Frico Kafenda was a Slovak composer, a musical pedagogue. His piano students included a famous composer Eugen Suchoň. Kafenda was born in Mošovce. Following his studies he worked in Germany as a conductor, but returned to Slovakia after World War I, he attempted to compose Slovak national opera, but due to the advent of World War II his work remained unfinished. He died in Bratislava; some biographical information
Ján Cikker was a Slovak composer, a leading exponent of modern Slovak classical music. He was awarded the title National Artist in Slovakia, the Herder Prize and the IMC-UNESCO International Music Prize. Cikker was born in today Slovakia, in Banská Bystrica, his first music teachers were his mother, Mária Psotková, Viliam Figuš-Bystrý. After he graduated from the high school, he studied at the Prague Conservatory from 1930 to 1935, where he attended courses of composition of Jaroslav Křička, of conducting and organ, he studied at the Master's School of the Prague Conservatory from 1935 to 1936, where he was a student of Vítězslav Novák. On, he moved to Vienna, where he studied with Felix Weingartner from 1936-1937. From 1939 to 1949, he taught at the Bratislava Conservatory. At the same time he was a repertory advisor of the opera of the Slovak National Theatre from 1945 to 1948, he was forced to leave this post after the communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1948. He worked as professor for composition at the Bratislava Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts, where he was the teacher of many Slovak composers.
He died in Bratislava. His pronounced style is characterized by a typical richness of contrasting moods and characters, by the emphasis on humane and ethical conduct, his first creative works were prevailingly instrumental, from the 1950s. Cycle of symphonic poems O živote – Leto, Vojak a matka, Ráno operas: Juro Jánošík, Beg Bajazid, Mister Scrooge, Hra o láske a smrti, Obliehanie Bystrice, Zo života hmyzu, Antigona ) chamber and orchestral pieces: String quartet no. 1 op. 13, String quartet no. 2 op. 14, Spring Symphony, Slovenská suita, Spomienky, cMeditácie na Schützovu tému, Štúdie k činohre piano music: Sonatina op. 12, no. 1, Tatra brooks, Piano Variations on a Slovak Folksong song cycle: O mamičke adaptations of folk songs theatre and film music music for folk dance groups, e.g. for SĽUK, Lúčnica and VÚS. Oxford Music Online, Cikker, Ján
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc 1,500 km long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the third-longest mountain range in Europe after the Ural Mountains with 2,500 km and Scandinavian Mountains with 1,700 km. They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species; the Carpathians and their foothills have many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania having one-third of the European total. Romania is home to the second-largest surface of virgin forests in Europe after Russia, totaling 250,000 hectares, most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forested area; the Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic in the northwest through Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine Serbia and Romania in the southeast.
The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m. The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m; the divisions of the Carpathians are in three major sections: Western Carpathians—Austria, Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary Eastern Carpathians—southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia and Romania Southern Carpathians—Serbia and RomaniaThe term Outer Carpathians is used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern Carpathians. The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in Poland, Cluj-Napoca and Braşov in Romania, Uzhhorod in Ukraine. In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech and Slovak and Карпати in Ukrainian, Карпати / Karpati in Serbian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, Kárpátok in Hungarian. Although the toponym was recorded by Ptolemy in the second century of the Christian era, the modern form of the name is a neologism in most languages.
For instance, Havasok was its medieval Hungarian name. Sources, such as Dimitrie Cantemir and the Italian chronicler Giovanandrea Gromo, referred to the range as "Transylvania's Mountains", while the 17th-century historian Constantin Cantacuzino translated the name of the mountains in an Italian-Romanian glossary to "Rumanian Mountains"; the name "Carpates" is associated with the old Dacian tribes called "Carpes" or "Carpi" who lived in a large area from the east, north-east of the Black Sea to Transylvanian plains on the present day Romania and Moldova. The name Carpates may be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word karpë, the Slavic word skála via a Dacian cognate which meant mountain, rock, or rugged; the archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots, or trunks". The more common word skarpa means other vertical terrain; the name may instead come from Indo-European *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" and Greek καρπός karpós "wrist" referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape.
In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name, first recorded in Ptolemy's Geographia. In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which relates ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum. "Inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia" by Gervase of Tilbury, has described in his Otia Imperialia in 1211. Thirteenth- to fifteenth-century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal, or less Montes Nivium; the northwestern Carpathians begin in southern Poland. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania; the total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km. The highest altitudes of the Carpathians occur; the system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the southern Tatra Mountains group – the highest range, in which Gerlachovský štít in Slovakia is the highest peak at 2,655 m above sea level.
The Carpathians cover an area of 190,000 km2, after the Alps, form the next-most extensive mountain system in Europe. Although referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps; the Carpathians, which attain an altitude over 2,500 m in only a few places, lack the bold peaks, extensive snowfields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. It was believed that no area of the Carpathian range was covered in snow all yea
Albín Brunovský was a Slovak painter, graphic artist, lithographer and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Slovak painters of the 20th century. Albín Brunovský was born in Zohor, Czechoslovakia on Christmas Day, 25 December 1935. Brunovský started his early career in art by working on poster design, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bratislava under Prof. Vincent Hložník from 1955 to 1961; the Hloznik School was well known for its high artistic and technical preparation in graphic arts and its humanist perspective. For the founder, as for many of his students, Goya’s great graphic cycle "The Horrors of War" served as a pattern or model. Brunovský himself lectured at that Academy from 1966 to 1990. In 1981 he was appointed a professor. Brunovský's work mirrored that of the modern movement, citation art. Brunovský was the designer of the last series of Czechoslovak banknotes, his illustrations were for children's books. Over the course of his career, Brunovsky experimented with various graphic techniques and was influenced in his subject matter by poetry and literature, as well, of course, as by other artists.
While at school he used the techniques of woodcuts and linocuts. Soon after, however, he began experimenting with chalk lithography. Etching were the characteristic mode of his graphic art work during the mid-1960s, he was, a painter too. Many of his illustrations were done in watercolor and he began to paint major works; as his mastery of various techniques evolved over time, so too did his vision as an artist. When he was young, Brunovsky exhibited surrealistic tendencies—defined as a tendency to individualism and absurdity and the unchecked play of the subconscious, his work became more evaluative and critical of Man in relation to himself and society. I have such a creative program. My pictures are doing with me what they want. Sometimes I don't feel like working, but when I come to my studio and I notice, that one work is not ready and the other one hopeless, I go and sit next to them for a while and I realise that there is evening. And in this way every morning I let myself to be pleasantly abused by my paintings that allow me to dream.
"grew in the vegetables" "nature and its elements to depict the reality of dreams" The Meeting of Numismatists A Lady with a Hat Vernissage in Nature illustrations of "Modrá kniha rozprávok" - The Blue Book of Fairy Tales Czechoslovak banknotes seven pictures on walnut woods in the lobby of the new building of the National Council of the Slovak Republic Graphics and biography of Albin Brunovsky in German and Czech Brunovsky Brunovsky graphic works
Great Moravia, the Great Moravian Empire, or Moravia, was the first major state, predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Poland and Serbia. The only formation preceding it in these territories was Samo's Empire known from between 631 and 658 AD. Great Moravia was thus the first joint state of the Slavonic tribes that became known as Czechs and Slovaks and that formed Czechoslovakia, its core territory is the region now called Moravia in the eastern part of the Czech Republic alongside the Morava River, which gave its name to the kingdom. The kingdom saw the rise of the first Slavic literary culture in the Old Church Slavonic language as well as the expansion of Christianity after the arrival of St. Cyril and St. Methodius in 863 and the creation of the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet dedicated to a Slavonic language, which had significant impact on most Slavic languages and stood at the beginning of the modern Cyrillic alphabet.
Moravia reached its largest territorial extent under the king Svätopluk I, who ruled from 870 to 894. Although the borders of his empire cannot be determined, he controlled the core territories of Moravia as well as other neighbouring regions, including Bohemia, most of Slovakia and parts of Slovenia, Hungary and Ukraine, for some periods of his reign. Separatism and internal conflicts emerging after Svätopluk's death contributed to the fall of Great Moravia, overrun by the Hungarians who included the territory of the now Slovakia in their domains; the exact date of Moravia's collapse is unknown, but it occurred between 902 and 907. Moravia experienced significant cultural development under King Rastislav, with the arrival in 863 of the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius. After his request for missionaries had been refused in Rome, Rastislav asked the Byzantine emperor to send a "teacher" to introduce literacy and a legal system to Great Moravia; the request was granted. The missionary brothers Cyril and Methodius introduced a system of writing and Slavonic liturgy, the latter formally approved by Pope Adrian II.
The Glagolitic script was invented by Cyril himself and the language he used for his translations of holy scripts and his original literary creation was based on the Slavic dialect he and his brother Methodius knew from their native Thessaloniki. The language, termed Old Church Slavonic, was the direct ancestral language for Bulgarian, therefore referred to as Old Bulgarian. Old Church Slavonic, differed somewhat from the local Slavic dialect of Great Moravia, the ancestral idiom to the dialects spoken in Moravia and western Slovakia; the disciples of Cyril and Methodius were expelled from Great Moravia by King Svätopluk I, who re-orientated the Empire to Western Christianity. The expulsion had a significant impact on countries where the disciples settled and from there continued their evangelizing missions - Southeastern Europe, firstly Bulgaria, Eastern Europe. Arriving in the First Bulgarian Empire, the disciples continued the Cyrilo-Methodian mission and the Glagolitic script was substituted by Cyrillic which used some of its letters.
Early Cyrillic alphabet was developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School. The Cyrillic script and translations of the liturgy were disseminated to other Slavic countries in the Balkans and Kievan Rus', charting a new path in these Slavic nations' cultural development and establishing the Cyrillic alphabets as they are now known in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Russia and Ukraine. Cyril and Methodius were declared co-patrons of Europe by Pope John Paul II in 1980; the meaning of the name of Great Moravia has been subject to debate. The designation "Great Moravia" – Megale Moravia in Greek – stems from the work De Administrando Imperio written by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos around 950; the emperor only used the adjective megale in connection with the polity when referring to events that occurred after its fall, implying that it should rather be translated as "old" instead of "great". According to a third theory, the megale adjective refers to a territory located beyond the borders of the Byzantine Empire.
The historian Lubomír E. Havlík writes that Byzantine scholars used this adjective when referring to homelands of nomadic peoples, as demonstrated by the term "Great Bulgaria". is Belgrade, in, the tower of the holy and great Constantine, the emperor. Such are the names along the Danube river; the work of Porphyrogenitos is the only nearly contemporaneous source using the adjective "great" in connection with Moravia. Other documents from the 9th and 10th centuries never used the term in this context. Instead they mention the polity as "Moravian realm" or "realm of Moravians" "Moravia", al
Stimulus modality called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what is perceived after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor; some sensory modalities include: light, temperature, taste and smell. The type and location of the sensory receptor activated by the stimulus plays the primary role in coding the sensation. All sensory modalities work together to heighten stimuli sensation. Multimodal perception is the ability of the mammalian nervous system to combine all of the different inputs of the sensory nervous system to result in an enhanced detection or identification of a particular stimulus. Combinations of all sensory modalities are done in cases where a single sensory modality results in ambiguous and incomplete result. Integration of all sensory modalities occurs when multimodal neurons receive sensory information which overlaps with different modalities. Multimodal neurons are found in the superior colliculus; the multimodal neurons lead to change of behavior and assist in analyzing behavior responses to certain stimulus.
Information from two or more senses is encountered. Multimodal perception is not limited to one area of the brain: many brain regions are activated when sensory information is perceived from the environment. In fact, the hypothesis of having a centralized multisensory region is receiving continually more speculation, as several regions uninvestigated are now considered multimodal; the reasons behind this are being investigated by several research groups, but it is now understood to approach these issues from a decentralized theoretical perspective. Moreover, several labs using invertebrate model organisms will provide invaluable information to the community as these are more studied and are considered to have decentralized nervous systems. Lip reading is a multimodal process for humans. By watching movements of lips and face, humans get conditioned and practice lip reading. Silent lip reading activates the auditory cortex; when sounds are matched or mismatched with the movements of the lips, temporal sulcus of the left hemisphere becomes more active.
Multimodal perception comes into effect. Integration effect is applied when the brain detects weak unimodal signals and combines them to create a multimodal perception for the mammal. Integration effect is plausible; this integration is depressed. Polymodality is the feature of a single receptor of responding to multiple modalities, such as free nerve endings which can respond to temperature, mechanical stimuli or pain; the stimulus modality for vision is light. Specific inhibitory responses that take place in the visual cortex help create a visual focus on a specific point rather than the entire surrounding. To perceive a light stimulus, the eye must first refract the light so that it directly hits the retina. Refraction in the eye is completed through the combined efforts of the cornea and iris; the transduction of light into neural activity occurs via the photoreceptor cells in the retina. When there is no light, Vitamin A in the body attaches itself to another molecule and becomes a protein.
The entire structure consisting of the two molecules becomes a photopigment. When a particle of light hits the photoreceptors of the eye, the two molecules come apart from each other and a chain of chemical reactions occurs; the chemical reaction begins with the photoreceptor sending a message to a neuron called the bipolar cell through the use of an action potential, or nerve impulse. A message is sent to the ganglion cell and finally the brain; the eye is able to detect a visual stimulus when the photons cause a photopigment molecule rhodopsin, to come apart. Rhodopsin, pink, becomes bleached in the process. At high levels of light, photopigments are broken apart faster; because a low number of photopigments have been regenerated, the eyes are not sensitive to light. When entering a dark room after being in a well lit area, the eyes require time for a good quantity of rhodopsin to regenerate; as more time passes, there is a higher chance that the photons will split an unbleached photopigment because the rate of regeneration will have surpassed the rate of bleaching.
This is called adaptation. Humans are able to see an array of colours because light in the visible spectrum is made up of different wavelengths. Our ability to see in colour is due to three different cone cells in the retina, containing three different photopigments; the three cones are each specialized to best pick up a certain wavelength. The brain is able to distinguish the wavelength and colour in the field of vision by figuring out which cone has been stimulated; the physical dimensions of colour include wavelength and purity while the related perceptual dimensions include hue and saturation. Primates are the only mammals with colour vision; the Trichromatic theory was proposed in 1802 by Thomas Young. According to Young, the human visual system is able to create any colour through the collection of information from the three cones; the system will put together the information and systematize a new colour based on the amount of each hue, detected. Some studies show. In a 1992 study Krosnick, Betz
Lucijan Marija Škerjanc
Lucijan Marija Škerjanc was a Slovene composer, music pedagogue, conductor and writer, accomplished on and wrote for a number of musical instruments such as the piano and clarinet. His style reflected late romanticism with qualities of expressionism and impressionism in his pieces with a hyperbolic artistic temperament, juxtaposing the dark against melodic phrases in his music. Škerjanc belongs among the most important older composers of modern Slovene music and is a key Slovenian music personality of the 20th century. For his work, he was four times awarded the Prešeren Award. Since 1949, he was a regular member of the Slovenian Academy of Arts. Škerjanc was born in Graz. He studied in Ljubljana, Vienna and Basel, he spent many years teaching composition at the Ljubljana Academy of Music, teaching composers such as Nada Ludvig-Pečar whilst serving as a chancellor for a period and was a pianist, music writer and director of the Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra based in the country's capital. Since 6 December 1949, he was a regular member of SAZU.
He died in Ljubljana. Škerjanc multifaceted in his works. Whilst musically diverse, his opus centred on composition, varying from piano miniatures and solos for beginners, solo and chamber works to full blown concertos and symphonies. Apart from sonatas, he notably composed a cycle of seven nocturnes, which many consider his greatest piano oriented work, seven orchestral pieces Gazele, he not only composed for the piano but the violin, the clarinet and the bassoon in 1952. During his life he wrote for international composers and composed the film scores for a number of films under Yugoslavia. Škerjanc was a music critic and writer about music and is the author of three monographs on Slovene composers, five pedagogical handbooks and a book Od Bacha do Šostakoviča meaning From Bach to Shostakovich. Škerjanc received the Prešeren Award four times, in 1947 for his Concert for Violin and Orchestra, again in 1948, 1950 and 1971. He was a recipient of the Austrian Herder Award and the French Palmes académiques.
In 2001, he was commemorated by appearing on a postage stamp of Slovenia which featured at portrait of him by Božidar Jakac positioned on the manuscript of his symphonic poem Marenka. Orchestra Lirična uvertura for orchestra Svečana uvertura for orchestra Slavnostna uvertura for orchestra Preludio and Finale for string orchestra Symphony No.1 "V onom cernom lese..." for string orchestra Jadransko morje for string orchestra Suita v starem slogu for string orchestra Symphony No.2 in B minor Suite No.2 for string orchestra Mařenka, choreographic symphonic poem Symphony No.3 Dramatična uvertura for orchestra Symphony No.4 in B major for string orchestra Symphony No.5 in F major for symphony orchestra Notturno Gazele, cycle of 7 orchestral poems after France Prešeren Suite No.3, 9 Pieces for string orchestra Mala suita Sinfonietta for strings Problemi Sedem dvanajsttonskih fragmentov for string orchestra Zarje večerneConcertante Concerto for violin and orchestra No.1 Concerto for piano and orchestra in A minor Concerto for violin and orchestra No.2 Fantazija for piano and orchestra Koncertni allegro for cello and orchestra Concertino for piano and string orchestra Concertino for clarinet and orchestra Concerto for bassoon with strings and harp Concerto for harp and chamber orchestra Concerto for clarinet with strings and harp Koncertantna rapsodija for viola and orchestra Concertino for flute and orchestra Concerto for horn and orchestra Concerto for piano left hand and orchestra Chamber music String Quartet No.1 String Quartet No.2 String Quartet No.3 Woodwind Quintet Intermezzo romantique for violin and piano Sonata for cello solo String Quartet No.4 Maestoso lugubre for piano trio Piano Trio Trio for flute and bassoon Dve bagateli for violin and piano Tri mladinske skladbe for violin and piano String Quartet No.5 String Quintet Duo for 2 violins Pet liričnih melodij in Capriccio for cello and piano Concertone for 4 cellos Štiri ditirambične skladbe for violin and piano Sedem etud for cello solo Elegija for viola and pianoKeyboard Sonata for piano Sonata No.2 for piano Štiri klavirske skladbe Deset mladinskih skladbic for piano Pro memoria for piano Sedem nokturnov for piano 24 diatoničnih preludijev 6 improvizacij for piano Prelude and Fugue in E Minor for organ Varijacije brez teme for piano Šest skladb za eno roko.