Düsseldorf school of painting
The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow. The work of the Düsseldorf School is characterized by finely detailed yet fanciful landscapes with religious or allegorical stories set in the landscapes. Leading members of the Düsseldorf School advocated "plein air painting", tended to use a palette with subdued and colors; the Düsseldorf School was a part of the German Romantic movement. Prominent members of the Düsselorf School included von Schadow, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Andreas Achenbach, Hans Fredrik Gude, Oswald Achenbach, Adolf Schrödter; the Düsseldorf School had a significant influence on the Hudson River School in the United States, many prominent Americans trained at the Düsseldorf Academy and show the influence of the Düsseldorf School, including George Caleb Bingham, David Edward Cronin, Eastman Johnson, Worthington Whittredge, Richard Caton Woodville, William Stanley Haseltine, James McDougal Hart, Helen Searle, William Morris Hunt, as well as German émigré Emanuel Leutze.
Albert Bierstadt was not accepted. His American friend Worthington Whittredge became his teacher while attending Düsseldorf. Between 1819 and 1918, some 4000 artists belonged to the Düsseldorf school of painting, including: Andreas Achenbach Oswald Achenbach Hermann Anschütz Peter Nicolai Arbo Louis Asher Anders Askevold Hans von Bartels William Holbrook Beard August Becker Jakob Becker Peter Behrens Gunnar Berg Ludolph Berkemeier Edward Beyer Albert Bierstadt George Caleb Bingham Georg Bleibtreu Arnold Böcklin Erik Bodom Friedrich Boser August Bromeis Wilhelm Busch Anton Bütler Joseph Niklaus Bütler Alexandre Calame Wilhelm Camphausen August Cappelen Gustaf Cederström Fanny Churberg Johann Wilhelm Cordes Peter von Cornelius Ludwig des Coudres Ernest Crofts Georg Heinrich Crola David Edward Cronin Hans Dahl Ernst Deger Anton Dietrich Eugen Dücker Adam Eberle Marie Egner Joseph Fay Anselm Feuerbach Albert Flamm Arnold Forstmann Friedrich Friedländer Bernhard Fries Otto Frölicher Julius Geertz Sanford Robinson Gifford Hans Fredrik Gude Eugene von Guerard Aasta Hansteen James McDougal Hart William Stanley Haseltine Johann Peter Hasenclever Lars Hertervig George Hetzel Hermann Ottomar Herzog Theodor Hildebrandt Robert Alexander Hillingford Bernhard Hoetger Oskar Hoffmann Adolfo Hohenstein Julius Hübner Emil Hünten William Morris Hunt Otto Hupp Franz Ittenbach Otto Reinhold Jacobi Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann August Jernberg Eastman Johnson Arthur Kampf Wilhelm von Kaulbach William Keith César Klein Ludwig Knaus Heinrich Christoph Kolbe Rudolf Koller Julius Kronberg Ants Laikmaa Marcus Larson Wilhelm Lehmbruck Carl Friedrich Lessing Emanuel Leutze Bruno Liljefors Amalia Lindegren George Luks August Macke Fritz Mackensen August Malmström Gari Melchers Carlo Mense Johann Georg Meyer Otto Modersohn Heinrich Mücke Morten Müller Paul Müller-Kaempff Mihály von Munkácsy Ludvig Munthe Amaldus Nielsen Bengt Nordenberg Adelsteen Normann Adolph Northen Theobald von Oer Eduard Peithner von Lichtenfels Carl von Perbandt Heinrich Petersen-Angeln Eduard Wilhelm Pose Johann Wilhelm Preyer Kristjan Raud Paul Raud Robert Reinick Alfred Rethel Karl Lorenz Rettich Henry Ritter Theodor Rocholl Hubert Salentin Johann Wilhelm Schirmer Julius Schrader Adolf Schreyer Adolf Seel Ivan Shishkin Karl Ferdinand Sohn Bernhard Studer Adolph Tidemand Carl d'Unker Lesser Ury Frederick Vezin Heinrich Vogeler Alfred Wahlberg Edward Arthur Walton Worthington Whittredge Charles Wimar Mårten Eskil Winge Richard Caton Woodville Magnus von Wright Clemens von Zimmermann German Romanticism
Indianism is a Brazilian literary and artistic movement that reached its peak during the first stages of Romanticism, though it had been present in Brazilian literature since the Baroque period. In Romantic contexts, it is called "the first generation of Brazilian Romanticism", being succeeded by the "Ultra-Romanticism" and the "Condorism". After the independence of Brazil from Portugal in 1822, a heavy wave of nationalism spread through the Brazilian people. Inspired by this and writers began to search for an entity that could represent and personify the newly created Brazilian nation. Since there was no Middle Ages in Brazil, it could not be the knight, as in the European chivalric romances. Influenced by Enlightenment ideals works by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the "noble savage" myth, the authors chose the Brazilian Indian to represent the new nation. Indianist works are characterized by always having an Indian as the protagonist; the poetry is patriotic and nationalistic, exalting Brazilian fauna, flora and people.
José de Anchieta Basílio da Gama: O Uraguai Santa Rita Durão: Caramuru José de Alencar: novels O Guarani and Ubirajara Gonçalves Dias: narrative poem I-Juca-Pirama, epic poem Os Timbiras, poetry books Primeiros Cantos, Segundos Cantos and Últimos Cantos Gonçalves de Magalhães: epic poem A Confederação dos Tamoios Victor Meirelles Rodolfo Amoedo Antônio Parreiras "Canção do exílio" Indigenism Brazilian Romantic painting Brazilian art Brazilian painting GRIZOSTE, Weberson Fernandes, A dimensão anti-épica de Virgílio e o Indianismo de Gonçalves Dias, Coimbra, CECH,2011
The epithet Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art. The name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a biblical manner of clothing and hair style. In 1809, six students at the Vienna Academy formed an artistic cooperative in Vienna called the Brotherhood of St. Luke or Lukasbund, following a common name for medieval guilds of painters. In 1810 four of them, Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr, Ludwig Vogel and Johann Konrad Hottinger moved to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of San Isidoro, they were joined by Philipp Veit, Peter von Cornelius, Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and a loose grouping of other German artists. They met up with Austrian romantic landscape artist Joseph Anton Koch who became an unofficial tutor to the group. In 1827 they were joined by Joseph von Führich; the principal motivation of the Nazarenes was a reaction against Neoclassicism and the routine art education of the academy system.
They hoped to return to art which embodied spiritual values, sought inspiration in artists of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, rejecting what they saw as the superficial virtuosity of art. In Rome the group lived a semi-monastic existence, as a way of re-creating the nature of the medieval artist's workshop. Religious subjects dominated their output, two major commissions allowed them to attempt a revival of the medieval art of fresco painting. Two fresco series were completed in Rome for the Casa Bartholdy and the Casino Massimo, gained international attention for the work of the'Nazarenes'. However, by 1830 all except Overbeck had returned to Germany and the group had disbanded. Many Nazarenes became influential teachers in German art academies; the programme of the Nazarenes—the adoption of honest expression in art and the inspiration of artists before Raphael—was to exert considerable influence in Germany, in England upon the Pre-Raphaelite movement. In their abandonment of the academy and their rejection of much official and salon art, the Nazarenes can be seen as partaking in the same anti-scholastic impulse that would lead to the avant-garde in the nineteenth century.
Gabriel Wüger German Romanticism Middle Ages in history Preraphaelites Purismo Mitchell Benjamin Frank. Romantic Painting Redefined: Nazarene Tradition and the Narratives of Romanticism. Ashgate Publishing, 2001. "Painting the Sacred in the Age of German Romanticism." Aldershot: Ashgate Books, 2009. Lionel Gossman. "Making of a Romantic Icon: The Religious Context of Friedrich Overbeck's'Italia und Germania.'" American Philosophical Society, 2007. ISBN 0-87169-975-3. Lionel Gossman. "Unwilling Moderns: The Nazarene Painters of the Nineteenth Century" in Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide – Volume 2, Issue 3, Autumn 2003. Nazarenes in the "History of Art"
Gothic fiction, known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled "A Gothic Story"; the effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were new at the time of Walpole's novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century where, following Walpole, it was further developed by Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, William Thomas Beckford and Matthew Lewis; the genre had much success in the 19th century, as witnessed in prose by Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and the works of Edgar Allan Poe as well as Charles Dickens with his novella, A Christmas Carol, in poetry in the work of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker's Dracula; the name Gothic, which referred to the Goths, came to mean "German", refers to the medieval Gothic architecture, in which many of these stories take place.
This extreme form of Romanticism was popular throughout Europe among English- and German-language writers and artists. The English Gothic novel led to new novel types such as the German Schauerroman and the French Roman Noir; the novel regarded as the first Gothic novel is The Castle of Otranto by English author Horace Walpole, first published in 1764. Walpole's declared aim was to combine elements of the medieval romance, which he deemed too fanciful, the modern novel, which he considered to be too confined to strict realism; the basic plot created many other staple Gothic generic traits, including threatening mysteries and ancestral curses, as well as countless trappings such as hidden passages and oft-fainting heroines. Walpole published the first edition disguised as a medieval romance from Italy discovered and republished by a fictitious translator; when Walpole admitted to his authorship in the second edition, its favourable reception by literary reviewers changed into rejection. The reviewers' rejection reflected a larger cultural bias: the romance was held in contempt by the educated as a tawdry and debased kind of writing.
A romance with superstitious elements, moreover void of didactical intention, was considered a setback and not acceptable. Walpole's forgery, together with the blend of history and fiction, contravened the principles of the Enlightenment and associated the Gothic novel with fake documentation. Clara Reeve, best known for her work The Old English Baron, set out to take Walpole's plot and adapt it to the demands of the time by balancing fantastic elements with 18th-century realism. In her preface, Reeve wrote: "This Story is the literary offspring of The Castle of Otranto, written upon the same plan, with a design to unite the most attractive and interesting circumstances of the ancient Romance and modern Novel." The question now arose whether supernatural events that were not as evidently absurd as Walpole's would not lead the simpler minds to believe them possible. Reeve's contribution in the development of the Gothic fiction, can be demonstrated on at least two fronts. In the first, there is the reinforcement of the Gothic narrative framework, one that focuses on expanding the imaginative domain so as to include the supernatural without losing the realism that marks the novel that Walpole pioneered.
Secondly, Reeve sought to contribute to finding the appropriate formula to ensure that the fiction is believable and coherent. The result is that she spurned specific aspects to Walpole's style such as his tendency to incorporate too much humor or comic elements in such a way that it diminishes the Gothic tale's ability to induce fear. In 1777, Reeve enumerated Walpole's excesses in this respect: a sword so large as to require an hundred men to lift it. Although the succession of Gothic writers did not heed Reeve's focus on emotional realism, she was able to posit a framework that keeps Gothic fiction within the realm of the probable; this aspect remains a challenge for authors in this genre after the publication of The Old English Baron. Outside of its providential context, the supernatural would suffer the risk of veering towards the absurd. Ann Radcliffe developed the technique of the explained supernatural in which every supernatural intrusion is traced back to natural causes. Radcliffe has been called both “the Great Enchantress” and “Mother Radcliffe” due to her influence on both Gothic literature and the female Gothic.
Radcliffe’s use of visual elements and their effects constitutes an innovative strategy for reading the world through “linguistic visual patterns” and developing an “ethical gaze”, allowing for readers to visualize the events through words, understand the situations, feel the terror which the characters themselves are experiencing. Her success attracted many imitators. Among other elements, Ann Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of the Gothic villain, a literary device that would come to be defined as the Byronic hero. Radcliffe's novels, above all The Mysteries of Udolpho, were best-sellers. However, along with most novels at the time, they were looked down upon by many well-educated people as sensationalist nonsense. Radcliffe inspired the emerging idea of
Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves was a Brazilian poet and playwright, famous for his abolitionist and republican poems. One of the most famous poets of the "Condorism", he won the epithet of "O Poeta dos Escravos", he is the patron of the 7th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. Castro Alves was born in the town of Curralinho, in the Brazilian state of Bahia, to Antônio José Alves, a medician, Clélia Brasília da Silva Castro, one of the daughters of José Antônio da Silva Castro, a prominent fighter in the 1821–23 Siege of Salvador. In 1853, he was sent to study in the Colégio Sebrão, run by Abílio César Borges, the Baron of Macaúbas. There, he would befriend Ruy Barbosa. In 1862, he moved to Recife in order to study at the Faculdade de Direito do Recife, but he was rejected twice, he only was able to join the college in 1864, there meeting Tobias Barreto and José Bonifácio the Younger. They would influence Alves' writing style, in turn, Alves influenced them both, his father would die in 1866, short after, he met Portuguese actress Eugênia Câmara, would start dating her afterwards.
In 1867, Alves returns to Bahia alongside Câmara, there he writes his drama Gonzaga, ou A Revolução de Minas, based on the life of famous Luso-Brazilian Neoclassic poet Tomás António Gonzaga and his participation in the failed 1789 Minas Conspiracy. In the following year, he and Câmara would go to São Paulo, where Alves entered the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo and once more would meet Ruy Barbosa. In there, he befriended Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa, wrote a poem named "Deusa incruenta", based on Sousa's work "Terribilis Dea", his play Gonzaga would be performed on the end of 1868, being well received by critics and public alike, but Alves was sad because his romantic engagement with Eugênia Câmara had terminated. During a hunting trip in the same year, Alves received an accidental shotgun shot in his left foot, that had to be amputated due to the menace of gangrene. However, a prosthesis was made for him, thus he was able to walk again, he would spend the year of 1870 in his home-state of Bahia, trying to recover from the tuberculosis he got while in São Paulo.
In 1870, Alves published the poetry book Espumas Flutuantes – the only work he would publish during his lifetime. All his other works would receive a posthumous publication. Alves' attempts to mitigate the tuberculosis were in vain. Espumas Flutuantes Gonzaga, ou A Revolução de Minas A Cachoeira de Paulo Afonso Vozes d'África O Navio Negreiro Os Escravos Alves translated into Portuguese many poems by Victor Hugo, Lord Byron's "Darkness" and "Lines Inscribed Upon a Cup Formed from a Skull", they can be found on Espumas Flutuantes. Alves was portrayed by Paulo Maurício in the 1949 film Vendaval Maravilhoso, loosely based on Jorge Amado's 1941 book The ABC of Castro Alves, by Bruno Garcia in Silvio Tendler's 1999 documentary Castro Alves: Retrato Falado do Poeta. Castro Alves' biography at the official site of the Brazilian Academy of Letters Works by or about Castro Alves at Internet Archive Works by Castro Alves at LibriVox