Effect of Snow on Petit-Montrouge
Effect of Snow on Petit-Montrouge is an 1870 landscape painting by the French painter Édouard Manet. The oil on canvas painting shows a winter view of Petit-Montrouge, an area in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Manet painted this picture while a member of the National Guard during the 1870–71 Siege of Paris of the Franco-Prussian War; as opposed to the history painters of his time, Manet does not show a heroic view of battle, but rather the dusky ambiance of a looming battle. The image reflects Manet's loss of hope about the military situation, his profound loneliness, the deprivation he suffered during this time, it is one of the few landscapes in Manet's oeuvre, is one of Manet's first plein air paintings. Today it is in the collection of the National Museum Cardiff. Manet uses muted tones to illustrate an urban snow landscape; the buildings in the background were painted with muted colours to give an appearance of balancing precariously on a huge expanse of brown. Richard R. Brettell: Impression: Painting in France 1860–1890.
Exhibit catalog, Amsterdam, Yale University Press, New Haven und London 2000, ISBN 0-300-08447-1. Edward Lilley: Manet's "modernity" and "Effet de neige à Petit-Montrouge" in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, September 1991 Michael Wilson: Manet at Work. Exhibit catalog, National Gallery, London 1983, ISBN 0-901791-87-3. Aindrea Emelife, Ten Great Works Of Art Depicting Snow, December 2015, BBC, London. Accessed at http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20151218-ten-great-works-of-art-depicting-snow
The Kearsarge at Boulogne
The Kearsarge at Boulogne is an oil-on-canvas painting by Édouard Manet completed in 1864. It depicts the Union cruiser USS Kearsarge, victor of the Battle of Cherbourg over the rebel privateer CSS Alabama; the painting is owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Although he had not witnessed the battle, Manet visited Cherbourg one month after and painted a watercolour portrait of Kearsarge, now exhibited in Dijon; the oil painting was based on this watercolour. Manet painted an account of the battle itself, The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama. Manet and the American Civil War: the battle of the U. S. S. Kearsarge and the C. S. S. Alabama, Issued in connection with an exhibition held June 3 - August 17, 2003, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
The Spanish Singer
The Spanish Singer is an 1860 oil painting on canvas by the French painter Édouard Manet, conserved since 1949 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York. Composed in Manet's studio, it employed a model and props which were used for at least one other painting; this work, both realistic and exotic in its depiction of its subject, exhibits the influence of Spanish art that of Diego Velázquez, on Manet's style. Manet, due to this painting, was accepted for the first time at the Salon of Paris in 1861, where he exhibited a portrait of his parents; the Spanish Singer won a decent mention. It was appreciated by French writer Charles Baudelaire, by French journalist and literary critic Theophile Gautier, who praised the painting for its "very true color" and "vigorous brush". Manet became the leader of the avant-garde movement and inspired a group of young artists, including Henri Fantin-Latour and Carolus-Duran, who decided to visit Manet's studio
Passy Cemetery is a cemetery in Passy, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. The current cemetery replaced the old cemetery, closed in 1802. In the early 19th century, on the orders of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, all the cemeteries in Paris were replaced by several large new ones outside the precincts of the capital. Montmartre Cemetery was built in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Passy Cemetery was a addition, but has its origins in the same edict; the current entrance was built in 1934. The retaining wall of the cemetery is adorned with a bas relief commemorating the soldiers who fell in World War I. Opened in 1820 in the expensive residential and commercial districts of the Right Bank near the Champs-Élysées, by 1874 the small Passy Cemetery had become the aristocratic necropolis of Paris, it is the only cemetery in Paris to have a heated waiting-room. Sheltered by a bower of chestnut trees, the cemetery is in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower.
The cemetery was once the home of a statue by Dunikowski titled The Soul Escaping the Body. It was on top of the ceremonial grave of Antoni Cierplikowski; the statue was known by many but was removed when the grave was cleared in 2004. It is known as a small but well visited cemetery. Among its more famous residents are: Bảo Đại, the last Emperor of Vietnam Jean-Louis Barrault and director. American newspaper publisher, sportsman Tristan Bernard and novelist Henri Bernstein, actor Princess Brasova, wife of Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov George, Count Brasov, son of Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov and Princess Brasova Emmanuel de Las Cases, historian Dieudonné Costes, pioneering aviator, as is his flight companion Maurice Bellonte Emmanuelle de Dampierre, first wife of Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia Marcel Dassault, founder of Dassault Aviation Claude Debussy, composer Maxime Dethomas, artist Farideh Diba, mother of the former queen of Iran, Farah Diba Ghislaine Dommanget, Princess of Monaco Michel Droit, member of the Académie française Henry Farman, champion cyclist and aviator Edgar Faure and World War II resistance fighter Gabriel Fauré, composer Fernandel, comedy actor Maurice Gamelin, supreme commander of French armed forces 1939–1940 Maurice Genevoix, novelist Rosemonde Gérard and playwright Virgil Gheorghiu, novelist Jean Giraudoux, playwright and statesman Hubert de Givenchy, fashion designer Anna Gould, daughter of financier Jay Gould Arlette Gueudet, widow of industrialist Robert Gueudet Antonio Guzmán Blanco, Venezuelan politician and president Gabriel Hanotaux and historian Paul Hervieu and novelist Gholam Hossein Jahanshahi, Iranian statesman Jacques Ibert, composer Paul Landowski and sculptor Hector Lefuel, architect of significant portions of the Louvre Joseph Florimond Loubat, antiquarian and philanthropist Georges Mandel, French Resistance during World War II Édouard Manet and impressionist painter André Messager and conductor Alexandre Millerand, President of France Octave Mirbeau, art critic, novelist Berthe Morisot, impressionist painter Togrul Narimanbekov, Azerbaijani painter Joseph O'Kelly, Henri O'Kelly sr. and Henri O'Kelly jr.
Franco-Irish composers and musicians Leila Pahlavi, Princess Leila of Iran, daughter of the last Shah of Iran and Farah Diba Gabrielle Réjane, actress Madeleine Renaud, actress. The street in which it is situated is named for a Free French pilot, Squadron Leader Jacques-Henri Schlœsing, who flew with the wartime RAF until killed in action, the day that Paris was liberated; the cemetery is behind the Trocadéro. Passy Cemetery on the
Olympia is a painting by Édouard Manet, first exhibited at the 1865 Paris Salon, which shows a nude woman lying on a bed being brought flowers by a servant. Olympia was modelled by Olympia's servant by the art model Laure. Olympia's confrontational gaze caused shock and astonishment when the painting was first exhibited because a number of details in the picture identified her as a prostitute; the French government acquired the painting in 1890 after a public subscription organized by Claude Monet. The painting is on display at Paris. What shocked contemporary audiences was not Olympia's nudity, nor the presence of her clothed maid, but her confrontational gaze and a number of details identifying her as a demi-mondaine or prostitute; these include the orchid in her hair, her bracelet, pearl earrings and the oriental shawl on which she lies, symbols of wealth and sensuality. The black ribbon around her neck, in stark contrast with her pale flesh, her cast-off slipper underline the voluptuous atmosphere.
"Olympia" was a name associated with prostitutes in 1860s Paris. The painting is modelled after Titian's Venus of Urbino. Whereas the left hand of Titian's Venus is curled and appears to entice, Olympia's left hand appears to block, interpreted as symbolic of her sexual independence from men and her role as a prostitute, granting or restricting access to her body in return for payment. Manet replaced the little dog in Titian's painting with a black cat, which traditionally symbolized prostitution. Olympia disdainfully ignores the flowers presented to her by her servant a gift from a client; some have suggested that she is looking in the direction of the door, as her client barges in unannounced. The painting deviates from the academic canon in its style, characterized by broad, quick brushstrokes, studio lighting that eliminates mid-tones, large color surfaces and shallow depth. Unlike the smooth idealized nude of Alexandre Cabanel's La naissance de Vénus painted in 1863, Olympia is a real woman whose nakedness is emphasized by the harsh lighting.
The canvas alone is 51.4 x 74.8 inches, rather large for this genre-style painting. Most paintings that were this size depicted historical or mythological events, so the size of the work, among other factors, caused surprise. Olympia is thin by the artistic standards of the time and her undeveloped body is more girlish than womanly. Charles Baudelaire thought; the model for Olympia, Victorine Meurent, became an accomplished painter in her own right. In part, the painting was inspired by Titian's Venus of Urbino, which in turn refers to Giorgione's Sleeping Venus. Léonce Bénédite was the first art historian to explicitly acknowledge the similarity to the Venus of Urbino in 1897. There is some similarity to Francisco Goya's La maja desnuda. There were pictorial precedents for a nude woman, attended by a black servant, such as Ingres' Odalisque with a Slave, Léon Benouville's Esther with Odalisque and Charles Jalabert's Odalisque. Comparison is made to Ingres' Grande Odalisque. Unlike other artists, Manet did not depict a goddess or an odalisque but a high-class prostitute waiting for a client.
Though Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass sparked controversy in 1863, his Olympia stirred an bigger uproar when it was first exhibited at the 1865 Paris Salon. Conservatives condemned the work as "immoral" and "vulgar." Journalist Antonin Proust recalled, "If the canvas of the Olympia was not destroyed, it is only because of the precautions that were taken by the administration." The critics and the public condemned the work alike. Émile Zola was reduced to disingenuously commenting on the work's formal qualities rather than acknowledging the subject matter, "You wanted a nude, you chose Olympia, the first that came along". He paid tribute to Manet's honesty, however, "When our artists give us Venuses, they correct nature, they lie. Édouard Manet asked himself. Although overlooked, the figure of the maid in the painting, modelled by a woman named Laure, has become a topic of discussion among contemporary scholars; as T. J. Clark recounts of a friend’s disbelief in the revised 1990 version of The Painting of Modern Life: “you’ve written about the white woman on the bed for fifty pages and more, hardly mentioned the black woman alongside her.”
Olympia was created 15 years after slavery had been abolished in France but racist stereotypes had continued. In some cases, the white prostitute in the painting is described using racist language. "References to Blackness thus invaded the image of white Olympia, turning her into the caricatural and grotesque animal that Black people are made to represent in the nineteenth century"Many critics have applauded Manet in his use of white and black in the painting, an alternative to the tradition of chiaroscuro. Charles Bernheimer has said, The black maid is not a darkly colored counterpart to Olympia's whiteness, but rather an emblem of the dark, anomalous sexuality lurking just under Olympia's hand. At least, this is the fantasy Manet's servant figure may well have aroused in the male spectator of 1865. Black feminists have rejected his reading and argue that it is not for artistic convention that Manet included Laure but to create an ideological binary between black and white and bad, clean and dirty and "inevitably reformulates the Cartesian perspectival logic that allows whiteness to function as the only subject of consideration".
Luncheon in the Studio
Luncheon in the Studio is an 1868 oil painting by Édouard Manet. A portrait of 16-year-old Léon Leenhoff — the son of Suzanne Leenhoff before her 1863 marriage to Manet, the son of Manet or Manet's father Auguste — it is an enigmatic work that has received limited attention within Manet's oeuvre. Critic Nan Stalnaker notes that "despite continued questions about its meaning, the work is acknowledged to be brilliantly painted and a major Manet work". In the summer of 1868 Manet traveled to Boulogne-sur-Mer for his summer vacation, where he painted Luncheon in the Studio and other works. Luncheon was posed in the dining room of Manet's rented house. Leenhoff is the focus of the painting, with his back to the other two people, who have at various points been identified as his mother and Manet; these identifications are now seen as incorrect. The woman gazing toward the viewer is a servant. Given the uncertain status of Leenhoff's paternity, Meyers proposes that the two figures may represent Suzanne and Édouard symbolically "their belated recognition and acceptance of Auguste's son".
In an otherwise muted color scheme, the yellow in Leenhoff's tie and straw hat connect with the lemon on the table. The armour that appears incongruently in the bottom-left corner recalls its symbolism and collectibility before and during the Second Empire, when it was the subject of still lifes; the table holds more conventional subjects of the genre, including a peeled lemon, oysters, a Delft sugar bowl, a knife that protrudes off the table. In this way Manet represents both the "romantic" and "naturalistic" modes of his art, according to Collins, who notes, given the presence of the man in the background, that smoking was popular among "young romantics"; the painting was exhibited in the 1869 Paris Salon along with Manet's The Balcony, another work that lacked a simple genre affiliation, in which at least one of the figures seems to confront the viewer as if challenging the "fourth wall". Both pieces were found wanting by art critics of the day; the reviewer Jules-Antoine Castagnary criticized the two paintings in a quote that well reflects the conventional expectations of a painting in this period, just before the further turbulence that Impressionism brought upon art: What's the source of sterility?
It's. He takes them from his imagination. Whence, in his positions, much of their arbitrariness. In the Luncheon, for example, I see on a table where coffee is served a half-peeled lemon and fresh oysters, but these objects don't go together. Why have they been put there then? I know well why; because Manet has to the highest extent a feeling for colored patches, because he excels in representing that, inanimate, feeling superior in his still lifes, he is inclined to paint them whenever possible... And just as Manet brings together for the pleasure of striking the eyes, still-life elements that belong apart, he distributes his personages haphazardly, without anything necessary and forced in their composition. Whence the uncertainty and the obscurity of his thought. What is the young man doing in the Luncheon, seated in the foreground and seeming to look out at the public? True, he is well brushed by a vigorous hand. In the dining room? In that case, having his back to the table, he has the wall between him and us, his position no longer makes any sense... feeling for functions, for appropriateness, is indispensable...
Like the personages in a play, it's necessary that every figure in a painting is in its proper plane, fulfills its role, thereby contributes to the expression of the general idea. Nothing arbitrary and nothing superfluous, the law of all artistic composition. Another critic, Marius Chaumelin, echoed this sentiment: "The personages... are not at all handsome, their faces having something morose and disagreeable about them, like the faces of persons who pose, in fact all these figures have the air of saying to us: Look at me!... Thus, no expression, no feeling, no composition." He spoke of "types without character, scenes devoid of all interest" and said disparagingly that "Manet had made the portrait of a Balcony and a Luncheon". Meyers finds the depiction of Leenhoff similar in some respects to an 1855 portrait by Edgar Degas of his brother, Achille De Gas in the Uniform of a Cadet, they share the leaning pose, the presence of swords, facial characteristics. He further suggests that, by borrowing from the Degas work, Manet is hinting that Leenhoff is his brother.
Fried sees the influence of the genre scenes of Vermeer, "rediscovered" and popularized in France by Théophile Thoré-Bürger. As in Vermeer, the scene involves a servant; the elements of still life on the table "allude unmistakably" to Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin's still life La Raie depouillee. Fried mentions that Manet's painting has "possible" allusions to two Fr
The Fifer or Young Flautist is a painting by French painter Édouard Manet, made in 1866. It is kept in the Musée d'Orsay, is now on loan to the Louvre Abu Dhabi museum in Abu Dhabi, UAE. On a trip to Spain in 1865, Édouard Manet visited the Prado, where the art of Diego Velázquez was a revelation. Upon his return to Paris in 1866, he began work on a new painting, depicting an anonymous regimental fifer of the Spanish army. In this picture, Manet presents the uniformed boy, in a manner that imitates and inverts the formula of Vélazquez's court portraits, against a inflected, flattened background of neutral tone, thus frustrating attempts to assess the figure's true size and, by extension, importance; the painting, entitled Le fifre, was rejected by the jury of the Salon of 1866. Outraged by the jury's decision, Émile Zola, an early champion of Manet's art, published a series of articles in the newspaper L'Évenement, that praised Manet's realist style and modern content. Following the example of Gustave Courbet, in May 1867, Manet funded and mounted an exhibition of his own work in a pavilion at the edge of the Éxposition universelle.
The exhibition included Le fifre, ridiculed in the popular press for its unusual brushwork and inscrutable spatial setting. The painting was acquired by Durand-Ruell in 1872 and again in 1893. Between 1873 and 1893, the painting was owned by Manet's friend and baritone Jean-Baptiste Faure. Le fifre was accepted by the French government in lieu of taxes on the estate of its last private owner, the Count Isaac de Camondo, entered the national collections in 1911, it was displayed at the Louvre from 1914 until 1947, when it was relocated to the Musée du Jeu de Paume. In 1986, it was moved to its current home in the Musée d'Orsay, the national museum of 19th-century art, it was included in a large exhibition of Manet's work in 1884, a year after his premature death, was included in the sweeping Manet retrospective held at the Grand Palais in 1983, the 100th anniversary of the artist's death. As with a painting by Velázquez, Manet conceived a shallow depth, where vertical and horizontal planes are distinguishable.
According to Peter H. Feist, in The Player fife, Manet showed the appeal of "the decorative effect of a large single figure, with emphatic contours and placed before a background surface." Against a monochrome background, the figure is boldly highlighted with a reduced palette of colors laid on in a thick impasto which brings forth the sharp black of the jacket and shoes, along with the red pants, white strap, spats and so on. Thus, the figure stands "firm and alive."Moreover, as in Velázquez's work, Manet portrayed an anonymous character, a teenage musician of the band of the Imperial Guard of Napoleon III, sent to Manet by commander Lejosne, "treated like a grandee of Spain." Additional models may have posed for the figure: the likenesses of both Léon Leenhoff and Victorine Meurent have been seen in the boy's face and figure