Getxo is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao, has about 80,000 inhabitants. Getxo is an affluent residential area, as well as being the third largest municipality of Biscay. Getxo was a parish a rural area, including a large beach at the mouth of the Estuary of Bilbao, centered on the little fishing village of Algorta; the parish council met at the church of Getxoko Andra Mari or Santa María de Getxo, not far from the headland called Punta Galea. The town's coat of arms has an oak with two cauldrons chained to its branches and the motto Kaltea Dagianak Bizarra Lepoan. With industrialisation in the 19th century, some parts of Getxo evolved into residential areas for the rich bourgeois class. A residential area called; the village of Algorta grew around the church of Saint Nicholas and the canalisation of the firth, provided for the colonisation of the beach, where a district called Areeta in Basque and Las Arenas was built.
Near Areeta / Las Arenas, on the other side of the road to Bilbao, there grew a working-class district called Erromo, similar to the one that grew near Neguri: Neguri Langile. In the 20th century, urban development reached the rural areas of Getxoko Andra Mari. Getxo, as well as the surrounding area known as Uribe-Kosta, grew in the last decades of the 20th century. While in the early 1980s the town had only 50,000 inhabitants, it has now more than 83,000; the surrounding towns of Leioa and Sopelana have multiplied their population in the same period. Getxo was hit by the Basque Conflict several times, with the town being the location of many ETA attacks; the deadliest of these was an ambush in October 1978 when three civil guards were killed and the most recent the car bomb attack on May 19, 2008. Many activists of the organisation have been born in Getxo, such as Arkaitz Goikoetxea, it is located 14 km north of Bilbao, in the province and historical Territory of Biscay, in the community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain.
It has an area of 11.64 square kilometres. It borders in the north with Sopelana, in the east with Berango and Leioa, in the south with Portugalete and in the west with the Bay of the Cove; the municipality encompasses the neighborhoods of Las Arenas, Romo and Santa María de Getxo. But for the inhabitants of Getxo there is a more thorough division: Las Arenas: Las Mercedes, Santa Ana, Zugazarte y Antiguo Golf. Neguri: Neguri, San Ignacio. Algorta: Algorta centre, María Cristina, Arrigunaga, Villamonte, La Humedad, Fadura, Usategui, Portu Zaharra / Puerto Viejo and Bidezábal. Aiboa Santa María de Guecho / Getxoko Andra Mari: Aixerrota, Punta Galea, Avenida del Ángel, La Venta y Azkorri. RomoThe founding nucleus of the town of Getxo, the elizate or anteiglesia is what is known as Santa María or Andra Mari, a group of country houses or "baserris" around Saint Mary's church. Las Arenas and Neguri arose in the late nineteenth century as residential areas for the Basque industrial bourgeoisie. Neguri neighborhood is characterized by the palaces in which lived the elite of the bourgeoisie and where nowadays many of the people with more resources of Getxo live.
The name of Neguri was coined by Resurrección María de Azkue, since it was called Aretxetaurre. Neguri comes from the merger of two Basque words: negu and uri: Neguko hiri, the winter city designed, as has been noted, for the Basque bourgeoisie; the neighborhood of Algorta is the district of largest population of Getxo. The greatest expansion was in the 70s when middle-class families decided to find a more comfortable place to live rather than in the neighborhoods of the left bank of the Nervion. Romo neighborhood was built in the beginning to house the working class separated by the train barriers from Las Arenas. Nowadyas reaches the traffic circle of Romo; the district was shaped like a horseshoe. It borders the neighbourhood of Ibaiondo, so much so that the road from the roundabout Romo until the bank of the estuary of Bilbao is the municipal border between Getxo and Leioa. One sidewalk belongs to each municipality; the neighborhood of Santa María de Getxo stood longer as a rural area until the last third of the 20th century.
It still has several farmhouses, arable fields and pastures and but there are many villas and houses built in the 1990s. This romanesque church built in the 12th century took in the first inhabitants; this church suffered diverse reformations and the church that nowadays we can admire is from the 17th century based on the Baroque period. Inside the church is a sculpture of the Virgin and her son; this monument is the only antique windmill. The construction of the windmill was undertaken between 1726 and 1727 due to a huge drought and was focused on corn and feed production; the windmill, ones in lack of use, was set up as a home during all the 19th century. The name of Aixerrota comes from basque Aixe "wind" and errota "mill"; the construction of this windmill was motivated due to the drought, originated in Biscay at the beginning of the 18th century. It produces two types of flour: ordinary; the first historic date make reference to the windmill property is
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Sopela known as Sopelana, is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The town is 820 hectares in area, located in the comarca Mungialdea on the north east side of Bilbao and due east of the Nervión river estuary. In the municipality, other former towns like Larrabasterra are now merged to make Sopela larger; the population is 11,185 people. Thriving expansion of the town puts this number to well over 13,000 people; the area of Sopela is situated among green beaches. This makes it a attractive suburb of Bilbao, with a short commute of 35 minutes on the metro. Since the late 1980s, the population of Sopelana has continued to grow and has 13.000 citizens. During the industrialization the citizens moved to the urban centres that were more crowded but from that decade on this tendency has reversed. Sopelana has become a residential municipality well communicated with bigger municipalities and with Bilbao, it was at first an eminently turistic destination, where the properties and house owners only moved to spend summer holidays but it has turned into a residential town.
At the moment, it is one of the village's with the highest per capita income of the state. Sopela belongs to a region called Uribe, composed by 15 municipalities that are: Arrieta, Barrika, Gámiz-Fica, Gatika, Górliz, Lemoniz, Maruri-Jatabe, Meñaka, Plencia and Urduliz, it borders with the Cantabrian sea in the north, what makes Sopelana have spectacular cliffs and beaches. The municipality of Barrika is located to the Northeast, Getxo to the Northwest, Urduliz to the Southeast and Berango to the Southwest. Sopela's oceanic climate is different from the one of southern Spain. Harsh winds tend to pick up speed along the coast and precipitation is common all year round. Northern winds bring the winter temperature to just above the freezing point, but summers are comfortable from late May to early September. Snow is common three days each winter on average; the summer climate is warm and the temperatures are moderated by the constant sea breezes. Sopela is known for three beaches Atxabiribil and Arrietara.
They have good conditions for surfers. A fourth beach, Meñakoz is of less appeal for sun worshippers and more for the surfer crowd due to the pebble bed ground. Sopela is the host of regional surf competitions as conditions are adequate for surfing in its beaches. A less famous, but internationally known event, is the yearly nude race on Barinatxe beach in the fall. Barinatxe is a clothing optional beach. Another special place in Sopela is a small creek called Ikatza known only by its citizens; the town is connected to the main transport arteries with two metro stations on the Line 1 of Bilbao Metro and highways. Larrabasterra station is located to the far south of Sopela in Larrabasterra, while Sopela station is at the center of the municipality. Several bus routes connect Sopela to Bilbao and nearby towns, like Barrika, Plentzia and Armintza; these buses are: Bizkaibus: A3451: Las Arenas - Arminza. A3531: Sopelana - Munguía - Gatica. A2166: Uribe Kosta - UPV/EHUThere is a local bus service which connects the town centre with the beaches, it joins the following neighbourhoods: Larrabasterra / Arrietara / Beaches / Sopelmar / Ugeraga / Moreaga / Centre.
The patron saint of the town is San Pedro or Saint Peter and his feast days are the most representative ones. They are held at the end of the month of June and they last up to a week and a half; the big day is the 29th. The patroness of the neighbourhood of Larrabasterra is Virgen del Carmen and her feast days are held in mid-July; the big day is the 16th. There are no large shopping malls in Sopela; the shopping centres are located a short car ride away in nearby towns like Getxo, Barakaldo or Bilbao. However, the centre of Sopela is full of small shops with a wide variety of goods. Along the main road to West Sopela, there are several youth oriented shops and surf shops open all year round. SOPELA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Etxebarri (Metro Bilbao)
Etxebarri is a station of line 1 and line 2 of Metro Bilbao. It is the south terminus of line 1; the station is located in the municipality of Etxebarri, part of the Bilbao metropolitan area and it was opened in 2005. The station is on Fuenlabrada street, next to a ride parking facility; the station is served by the line 1 to Plentzia, being this station its terminus. Passengers willing to interchange from one line to the other may do so in this station or in any other until San Inazio; the bus services are provided by Etxebarribus, a municipal bus service managed by the Etxebarri city hall. The metro station is the starting point of the two lines of the service; the original project of the line 5 of the metro network was unveiled in 2008, with the final project presented in 2010. It involved the creation of a new underground line between the cities of Etxebarri and Galdakao connecting with the Galdakao-Usansolo hospital; this original proyect determined the Etxebarri station to be the head of the new line, where it would connect with the existing two lines of the system.
The economic crisis that has since affected the region has delayed the project and altered some aspects of it. In May 2018, the Basque Nationalist Party and the Socialist Party of the Basque Country presented a new proposal which suggested the possibility of taking advantage of the existing overground rail infrastructure between Etxebarri and Galdakao managed by Euskotren Trena in place of the original underground project. According to the political institutions, a final decision had not yet been taken
Metro Bilbao is a rapid transit system serving the city of Bilbao and the region of Greater Bilbao. Lines 1 and 2 have a "Y" shape, as they transit both banks of the Nervión river and combine to form one line that ends in the south of Bilbao. Line 3 has a "V" shape connecting the municipality of Etxebarri with the Bilbao neighbourhood of Matiko; the network of Metro Bilbao is connected with Euskotren Tranbia, Bilboko Aldiriak, Euskotren Trena, the Renfe service and Bilbao's bus station Termibus. It uses a meter gauge; as of 2017, the Metro operates with 48 stations with 80 accesses. It is the third largest Metro company in Spain by number of passengers carried behind the Madrid and Barcelona metro systems. On February 21, 2007, the Basque Government announced the project for the construction of the third metro line, which in the future will be expanded to Bilbao Airport. Construction of the third line began in July 2008 and was inaugurated 8 April 2017. On January 25, 2008, the preliminary layout of lines four and five was published.
At the same time, the University of the Basque Country requested the construction of "Line 6" in order to connect Leioa and Getxo with Asua Valley going through the university campus. The section between the stations of San Inazio and Etxebarri is the same for Lines 2 and 1 with 10.39 kilometres and twelve common stations being shared. Bolueta Station Euskotren Trena: L1, L1d and L3 Bizkaibus: Lines A2610, A3613, A3621, A3622, A3918, A3928 and A3929. Bilbobus: Line 30 Casco Viejo Station Euskotren Trena: L4 Euskotren Tranbia Abando Station Cercanías RENFE: Long distance trains Euskotren Tranbia FEVE: B-1, R-3, R-3b and T-1 Bizkaibus: Lines A2314, A2322, A2324, A3115, A3122, A3136, A3137, A3144, A3151, A3152, A3336, A3337, A3514, A3515, A3911, A3912, A3917 and 3925 Bilbobus: Lines 01, 03, 10, 26, 30, 40, 50, 56, 58, 62, 71, 72, 75, 77, 85, A1, A2, A5, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, G7 and G8 San Mamés Station Cercanías Euskotren Tranbia Termibus San Inazio Station Metro Bilbao: Inter-connexion between Line 1 and Line 2 Bilbobus: Lines 10, 13, 18 y 71Besides this, most of the stations have connections with different bus lines.
At the same time, Urbinaga Station was built with the intention of connecting lines C1 and C2 of Cercanías and Ansio Station with a bus terminal. However, these connection projects have not been finished as of 2011; the Urbinaga project was restarted in 2009. That future intermodal station will take advantage of the future Leioa-Urbinaga Tram, its construction was expected to start at the end of 2009. The idea of building a metro system in the city of Bilbao is an old one. In the 1920s the city's council prepared a project to build a metro system in the neighbourhoods of Abando and San Francisco. Soon after, the economic crises and the Spanish Civil War put a definitive end to the project. In 1971 the government of Biscay, the Bilbao City Council and the Commerce Bureau created a commission to evaluate the transportation needs of Greater Bilbao. In 1976, five years the Biscay Transport Consortium was created. In that same year two proposals were created to start a metro service in 1985, the first of them is identical to the current network.
A year a project was created to build the metro, however lots of objections were raised against it and disagreements between different institutions put an end to it. In 1985 the construction plans were altered and a new project was created. In 1987 the Basque Government approved the plan to build and finance the Bilbao Metro. A metro system was deemed to be the best way to improve congestion problems in the evolving and regenerating city; the contract for the underground metro system in Bilbao was awarded to the architects Sir Norman Foster and partners in 1988 following an open competition. The same year the first underground station was opened in Erandio, on the existing Bilbao-Plentzia railway. In 1989 construction began in the city centre, where the main Moyúa square was closed to pedestrians until 1997. Construction was complicated in the neighbourhoods of Deusto and San Inazio, where the cut and cover tunnel excavation damaged some buildings, was noisy, caused severe traffic disruptions.
This method of excavation contrasted with the tunnel-boring machines used elsewhere in the city. The first part of line 1 opened on November 11, 1995, with 23 stations between Casco Viejo and Plentzia; the tracks outside Bilbao were part of Eusko Trenbideak / Ferrocarriles Vascos and earlier of FEVE. By July 5, 1997, the total number of stations was 27 as Santutxu and Bolueta joined Gobela which had opened the previous year; the first line, which operates north of the River Nervión, was joined by a second line, which operates south of the river. The two lines split from where the second runs to Santurtzi; the original five stations were opened on April 13, 2002. The furthest eastern point is now Etxebarri station, opened along with Sestao on January 8, 2005
An elizate, is an early form of local government in the Basque Country, common in Biscay but existed in the other provinces. The terms elizate and elexate translate as "church door"; the Spanish term anteiglesia translates as "before church" or "parvise". The peculiar name derives from the Basque custom where the family heads of a settlement connected to a particular parish would gather after mass at the entrance or portico of the church to make decisions regarding issues affecting their community, their medieval history is linked to the emergence of the Batzar Nagusiak or "Grand Meetings" those of Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the establishment of parochial churches. Each elizate would elect a representative who would represent the elizate at a Batzar Nagusia, so the elizate represents an early form of local democracy; these enjoyed considerable autonomy in decision-making from the higher administrative authorities. An elizate was steered by a fiel sindiko, who would organise meetings and bear a makila as a sign of authority.
A fiel was chosen for one year through a number of methods. Some were nominated by the outgoing fiel, in some places the position of fiel would rotate through all farmholders of the elizate and in others the most married farmholder would be named fiel; each elizate was subdivided into smaller units called kofradiak which corresponded to the individual boroughs of an elizate. A group of elizates was a merindad. Through time elizates became municipalities. In Biscay, during the time of the Lordship of Biscay, the territory of all anteiglesias were referred to as Plain Land, as opposed to the more stratified cities, it was further incorporated into the administration. They became subject to the fueros which at the same time re-affirmed the status of nobility to all farmholders; this meant that unlike in most of feudal Europe, the farmers owned their land. After centuries of political change few elizate remain today, two of the most notable in Iurreta and Derio. In 1962, in Francoist Spain, the name of the elizates was changed to auzo and they were merged into municipalities.
The current term, auzo, is undistinguishable from the subdivisions of a city, which are called by the same term. The Water Tribunal of Valencia, Spain is unrelated to elizates, but holds sessions at the church door. Kasper, M. Baskische Geschichte Primus: 1997 Trask, L; the History of Basque Routledge: 1997 Anteiglesia in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia