Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educator and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, its second President. He is considered one of the fathers of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history, he graduated with a degree in public affairs Paris Institute of Political Studies. It was at Sciences Po; the Pierre de Coubertin medal is an award given by the International Olympic Committee to athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in the Olympic Games. Pierre de Frédy was born in Paris on 1 January 1863, into an aristocratic family, he was the fourth child of Baron Charles Louis de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin and Marie–Marcelle Gigault de Crisenoy. Family tradition held that the Frédy name had first arrived in France in the early 15th century, the first recorded title of nobility granted to the family was given by Louis XI to an ancestor named Pierre de Frédy, in 1477.
But other branches of his family tree delved further into French history, the annals of both sides of his family included nobles of various stations, military leaders and associates of kings and princes of France. His father Charles was a staunch royalist and accomplished artist whose paintings were displayed and given prizes at the Parisian salon, at least in those years when he was not absent in protest of the rise to power of Louis Napoleon, his paintings centred on themes related to the Roman Catholic Church and nobility, which reflected those things he thought most important. In a semi-fictional autobiographical piece called Le Roman d'un rallié, Coubertin describes his relationship with both his mother and his father as having been somewhat strained during his childhood and adolescence, his memoirs elaborated further, describing as a pivotal moment his disappointment upon meeting Henri, Count of Chambord, whom the elder Coubertin believed to be the rightful king. Coubertin grew up in a time of profound change in France: France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune, the establishment of the French Third Republic, the Dreyfus affair.
But while these events were the setting of his childhood, his school experiences were just as formative. In October 1874, his parents enrolled him in a new Jesuit school called Externat de la rue de Vienne, still under construction for his first five years there. While many of the school's attendees were day students, Coubertin boarded at the school under the supervision of a Jesuit priest, which his parents hoped would instill him with a strong moral and religious education. There, he was among the top three students in his class, was an officer of the school's elite academy made up of its best and brightest; this suggests that despite his rebelliousness at home, Coubertin adapted well to the strict rigors of a Jesuit education. As an aristocrat, Coubertin had a number of career paths from which to choose, including prominent roles in the military or politics, but he chose instead to pursue a career as an intellectual and writing on a broad range of topics, including education, history and sociology.
The subject which he seems to have been most interested in was education, his study focused in particular on physical education and the role of sport in schooling. In 1883, he visited England for the first time, studied the program of physical education instituted by Thomas Arnold at the Rugby School. Coubertin credited these methods with leading to the expansion of British power during the 19th century and advocated their use in French institutions; the inclusion of physical education in the curriculum of French schools would become an ongoing pursuit and passion of Coubertin's. Coubertin is thought to have exaggerated the importance of sport to Thomas Arnold, whom he viewed as "one of the founders of athletic chivalry"; the character-reforming influence of sport with which Coubertin was so impressed is more to have originated in the novel Tom Brown's School Days rather than in the ideas of Arnold himself. Nonetheless, Coubertin was an enthusiast in need of a cause and he found it in England and in Thomas Arnold.
"Thomas Arnold, the leader and classic model of English educators," wrote Coubertin, "gave the precise formula for the role of athletics in education. The cause was won. Playing fields sprang up all over England". Intrigued by what he had read about English public schools, in 1883, at the age of twenty, Frédy went to Rugby and to other English schools to see for himself, he described the results in a book, L'Education en Angleterre, published in Paris in 1888. This hero of his book is Thomas Arnold, on his second visit in 1886, Coubertin reflected on Arnold's influence in the chapel at Rugby School. What Coubertin saw on the playing fields of Rugby and the other English schools he visited was how "organised sport can create moral and social strength". Not only did organised games help to set the mind and body in equilibrium, it prevented the time being wasted in other ways. First developed by the ancient Greeks, it was an approach to education that he felt the rest of the world had forgotten and to whose revival he was to dedicate the rest of his life.
As a historian and a thinker on education, Coubertin romanticised ancient Greece. Thus, when he began to develop his theory of physical education, he looked to the example set by the Athe
Saint-Jean-du-Gard is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. This city of the Cévennes, first mentioned in a 12th-century papal bull, was much influenced by Protestantism in the 16th century and became the Mecca of the camisards' resistance. Thanks to the silk industry, the village experienced a period of prosperity that lasted from the 19th century to the 20th century; this city now owes much of its economy to tourism. A heritage railway runs from Saint-Jean-du-Gard to Anduze with a stop at the Bambouseraie de Prafrance, which attracts 150,000 tourists a year; the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson reached the town on 3 October 1878, as recounted in his book Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes. Here he sold his donkey Modestine, took a stagecoach to Alès: It was a long descent upon St. Jean du Gard, we met no one but a carter, visible afar off by the glint of the moon on his extinguished lantern. Before ten o'clock we were at supper. On examination, on the morning of October 4th, Modestine was pronounced unfit for travel.
She would need at least two days' repose according to the ostler. Our yesterday's march, with the testimony of the driver who had pursued us up the long hill of St. Pierre, spread a favourable notion of my donkey's capabilities. Intending purchasers were aware of an unrivalled opportunity. Before ten I had an offer of twenty-five francs; the pecuniary gain is not obvious. The Robert Louis Stevenson Trail, a popular long-distance path following Stevenson's approximate route, finishes in the town at a fountain built to commemorate Stevenson's arrival. Communes of the Gard department List of works by Auguste Carli INSEE Official site
Antoine Dresse is a Belgian deaf sport activist and the co-founder of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds, the world governing body of deaf sports. Antoine Dresse has represented Belgium at the Deaflympics from 1924 to 1939. Dresse competed for Belgium in the track events. Antoine served as the first founding secretary-general of the CISS from 1924-1967. Antoine Dresse was born into a family of bankers and industrialists on the 1st of August, 1902 in Liège, Belgium. Antoine was profoundly deaf in his both ears since childhood, he rose to the top of a brokerage business firm. Antoine Dresse is considered as one of the pioneers of the deaf sports movement along with the French deaf activist, Eugène Rubens-Alcais. Antoine assisted him in the formation of the International Committee of Sports for the deaf in 1918, he played a key role to introduce Deaflympics in 1924 and participated in the inaugural multi-sport event for the deaf people despite holding the post of secretary-general. Antoine Dresse held the Secretary General post of the Comite International des Sports des Sourds from 1924 to 1967 for about 43 years until his retirement.
Dresse had been the key factor in the development of Deaf sports in Belgium. He was a runner and a tennis player during his young age. Antoine has participated at the Deaflympics in 1924, 1928, 1931,1935 and in 1939, he won a total of 9 medals in the Deaflympics including a gold medal. Medal of honour - 1949 ICSD/CISS Honorary Member - 1973 Honorary degree from Gallaudet University
Ivry-sur-Seine is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 5.3 km from the center of Paris. Paris's main Asian district, the Quartier Asiatique in the 13th arrondissement, borders the commune and now extends into the northern parts of Ivry. Asian commercial activity Chinese and Vietnamese, has increased in Ivry-sur-Seine during the past two decades; the commune contains one of the highest concentrations of Vietnamese in France, who began settling in the city in the late 1970s after the Vietnam War. Politically, Ivry-sur-Seine has demonstrated strong electoral support for the French Communist Party. Between 1925 and 2015 the office of mayor was held by just three individuals: Georges Marrane, Jacques Laloë, Pierre Gosnat, all members of the Communist Party. Ivry-sur-Seine is twinned with Bishop Auckland in England. Ivry-sur-Seine was called Ivry; the name Ivry comes from Medieval Latin Ivriacum or Ibriacum meaning "estate of Eburius", a Gallo-Roman landowner.
In 1897, the name of the commune became Ivry-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Ivry. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Ivry-sur-Seine was annexed to Paris, now forms the Chinatown area of the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Ivry-sur-Seine is most famous as the place of execution of Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry in March 1963. Richard Ellman notes that James Joyce's daughter, received psychiatric treatment in the commune's hospital in 1936 and was visited by both Joyce and Samuel Beckett. Fnac has its head office in the commune; the head office moved there in 2008. E. Leclerc's head office is in the commune. Ivry-sur-Seine is served by two railway stations on the Paris Métro Line 7: Pierre et Marie Curie and Mairie d'Ivry; the east of the commune is served by Ivry-sur-Seine station on Paris RER line C with stops at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France and the city centre.
Orly Airport is located to the south of Ivry-sur-Seine. Senior high schools: Collège et lycée Romain Rolland Lycée technique Fernand LégerColleges and universities: ESIEA ESME Sudria École des technologies numériques appliquées Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées IONIS School of Technology and Management As of circa 1998 Ivry and Vitry-sur-Seine had a combined Asian population of 3,600; that year about 250 Asians from those communes worked in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, the overall demographics of Ivry and Vitry Asians were similar to those in the 13th arrondissement. Luc Abalo, handball player Nicolas Appert, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine Antonin Artaud, died in Ivry-sur-Seine on 4 March 1948. Yohann Auvitu, ice hockey player Souleymane Bamba, footballer Paul Boccara and historian. Pierre-Claude-Victor Boiste and editor of the Dictionnaire universel de la langue française Yannick Bonheur, figure skater Pierre Contant d'Ivry, architect born in Ivry-sur-Seine. Mana Dembele, footballer Jean Ferrat, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine before settling in Ardèche.
Catherine Ferry, singer Reda Kateb, actor Tripy Makonda, footballer Dany N'Guessan, footballer Jean Renaudie and founder of the Atelier de Montrouge, responsible for the complete renovation of Ivry town centre. Bakary Sako, footballer Antoine Spire and writer. Maurice Thorez, former leader of the French Communist Party, elected deputy for d'Ivry-sur-Seine in 1932 until his death in 1964. Mickael Toti, basketball player Makan Traore, footballer Bano Traore, athlete Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Ivry-sur-Seine city council website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr