Occasionally, drugs are prescribed or procedures performed specifically for their side effects, in that case, said side effect ceases to be a side effect, and is now an intended effect. For instance, X-rays were historically used as an imaging technique, buprenorphine has been shown experimentally to be effective against severe, refractory depression. Bupropion, an anti-depressant, is used as a smoking cessation aid, this indication was approved. In Ontario, smoking cessation drugs are not covered by provincial drug plans, Zyban is priced higher than Wellbutrin, some physicians prescribe Wellbutrin for both indications. Dexamethasone and Betamethasone in premature labor, to enhance pulmonary maturation of the fetus, doxepin has been used to treat angiodema and severe allergic reactions due to its strong antihistamine properties. Hydroxyzine, an antihistamine, is used as an anxiolytic. Magnesium sulfate in obstetrics for premature labor and preeclampsia, approved for the treatment of choriocarcinoma, is frequently used for the medical treatment of an unruptured ectopic pregnancy.
The SSRI medication sertraline is approved as an antidepressant but delays conjugal climax in men, sildenafil was originally intended for pulmonary hypertension, subsequently, it was discovered that it produces erections, for which it was marketed. Terazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist approved to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, echinacea – more than 20 different types of reactions have been reported, including asthma attacks, loss of pregnancy, swelling, aching muscles and gastrointestinal upsets. Feverfew – pregnant women should avoid using this herb, as it can trigger uterine contractions, in animal experiments, the use of feverfew was found to trigger spontaneous abortions. Asteraceae plants – which include feverfew, echinacea and chamomile, side effects include allergic dermatitis and hay fever
International Chemical Identifier
Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit InChI Trust. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011, prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC-InChI Trust License. Not all layers have to be provided, for instance, the layer can be omitted if that type of information is not relevant to the particular application. InChIs can thus be seen as akin to a general and extremely formalized version of IUPAC names and they can express more information than the simpler SMILES notation and differ in that every structure has a unique InChI string, which is important in database applications. Information about the 3-dimensional coordinates of atoms is not represented in InChI, the InChI algorithm converts input structural information into a unique InChI identifier in a three-step process, normalization and serialization.
The InChIKey, sometimes referred to as a hashed InChI, is a fixed length condensed digital representation of the InChI that is not human-understandable. The InChIKey specification was released in September 2007 in order to facilitate web searches for chemical compounds and it should be noted that, unlike the InChI, the InChIKey is not unique, though collisions can be calculated to be very rare, they happen. In January 2009 the final 1.02 version of the InChI software was released and this provided a means to generate so called standard InChI, which does not allow for user selectable options in dealing with the stereochemistry and tautomeric layers of the InChI string. The standard InChIKey is the hashed version of the standard InChI string, the standard InChI will simplify comparison of InChI strings and keys generated by different groups, and subsequently accessed via diverse sources such as databases and web resources. Every InChI starts with the string InChI= followed by the version number and this is followed by the letter S for standard InChIs.
The remaining information is structured as a sequence of layers and sub-layers, the layers and sub-layers are separated by the delimiter / and start with a characteristic prefix letter. The six layers with important sublayers are, Main layer Chemical formula and this is the only sublayer that must occur in every InChI. The atoms in the formula are numbered in sequence, this sublayer describes which atoms are connected by bonds to which other ones. Describes how many hydrogen atoms are connected to each of the other atoms, the condensed,27 character standard InChIKey is a hashed version of the full standard InChI, designed to allow for easy web searches of chemical compounds. Most chemical structures on the Web up to 2007 have been represented as GIF files, the full InChI turned out to be too lengthy for easy searching, and therefore the InChIKey was developed. With all databases currently having below 50 million structures, such duplication appears unlikely at present, a recent study more extensively studies the collision rate finding that the experimental collision rate is in agreement with the theoretical expectations.
Example, Morphine has the structure shown on the right, as the InChI cannot be reconstructed from the InChIKey, an InChIKey always needs to be linked to the original InChI to get back to the original structure
ChemSpider is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry, the database contains information on more than 50 million molecules from over 500 data sources including, Each chemical is given a unique identifier, which forms part of a corresponding URL. This is an approach to develop an online chemistry database. The search can be used to widen or restrict already found results, structure searching on mobile devices can be done using free apps for iOS and for the Android. The ChemSpider database has been used in combination with text mining as the basis of document markup. The result is a system between chemistry documents and information look-up via ChemSpider into over 150 data sources. ChemSpider was acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in May,2009, prior to the acquisition by RSC, ChemSpider was controlled by a private corporation, ChemZoo Inc. The system was first launched in March 2007 in a release form. ChemSpider has expanded the generic support of a database to include support of the Wikipedia chemical structure collection via their WiChempedia implementation. A number of services are available online.
SyntheticPages is an interactive database of synthetic chemistry procedures operated by the Royal Society of Chemistry. Users submit synthetic procedures which they have conducted themselves for publication on the site and these procedures may be original works, but they are more often based on literature reactions. Citations to the published procedure are made where appropriate. They are checked by an editor before posting. The pages do not undergo formal peer-review like a journal article. The comments are moderated by scientific editors. The intention is to collect practical experience of how to conduct useful chemical synthesis in the lab, while experimental methods published in an ordinary academic journal are listed formally and concisely, the procedures in ChemSpider SyntheticPages are given with more practical detail. Comments by submitters are included as well, other publications with comparable amounts of detail include Organic Syntheses and Inorganic Syntheses
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist, receptors can be activated by either endogenous or exogenous agonists, resulting in a biological response. A physiological agonist is a substance that creates the same bodily responses but does not bind to the same receptor, an endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor. For example, the endogenous agonist for serotonin receptors is serotonin, a superagonist is a compound that is capable of producing a greater maximal response than the endogenous agonist for the target receptor, and thus has an efficacy of more than 100%. Full agonists bind and activate a receptor, producing full efficacy at that receptor, one example of a drug that acts as a full agonist is isoproterenol, which mimics the action of adrenaline at β adrenoreceptors.
Another example is morphine, which mimics the actions of endorphins at μ-opioid receptors throughout the nervous system. Partial agonists bind and activate a receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist. Agents like buprenorphine are used to treat opiate dependence for this reason, as they produce milder effects on the receptor with lower dependence. An inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist for that receptor, inverse agonists exert the opposite pharmacological effect of a receptor agonist, not merely an absence of the agonist effect as seen with antagonist. An example is the inverse agonist rimonabant. A co-agonist works with other co-agonists to produce the desired effect together, NMDA receptor activation requires the binding of both glutamate, glycine and D-serine co-agonists. An irreversible agonist is a type of agonist that binds permanently to a receptor through the formation of covalent bonds, a few of these have been described. A selective agonist is selective for a type of receptor. E. g. buspirone is a selective agonist for serotonin 5-HT1A, terms that describe this phenomenon are functional selectivity, protean agonism, or selective receptor modulators.
Potency is the amount of agonist needed to elicit a desired response, the potency of an agonist is inversely related to its EC50 value. The EC50 can be measured for a given agonist by determining the concentration of agonist needed to elicit half of the biological response of the agonist. The EC50 value is useful for comparing the potency of drugs with similar efficacies producing physiologically similar effects, the smaller the EC50 value, the greater the potency of the agonist, the lower the concentration of drug that is required to elicit the maximum biological response. This relationship, termed the index, is defined as the ratio TD50, ED50
Feces or faeces are the solid or semisolid metabolic waste from an animals digestive tract, discharged through the anus or cloaca during a process called defecation. Urine and feces together are called excreta, collected feces has various uses, namely as fertilizer or soil conditioner in agriculture, as a fuel source, or for medicinal purposes. After an animal has digested eaten material, the remains of material are discharged from its body as waste. Although it is lower in energy than the food from which it is derived, feces may retain a large amount of energy and this means that of all food eaten, a significant amount of energy remains for the decomposers of ecosystems. Many organisms feed on feces, from bacteria to fungi to insects such as dung beetles, some may specialize in feces, while others may eat other foods as well. Feces serve not only as a food, but as a supplement to the usual diet of some animals. Feces and urine, which reflect light, are important to raptors such as kestrels.
Seeds may be found in feces, animals who eat fruit are known as frugivores. An advantage for a plant in having fruit is that animals will eat the fruit and this mode of seed dispersal is highly successful, as seeds dispersed around the base of a plant are unlikely to succeed and often are subject to heavy predation. Provided the seed can withstand the pathway through the system, it is not only likely to be far away from the parent plant. This cycling of matter is known as the biogeochemical cycle, the distinctive odor of feces is due to bacterial action. Gut flora produce compounds such as indole and thiols and these are the same compounds that are responsible for the odor of flatulence. Consumption of foods prepared with spices may result in the spices being undigested, the perceived bad odor of feces has been hypothesized to be a deterrent for humans, as consuming or touching it may result in sickness or infection. Human perception of the odor may be contrasted by an animals perception of it, for example.
In humans and depending on the individual and the circumstances, defecation may occur daily, extensive hardening of the feces may cause prolonged interruption in the routine and is called constipation. Human fecal matter varies significantly in appearance, depending on diet, normally it is semisolid, with a mucus coating. The brown coloration comes from a combination of bile and bilirubin, in newborn babies, initially fecal matter is yellow-green after the meconium. This coloration comes from the presence of bile alone, throughout the life of an ordinary human, one may experience many types of feces
Cytochrome P450 3A4, is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. It oxidizes small foreign organic molecules, such as toxins or drugs, while many drugs are deactivated by CYP3A4, there are some drugs which are activated by the enzyme. Some substances, such as juice and some drugs, interfere with the action of CYP3A4. These substances will therefore either amplify or weaken the action of drugs that are modified by CYP3A4. CYP3A4 is a member of the cytochrome P450 family of oxidizing enzymes, several other members of this family are involved in drug metabolism, but CYP3A4 is the most common and the most versatile one. Like all members of family, it is a hemoprotein. In humans, the CYP3A4 protein is encoded by the CYP3A4 gene and this gene is part of a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 7q21.1. CYP3A4 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, the cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol and other lipids components.
The CYP3A4 protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, and its expression is induced by glucocorticoids and this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of approximately half the drugs that are used today, including acetaminophen, ciclosporin and erythromycin. The enzyme metabolizes some steroids and carcinogens, most drugs undergo deactivation by CYP3A4, either directly or by facilitated excretion from the body. Also, many substances are bioactivated by CYP3A4 to form their active compounds, CYP3A4 possesses epoxygenase activity in that it metabolizes arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, i. e. -8, 9-, -11, 12-, and -14, 15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. The EETs have a range of activities including the promotion of certain types of cancers. 20-HETE has a range of activities that include growth stimulation in breast. The CYP3A4 gene exhibits a more complicated upstream regulatory region in comparison with its paralogs. This increased complexity renders the CYP3A4 gene more sensitive to endogenous and exogenous PXR and CAR ligands and this change in consequence contributes to an increased human defense against cholestasis.
Fetuses do not really express CYP3A4 in their liver tissue, but rather CYP3A7, CYP3A4 is absent in fetal liver but increases to approximately 40% of adult levels in the fourth month of life and 72% at 12 months. Although CYP3A4 is predominantly found in the liver, it is present in other organs and tissues of the body. CYP3A4 in the plays a important role in the metabolism of certain drugs
European Chemicals Agency
ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EUs chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and it is located in Helsinki, Finland. The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet, started working on 1 June 2007, the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most commonly used substances have been registered, the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment. This gives European consumers the right to ask whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU.
This worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals, companies need to notify ECHA of the classification and labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100000 substances, the information is freely available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products they use, Biocidal products include, for example, insect repellents and disinfectants used in hospitals. The Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation, the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the export and import of hazardous chemicals. Through this mechanism, countries due to hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1.
These are mainly substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment, other substances considered as SVHCs include, for example, endocrine disrupting chemicals. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0 and they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy, once a substance has been officially identified in the EU as being of very high concern, it will be added to a list. This list is available on ECHA’s website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs, Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the receptor, that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid is composed from its role in regulation of metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex. A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid, gCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as reduction of inflammation. They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an immune system, such as allergies, autoimmune diseases. GCs have many effects, including potentially harmful side effects. They interfere with some of the mechanisms in cancer cells. This includes, inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation as in the treatment of lymphomas and leukemias, gCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, in technical terms, corticosteroid refers to both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, but is often used as a synonym for glucocorticoid.
Glucocorticoids are chiefly produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, cortisol is the most important human glucocorticoid. It is essential for life, and it regulates or supports a variety of important cardiovascular, immunologic, glucocorticoid effects may be broadly classified into two major categories and metabolic. In addition, glucocorticoids play important roles in development and body fluid homeostasis. As discussed in detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor. Down-regulate the expression of proinflammatory proteins, glucocorticoids are shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. This has been shown in mice with either increased or decreased sensitivity of T cell lineage to glucocorticoids. The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism, in the fasted state, cortisol stimulates several processes that collectively serve to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood.
Enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis is probably the best-known metabolic function of glucocorticoids, mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues, These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis. Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems, some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption, delayed wound healing, muscle weakness, and increased risk of infection
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules, the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since modified and extended. In 2007, a standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN, the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. The Environmental Protection Agency funded the project to develop SMILES. It has since modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems. In 2007, a standard called OpenSMILES was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community.
Other linear notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN, in July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is generally considered to have the advantage of being slightly more human-readable than InChI, the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should strictly be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings, the exact meaning is usually apparent from the context. The terms canonical and isomeric can lead to confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms describe different attributes of SMILES strings and are not mutually exclusive, typically, a number of equally valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol, algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule, of the many possible strings, these algorithms choose only one of them.
This SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the algorithm used to generate it. These algorithms first convert the SMILES to a representation of the molecular structure. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database, there is currently no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, and these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES
This includes the activity of the primary male sex organs and development of male secondary sex characteristics. Androgens were first discovered in 1936, androgens increase in both boys and girls during puberty. Androgens are the original anabolic steroids and the precursor of all estrogens, the primary and most well-known androgen is testosterone. Dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione are less known generally, but are of importance in male development. DHT in the embryo life causes differentiation of penis, scrotum, in life DHT contributes to balding, prostate growth and sebaceous gland activity. Although androgens are described as sex hormones, both males and females have them to varying degrees, as is true of estrogens. They are one of three types of sex hormones, the others being estrogens like estradiol and progestogens like progesterone, the main subset of androgens, known as adrenal androgens, is composed of 19-carbon steroids synthesized in the zona reticularis, the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids, and the subset includes dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, besides testosterone, other androgens include, Dehydroepiandrosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol. It is the precursor of natural estrogens. DHEA is called dehydroisoandrosterone or dehydroandrosterone, androstenedione is an androgenic steroid produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries. While androstenediones are converted metabolically to testosterone and other androgens, they are the parent structure of estrone, use of androstenedione as an athletic or bodybuilding supplement has been banned by the International Olympic Committee, as well as other sporting organizations. Androstenediol is the steroid metabolite thought to act as the regulator of gonadotropin secretion. It is found in equal amounts in the plasma and urine of both males and females. Dihydrotestosterone is a metabolite of testosterone, and a potent androgen than testosterone in that it binds more strongly to androgen receptors.
It is produced in the skin and reproductive tissue, during mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes. In humans, starting at about week 4, the rudiments are present within the intermediate mesoderm adjacent to the developing kidneys. At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes, in males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the early bipotential gonad into testes. In males, the sex cords fully invade the developing gonads, the mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to support sperm cell formation
Progestogens, sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor. Progesterone is the major and most important progestogen in the body, major examples of progestins include the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivative medroxyprogesterone acetate and the 19-nortestosterone derivative norethisterone. The progestogens are named for their function in maintaining pregnancy, although they are present at other phases of the estrous. They are one of three types of sex hormones, the others being estrogens like estradiol and androgens/anabolic steroids like testosterone. The progestogens are one of the five classes of steroid hormones, in addition to the androgens, glucocorticoids. All endogenous progestogens are characterized by their basic 21-carbon skeleton, called a pregnane skeleton, in similar manner, the estrogens possess an estrane skeleton, and androgens, an androstane skeleton. The terms progesterone and progestin are mistakenly used interchangeably both in the literature and in clinical settings.
While the progestins are structural analogues of progesterone, they are not functional analogues, the most important progestogen in the body is progesterone. Other endogenous progestogens include 16α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 20α-dihydroprogesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone is produced from cholesterol with pregnenolone as a metabolic intermediate. In the first step in the pathway, cholesterol is converted into pregnenolone]]. Thus, many tissues producing steroids, including the adrenal glands, testes, in some tissues, the enzymes required for the final product are not all located in a single cell. For example, in ovarian follicles, cholesterol is converted to androstenedione, an androgen, in the theca cells, fetal adrenal glands produce pregnenolone in some species, which is converted into progesterone and estrogens by the placenta. In the human, the fetal adrenals produce dehydroepiandrosterone via the pregnenolone pathway, progesterone is the major progestogen produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary in all mammalian species.
Luteal cells possess the enzymes to convert cholesterol to pregnenolone. Progesterone is highest in the phase of the estrous cycle. The role of the placenta in progestogen production varies by species, in the sheep and human, the placenta takes over the majority of progestogen production, whereas in other species the corpus luteum remains the primary source of progestogens. In the sheep and human, progesterone is the major placental progestogen, the equine placenta produces a variety of progestogens, primarily 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 5α, 20α-tetrahydroprogesterone, beginning on day 60. A complete luteo-placental shift occurs by day 120–150, comparison of progestogens List of steroidal progestogens List of progestogens available in the United States Utian WH, Shoupe D, Bachmann G, Pinkerton JV, Pickar JH
These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, the simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. For example, the formula for glucose is CH2O, while its molecular formula is C6H12O6. This is possible if the relevant bonding is easy to show in one dimension, an example is the condensed molecular/chemical formula for ethanol, which is CH3-CH2-OH or CH3CH2OH. For reasons of structural complexity, there is no condensed chemical formula that specifies glucose, chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution. A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol, in empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element.
For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of compounds, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5. When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules. These types of formulas are known as molecular formulas and condensed formulas. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the formula for glucose is C6H12O6 rather than the glucose empirical formula. However, except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, for simple molecules, a condensed formula is a type of chemical formula that may fully imply a correct structural formula.
For example, ethanol may be represented by the chemical formula CH3CH2OH