Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the phrase "the etymology of " means the origin of the particular word. For place names, there is a specific term, toponymy. For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts, texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods, how they developed in meaning and form, or when and how they entered the language. Etymologists apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about forms that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots in European languages, for example, can be traced all the way back to the origin of the Indo-European language family. Though etymological research grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.

The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία, itself from ἔτυμον, meaning "true sense or sense of a truth", the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of". The term etymon refers to a word or morpheme from which a word or morpheme derives. For example, the Latin word candidus, which means "white", is the etymon of English candid. Relationships are less transparent, however. English place names such as Winchester, Tadcaster share in different modern forms a suffixed etymon, once meaningful, Latin castrum'fort'. Etymologists apply a number of methods to study the origins of words, some of which are: Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available. Making use of dialectological data; the form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history. The comparative method. By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead borrowed from another language.

The study of semantic change. Etymologists must make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words; such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well. Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are language change, borrowing. While the origin of newly emerged words is more or less transparent, it tends to become obscured through time due to sound change or semantic change. Due to sound change, it is not obvious that the English word set is related to the word sit, it is less obvious that bless is related to blood. Semantic change may occur. For example, the English word bead meant "prayer", it acquired its modern meaning through the practice of counting the recitation of prayers by using beads. English derives from Old English, a West Germanic variety, although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages.

The Old English roots may be seen in the similarity of numbers in English and German seven/sieben, eight/acht, nine/neun, ten/zehn. Pronouns are cognate: I/mine/me and ich/mein/mich. However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, simplified in modern English, certain elements of vocabulary, some of which are borrowed from French. Although many of the words in the English lexicon come from Romance languages, most of the common words used in English are of Germanic origin; when the Normans conquered England in 1066, they brought their Norman language with them. During the Anglo-Norman period, which united insular and continental territories, the ruling class spoke Anglo-Norman, while the peasants spoke the vernacular English of the time. Anglo-Norman was the conduit for the introduction of French into England, aided by the circulation of Langue d'oïl literature from France; this led to many paired words of English origin. For example, beef is related, through borrowing, to modern French bœuf, veal to veau, pork to porc, poultry to poulet.

All these words and English, refer to the meat rather than to the animal. Words that refer to farm animals, on the other hand, tend to be cognates of words in other Germanic languages. For example, swine/Schwein, cow/Kuh, calf/Kalb, sheep/Schaf; the variant usage has been explained by the proposition that it was the Norman rulers who ate meat and the Anglo-Saxons who farmed the animals. This explanation has been disputed. English has proved accommodating to words from many languages. Scientific terminology, for example, relies on words of Latin and Greek origin, but there are a great many non-scientific examples. Spanish has contributed many words in the southwestern United States. Examples includ

Nova Scotia (Workers' Compensation Board) v Martin; Nova Scotia (Workers' Compensation Board) v Laseur

Nova Scotia v Martin. C. R. 504, 2003 SCC 54, is a leading Supreme Court of Canada decision. The Court re-examined the authority of tribunals to hear constitutional challenges and their power to strike down legislation under section 52 of the Constitution Act, 1982. In doing so the Court overturned the previous decision of Canada; the Court struck down provisions within Nova Scotia's Workers' Compensation Act that prohibited people who were disabled by chronic pain from benefits as a violation of section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Donald Martin and Ruth Laseur both suffered from chronic pain caused by work injuries, they attempted to claim compensation from the injury but the Worker's Compensation Board denied any benefits. They challenged the Worker's Compensation Act as a violation of equality rights under section 15 of the Charter for denying benefits to those with chronic pain; the Appeals Tribunal held. The government appealed the decision and the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal held that the tribunal did not have the authority to apply the Charter.

To arrive at this conclusion the court had followed the Cooper case. In that decision the Supreme Court was divided on. McLachlin argued. Lamer had argued otherwise; the compromise was. On the facts here there was no clear legislative intent and so the appeal court found no authority; the Court held that the tribunal had the authority to apply the Charter and found that the Act did violate it. Martin was given the benefits and Laseur's case was sent back to the tribunal for reconsideration. Justice Gonthier, writing for a unanimous Court, considered the question of whether the Charter could be applied by the tribunal. Gonthier stated that if the text of the legislation gives the tribunal authority to apply the law it can apply the Charter. In the case where there is no express authority to apply law the court can look for implied authority by considering the statute as a whole. Factors to be considered include the mandate of the tribunal, whether the body is adjudicative in nature, whether it possesses any other characteristics of the administrative system.

If the claimant argues that the tribunal has authority to use the Charter, the party opposing this can rebut the presumption by either showing that there is explicit withdrawal of the authority by the legislature, or by showing that the statutory scheme points to an intention to exclude the authority. List of Supreme Court of Canada cases Full text of Supreme Court of Canada decision available at LexUM and CanLII

Apache NiFi

Apache NiFi is a software project from the Apache Software Foundation designed to automate the flow of data between software systems. It is based on the "NiagaraFiles" software developed by the NSA, the source of a part of its present name – NiFi, it was open-sourced as a part of NSA's technology transfer program in 2014. The software design is based on the flow-based programming model and offers features which prominently include the ability to operate within clusters, security using TLS encryption and improved usability features like a portal which can be used to view and modify behaviour visually. Software development and commercial support is offered by Hortonworks, who acquired NiFi's originator, Onyara Inc. NiFi is a Java program that runs within a Java virtual machine running on the server it is hosted over; the prominent components of Nifi are Web Server - the HTTP-based component used to visually control the software and monitor the events happening within Flow Controller - serves as the brains of NiFi's behaviour.

Controls the running of Nifi extensions and schedules allocation of resources for this to happen. Extensions - various plugins that allow Nifi to interact with various kinds of systems FlowFile repository - used by NiFi to maintain and track status of the active FlowFile Or the information that NiFi is helping move between systems. Content repository - the data in transit is maintained here Provenance repository - data relating to the provenance of the data flowing through the system is maintained here. Apache NiFi Registry: A complementary application that provides a central location for storage and management of shared resources across one or more instances of NiFi and/or MiNiFi, such as Templates. MiNiFi: A complementary data collection approach that supplements the core tenets of NiFi in dataflow management, focusing on the collection of data at the source of its creation. Flow Design System: An atomic reusable platform for providing a common set of UI/UX components for Apache NiFi, Apache NiFi Registry, Apache NiFi MiNiFi, any other open source web applications to consume.

In February 2017, HPE's SecureData for Hadoop and IoT software became Industry's first commercial product to integrate NiFi Hortonworks DataFlow List of Apache Software Foundation projects Flow Based Programming Official website NiFi on