can be found in residential drinking water wells if the wells are near waste sites, underground fuel storage tanks that are leaking, or landfills; as of 2012, according to the EU Dangerous Substances Directive, ethylbenzene is not classified as hazardous to the environment. Ethylbenzene is a constituent of tobacco smoke. Certain strains of the fungus Cladophialophora can grow on ethylbenzene; the bacterium "Aromatoleum aromaticum" EbN1 was discovered due to its ability to grow on ethylbenzene. National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ethylbenzene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. TR No. 466. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. 1999. National Pollutant Inventory - Ethybenzene Fact Sheet NLM Hazardous Substances Databank – Ethylbenzene EPA Chemical database Intox Chemical database Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
KLZT is a radio station broadcasting a Regional Mexican format. Licensed to Bastrop, United States, the station serves the Austin area; the station is operated under the name Waterloo Media. The station is broadcast on HD radio, it bills itself as La Z 107.1. The station has studios along Interstate 35 in North Austin, the transmitter site is located southeast of Austin Bergstrom International Airport; the station went on the air as KLIO-FM on July 7, 1986. On September 9, 1986, the station changed its call sign to KSSR; as KGSR, a series of lineup changes occurred in 2008–09. KROX program director Lynn Barstow added the program director title during this period that saw the exit of long-time employees Susan Castle, "Big" Jyl Herschman, Bobby Ray. Journalist Andy Langer joined Bryan Beck to form an abbreviated morning show called The Late Show, which aired from 8-10 a.m. Beck held down the 6-8 a.m. slot. Long-time program director Jody Denberg was on-air from 1-6 p.m. and long-time KLBJ-FM music director and air personality Loris Lowe holds the 6 p.m.-midnight shift.
On November 17, 2009, KDHT began stunting, leading to speculation that it would flip to Talk, but on November 20, 2009, Emmis revealed that KGSR would move over to the 93.3 frequency to start a 10-day simulcast until December 1, when KGSR's former 107.1 FM signal takes a Regional Mexican format as KLZT. On May 23, 2013, translator K274AX switched its feed from KGSR-HD3's comedy format to KLZT-HD2's Spanish-language pop as "Latino 102.7." Music of Austin Query the FCC's FM station database for KLZT Radio-Locator information on KLZT Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KLZTQuery the FCC's FM station database for K274AX Radio-Locator information on K274AX
The Gau Saxony was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Saxony. Before that, from 1926 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area; the Nazi Gau system was established in a party conference on 22 May 1926, in order to improve administration of the party structure. From 1933 onward, after the Nazi seizure of power, the Gaue replaced the German states as administrative subdivisions in Germany. At the head of each Gau stood a Gauleiter, a position which became more powerful after the outbreak of the Second World War, with little interference from above. Local Gauleiter held government positions as well as party ones and were in charge of, among other things and surveillance and, from September 1944 onward, the Volkssturm and the defense of the Gau; the position of Gauleiter in Saxony was held by Martin Mutschmann from 1925 to 1945. Mutschmann, a powerful figure in Nazi Germany and well connected to Adolf Hitler, was arrested by German police shortly after the war and handed over to the Soviet Union where he was executed on 30 January 1947.
Gauliga Sachsen, the highest association football league in the Gau from 1933 to 1945 Illustrated list of Gauleiter