Gerald David "Gerry" Badger is an English writer about and curator of photography, a photographer. In 2018 he received the J Dudley Johnston Award from the Royal Photographic Society. Badger was born in 1948 in Northampton, he studied architecture at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, graduating with a diploma in 1969. Badger is the author of a number of books on photography; the two volumes published of The Photobook: A History, which Badger co-wrote with Martin Parr, won the 2006 book award for photography from the Kraszna-Krausz Foundation. The second volume won a Deutscher Fotobuchpreis, his book The Pleasures of Good Photographs won the International Center for Photography's Infinity Award, Writing category, in 2011. As a photographer, Badger identifies his usual subject matter as "landscapes and accretions of history". Gerry Badger. Blue Sky Gallery, Portland, OR; the Photographers' Gallery, London, 1975. British Art, 1940–1980, Hayward Gallery, London, 1980. Towards a Bigger Picture and Albert Museum and Tate Gallery, Liverpool, 1988–1989.
The Art of the Garden, Tate Britain, London, 2004. Unpopular Culture: Grayson Perry Selects from the Arts Council Collection, De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, UK, 2008 and travelled to Harris Museum, Preston, 2008. Postwar British paintings and photography curated by Grayson Perry from the Arts Council Collection; the Photographer as Printmaker, for the Arts Council of Great Britain, The Photographers' Gallery, London, 1980. Through the Looking Glass: Photographic Art in Britain 1945–1989, Barbican Arts Centre, London, 1989. Lares Familiares for the Archaeological Museum in Naples, 2016 Photographer as Printmaker: 140 Years of Photographic Printmaking. London: Arts Council of Great Britain and Northampton, England: Belmont Press, 1981. ISBN 0-7287-0294-0. Eugène Atget. London: Macdonald, 1985. ISBN 0-356-10852-X; the work of Eugène Atget. Chris Killip 55. London: Phaidon, 2001. ISBN 0-7148-4028-9. On Chris Killip. Eugène Atget 55. London: Phaidon, 2001. ISBN 0-7148-4049-1. On Eugène Atget. Collecting Photography.
London: Mitchell Beazley, 2003. ISBN 1-84000-726-5; the Genius of Photography. London: Quadrille, 2007. ISBN 1-84400-363-9; the Pleasures of Good Photographs: Essays. New York: Aperture, 2010. ISBN 978-1-59711-139-3, it was a Grey Day - Photographs of Berlin. Peperoni Books, 2015. ISBN 978-3941825802. Photo Texts. London: Travelling Light, 1988. ISBN 0-906333-22-9. Essays by Badger and Peter Turner. Through the Looking Glass: Photographic art in Britain 1945–1989. London: Barbican Art Gallery, 1989. ISBN 0-85331-560-4. Coedited by Badger and John Benton-Harris; the Photobook: A History Volume I. London: Phaidon, 2004. ISBN 0-7148-4285-0. With Martin Parr; the Photobook: A History Volume II. London: Phaidon, 2006. ISBN 0-7148-4433-0. With Martin Parr; the Photobook: A History Volume III. London: Phaidon, 2014. ISBN 978-0-714866-77-2. With Martin Parr. Photobook Phenomenon. Munich: Prestel. A box set of eight booklets of writing, one each by Moritz Neumüller and Lesley Martin, Markus Schaden and Frederic Lezmi, Martin Parr, Horacio Fernández, Ryuichi Kaneko, Erik Kessels, Irene de Mendoza and Neumüller.
ISBN 978-8417047054. Unpopular Culture: Grayson Perry Selects from the Arts Council Collection. London: Hayward, 2008. ISBN 9781853322679. Work from the Arts Council Collection, edited by Grayson Perry. One Day: 10 Photographers. Heidelberg, Germany: Kehrer, 2010. ISBN 978-3-86828-173-6. A boxed set, edited by Harvey Benge, of ten books of photographs taken on 20 June 2010, each book by one of Badger, Jessica Backhaus, John Gossage, Todd Hido, Rob Hornstra, Rinko Kawauchi, Eva Maria Ocherbauer, Martin Parr and Alec Soth. A Short History of Photography by Harvey Benge. Stockport: Dewi Lewis, 2008. ISBN 1-904587-51-8. Introduction by Badger. Photography, Vol. 2, A New Vision of the World, 1891 - 1940. Milan: Skira, 2012. ISBN 9788857210322. Texts by Badger, Clément Chéroux, Sandra S. Phillips, Ulrich Pohlmann and Francesco Zanot; the Chinese Photobook. New York: Aperture, 2015. ISBN 978-1597112284. By Martin Parr and WassinkLundgren. Texts by Badger, Gu Zheng, Stephanie Tung, Raymund Lum and Ruben Lundgren. Memento Mori.
The Lares Familiares of Sonia Lenzi. Naples, Giannini Editore, 2016 ISBN 9788874318407 2018: J Dudley Johnston Award, Royal Photographic Society, Bath Arts Council Collection, Arts Council, London Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris Victoria and Albert Museum, London The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY The Portland Art Museum, Portland, OR Official website
Northeastern University is a private research university in Boston, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education; the university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, South End, Back Bay neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina. Northeastern purchased the New College of the Humanities in London and plans to open an additional campus in Vancouver, Canada; the university's enrollment is 18,000 undergraduate students and 8,000 graduate students. Northeastern features a cooperative education program, more known as "co-op", that integrates classroom study with professional experience and contains over 3,100 partners across all seven continents; the program has been a key part of Northeastern's curriculum of experiential learning for more than a hundred years and is one of the largest co-op/internship programs in the world.
While it is not required for students of all academic disciplines to participate in the co-op program, participation is nearly universal among undergraduate students as it helps distinguish their university experience from that of other universities. Northeastern is ranked 1st on the "Best Schools for Internships" list by the Princeton Review and has ranked in the top five for over a decade. Northeastern has a comprehensive study abroad program that spans more than 170 universities and colleges. Northeastern is a large residential university. Most students choose to live on campus but upperclassmen have the option to live off campus. More than 75% of Northeastern students receive some form of financial aid. In the 2017–18 school year, the university offered $266.58 million in grant and scholarship assistance. The university's sports teams, the Northeastern Huskies, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Colonial Athletic Association in 18 varsity sports; the men's and women's hockey teams compete in Hockey East, while the men's and women's rowing teams compete in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges and Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges, respectively.
Men's Track and Field has won the CAA back to back years in 2015 and 2016. In 2013, men's basketball won its first CAA regular season championship, men's soccer won the CAA title for the first time, women's ice hockey won a record 16th Beanpot championship; the Northeastern men's hockey team won the 2018 and 2019 Beanpot beating out Boston University, Boston College, Harvard. The Evening Institute for Younger Men, located at the Huntington Avenue YMCA, held its first class on October 3, 1898, starting what would transform into Northeastern University over the course of four decades; the School of Law was formally established that year with the assistance of an Advisory Committee, consisting of Dean James Barr Ames of the Harvard University School of Law, Dean Samuel Bennett of the Boston University School of Law, Judge James R. Dunbar. In 1903, the first Automobile Engineering School in the country was established followed by the School of Commerce and Finance in 1907. Day classes began in 1909.
In 1916, a bill was introduced into the Massachusetts Legislature to incorporate the institute as Northeastern College. After considerable debate and investigation, it was passed in March 1916. On March 30, 1917, Frank Palmer Speare was inaugurated as the new College's first President. Five years the school changed its name to Northeastern University to better reflect the increasing depth of its instruction. In March 1923, the University secured general degree-granting power from the Legislature, with the exception of the A. B. the S. B. and the medical degrees. The College of Liberal Arts was added in 1935. Two years the Northeastern University Corporation was established, with a board of trustees composed of 31 University members and 8 from the YMCA. In 1948 Northeastern separated itself from the YMCA. Following World War II Northeastern began admitting women. During the postwar educational boom, the University created the College of Education, University College, the Colleges of Pharmacy and Nursing.
The College of Criminal Justice followed the College of Computer Science. By the early 1980s the one-time night commuter school had grown to nearly 50,000 enrollees including all full- and part-time programs at both the undergraduate and graduate level. By 1989–1990 University enrollment had reduced to about 40,000 full, part-time, evening students, in 1990 the first class with more live-on-campus than commuter students was graduated. Following the retirement of President Kenneth Ryder 1989, the University adopted a slow and more thoughtful approach to change, it had been accepting between 7,500 and 10,000 students per year based on applications of about 15,000 to 20,000 with acceptance rates between 50% and 75% depending on the program. Attrition rates were huge, with a 25% freshmen dropout rate and graduation rate below 50%, with only 40% of 5,672 undergraduate full-time day students enrolled in the Fall of 1984 graduating by 1989; when President John Curry left office in 1996 the university population had been systematically reduced to about 25,000.
Incoming President Richard Freeland decided to focus on recruiting the type of students who were graduating as the school's prime demographic. I
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Magnum Photos is an international photographic cooperative owned by its photographer-members, with offices in New York City, Paris and Tokyo. According to co-founder Henri Cartier-Bresson, "Magnum is a community of thought, a shared human quality, a curiosity about what is going on in the world, a respect for what is going on and a desire to transcribe it visually." Robert Capa, David "Chim" Seymour, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger and William Vandivert, Rita Vandivert and Maria Eisner were the founding members of Magnum in Paris in 1947, based on an idea of Capa's. Seymour, Cartier-Bresson and Rodger were all absent from the meeting. Rita Vandivert was the first President, head of the New York office; the plan was for Rodger to cover the Middle East. Magnum is one of the first photographic cooperatives and administered by members; the staff serve a support role for the photographers. The Magnum cooperative has included photojournalists from across the world, who have covered many historical events of the 20th century.
The cooperative's archive includes photographs depicting family life, religion, poverty, crime and celebrities. Magnum In Motion is based in New York City. Although it has been asserted that the name "Magnum" was chosen because the founding members always drank a bottle of champagne during the first meetings, Russell Miller writes: It was... agreed by those present that Magnum was a fine new name for such a bold new venture, indicative as it was of greatness in its literal Latin translation, toughness in its gun connotation and celebration in its champagne mode. Magnum is owned by its photographers; each full member of Magnum has a vote in proposals made at a meeting held once a year, called the Annual General Meeting. Photographers with the status of contributor or correspondent are represented by Magnum but have no voting rights. Full members can choose to become contributors after 23 years of membership. In the early years of Magnum, membership had come about by the personal invitation of Robert Capa.
However, in 1955 a three-stage membership system was set up that continues to this day and is described below. Until 1953 there were a large number of stringers who used Magnum but were not members. Magnum's photographers meet once a year, during the last weekend in June, in New York, Paris or London, to discuss the cooperative's business. One day of the meeting is reserved to review potential new members' portfolios and vote on admitting individuals. An approved applicant is invited to become a'Nominee Member' of Magnum, a category of membership that provides a chance for members and the individual to get to know each other, but that includes no binding commitments on either side. After two years of Nominee membership, a photographer may present another portfolio if wanting to apply for'Associate Membership'. If successful, the photographer is bound by the rules of the agency, enjoys its facilities and worldwide representation; the difference between an Associate Member and a full Member is that an Associate is not a Director of the Company and does not have voting rights in the corporate decision-making.
After two more years, an Associate wanting to be considered for full membership presents another portfolio of work for consideration by the members. Once elected as a full member, the individual is a member of Magnum for life or for as long as the photographer chooses. No member photographer of Magnum has been asked to leave. In February 2010, Magnum announced that Michael Dell's venture capital firm MSD Capital had acquired a collection of nearly 200,000 original press prints of images taken by Magnum photographers, it had formed a partnership with the Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas at Austin to preserve and make photographs available to the general public. In September 2013 it was announced. A preliminary inventory is available for researchers; the Graduate Photographers Award was established in 2015. America in Crisis. New York, NY: Ridge Press. ISBN 9780030810206. Text by Mitchel Levitas, edited by Charles Harbutt and Lee Jones, photographs by Eve Arnold, Cornell Capa, Bruce Davidson, Elliott Erwitt, Burt Glinn, Philip Jones Griffiths, Charles Harbutt, Danny Lyon, Constantine Manos, Donald McCullin, Dennis Stock, Mary Ellen Mark and others.
In Our Time: The World as Seen by Magnum Photographers. New York. ISBN 0-393-02767-8. By William Manchester. With essays by Manchester, Jean Lacouture and Fred Ritchin, "Biographical Notes and Selected Bibliographies" and "Bibliography and Chronology of Magnum" by Stuart Alexander. Magnum Landscape. London: Phaidon, 1996. With a foreword by Ian Jeffrey and texts by Henri Peretz, "The Phenomenon of Landscape" and "Chronology of Landscape Photography". Hardback, 1996. Paperback, 2005. ISBN 0-7148-4522-1. Magnum°. London: Phaid
VII Photo Agency
VII Photo Agency is an international photo agency wholly owned and governed by its membership. The cooperative agency was conceived by Gary Knight and John Stanmeyer, they were subsequently joined by Alexandra Boulat, Ron Haviv, Antonín Kratochvíl, Christopher Morris, James Nachtwey and the agency, named after the number of founding members, was launched at the Visa pour l'image Festival in Perpignan, France, in September, 2001. VII was conceived to operate as a means of digital image distribution and representation wholly owned and controlled by the photographers it represented in response to large corporations acquiring the small photo agencies present in the industry at the time. Today, VII represents 19 photographers who have chronicled significant global events and topics since the late 1970s. VII established its reputation for news coverage during the war in Afghanistan that followed 9/11 and during the conflict in Israel/Palestine in 2002 and the invasion and occupation of Iraq in 2003.
From being principally focused on news for editorial clients, the agency has diversified into social media, live events and creative partnerships with NGOs / colleges / universities, exhibitions in leading museums, featured appearances at major art and photo festivals, education. In addition to the 19 current member photographers, young photographers are mentored by full members through the VII Mentor Program and represented by the agency; as of 1 June 2015, Richard Schoenberg, a Los Angeles-based businessman and former VII board member assumed the role of CEO and chairman of the board. Newest Americans is a three-year longitudinal study at Rutgers University–Newark that will document the lives and communities of students at the university and take an in-depth look at immigration and the idea of American identity, it is a collaborative effort involving VII, Rutger’s Center for Migration and the Global City and the Department of Arts and Media. The project, spearheaded by Tim Raphael, director of CMGC, focuses on immigrant experiences in New Jersey with Newark as the hub where these different stories converge.
Notes for My Homeland was produced by Talking Eyes Media and is the first professionally produced piece in the storytelling project. For the Evolution Tour, photojournalists from VII Photo Agency, along with technical specialists from AbelCine, presented an examination of the evolving business and craft of visual storytelling; this program was structured as a combination of seminars, panel discussions, hands-on workshops and networking. In 2015, Ed Kashi, Ron Haviv, Marcus Bleasdale, Stefano De Luigi and John Stanmeyer, all members of VII Photo Agency led photography workshops in four European capitals: Paris, Barcelona and Berlin, as part of the Eyes in Progress's workshops program. Through a partnership between VII, Médecins Sans Frontières, UNION HZ, Fatal Neglect was a multi-part documentary film project, to tell the stories of the millions of patients left behind by the global health revolution. In Fatal Neglect: The Global Health Revolution’s Forgotten Patients, VII documented the impact of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and some of the deadliest neglected tropical diseases: “kala azar,” and “sleeping sickness.”
Ron Haviv and John Stanmeyer traveled to capture the stories of frontline health workers trying to fight diseases that affect millions of people and kill hundreds of thousands each year yet garner little attention from drug developers, policy makers or the mass media. In 2010, MSF and VII launched “Starved for Attention,” a multimedia campaign about childhood malnutrition. Petition signatures were collected from people around the world who joined the partnership in demanding that donor nations stop supplying nutritionally substandard food to malnourished children. VII Photo Agency Newest Americans MSF Fatal Neglect http://www.bjp-online.com/2014/05/vii-photo-rises-to-challenges-of-changing-photographic-landscape-with-dynamic-new-agency-model/
Minor Martin White was an American photographer, theoretician and educator. He combined an intense interest in how people viewed and understood photographs with a personal vision, guided by a variety of spiritual and intellectual philosophies. Starting in Oregon in 1937 and continuing until he died in 1976, White made thousands of black-and-white and color photographs of landscapes and abstract subject matter, created with both technical mastery and a strong visual sense of light and shadow, he taught many classes and retreats on photography at the California School of Fine Arts, Rochester Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, other schools, in his own home. He lived much of his life as a closeted gay man, afraid to express himself publicly for fear of loss of his teaching jobs, some of his most compelling images are figure studies of men whom he taught or with whom he had relationships, he for many years was editor of the photography magazine Aperture. After his death in 1976, White was hailed as one of America's greatest photographers.
White was born in Minneapolis, the only child of Charles Henry White, a bookkeeper, Florence May White, a dressmaker. His first name came from his great, great grandfather from the White family side, his middle name was his mother's maiden name. During his early years he spent much of his time with his grandparents, his grandfather, George Martin, was an amateur photographer and gave White his first camera in 1915. As a child White enjoyed playing in the large garden at his grandparents' home, this influenced his decision on to study botany in college. White's parents went through a series of separations starting in 1916, during those periods White lived with his mother and her parents, his parents reconciled for a while in 1922 and remained together until they divorced in 1929. By the time White graduated from high school he was aware of his latent homosexuality. In 1927 he wrote about his feelings for men in his diary, to his dismay his parents read his diary without his permission. After what he called a brief crisis period, during which he left home for the summer, he returned to live with his family while he started college.
His parents never spoke of his homosexuality again. White majored in botany. By the time he should have graduated in 1931 he had not met the requirements for a science degree, he left the university for a while. During this period he became interested in writing, he started a personal journal that he called "Memorable Fancies." In it he wrote poems, intimate thoughts about his life and his struggles with his sexuality, excerpts from letters that he wrote to others, occasional diary-like entries about his daily life, on, extensive notes about his photography. He continued to fill the pages of his journal until he directed most of his energy into teaching around 1970. In 1932 White studied both writing and botany. With his previous credits, he was able to graduate in 1934; the next year he took some graduate classes in botany, but after six months he decided that he lacked real interest in becoming a scientist. He spent the next two years exploring his writing skills. During this period he began creating a set of 100 sonnets on the theme of sexual love, his first attempt at grouping his creative output.
In late 1937 White decided to move to Seattle. He took a bus trip across country toward his destination, he decided to stay there. For the next 2-1/2 years he lived at the YMCA in Portland while he explored photography in depth for the first time, it was at the YMCA that he taught his first class to a small group of young adults. He joined the Oregon Camera Club in order to learn about how photographers talk about their own images and what photography means to them. White was offered a job in 1938 as photographer for the Oregon Art Project, funded by the Works Progress Administration. One of his tasks was to photograph historic buildings in downtown Portland before they were demolished for a new riverfront development. At this same time he made publicity photos for the Portland Civic Theater, documenting their plays and taking portraits of the actors and actresses. In 1940 White was hired to teach photography at the La Grande Art Center in eastern Oregon, he became immersed in his work and taught classes three days a week, lectured on art of local students, reviewed exhibitions for the local newspaper and delivered a weekly radio broadcast about activities at the Art Center.
In his spare time he traveled throughout the region, taking photographs of the landscape and small town buildings. He wrote his first article on photography, "When is Photography Creative?,", published in American Photography magazine two years later. White resigned from the Art Center in late 1941 and returned to Portland where he intended to start a commercial photography business; that year three of his photographs were accepted by the Museum of Modern Art in New York for inclusion in their "Image of Freedom" exhibition. At the close of the exhibition the museum purchased all three prints, the first time his images entered a public collection; the following year the Portland Art Museum gave White his first one-man show, exhibiting four series of photos he made while in eastern Oregon. He wrote in his journal that with that show "a period came to a close."In April 1942 White was drafted into the United States Army and hid his homosexuality from the recruiters. Before leaving Portland he left most of his negatives of historic Portland buildings with t
Dorchester is a Boston neighborhood comprising more than 6 square miles in the City of Boston, United States. Dorchester was a separate town, founded by Puritans who emigrated in 1630 from Dorchester, England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony; this dissolved municipality, Boston's largest neighborhood by far, is divided by city planners in order to create two planning areas equivalent in size and population to other Boston neighborhoods. The neighborhood is named after the town of Dorchester in the English county of Dorset, from which Puritans emigrated on the ship Mary and John, among others. Founded in 1630, just a few months before the founding of the city of Boston, Dorchester now covers a geographic area equivalent to nearby Cambridge, it was still a rural town and had a population of 12,000 when it was annexed to Boston in 1870. Railroad and streetcar lines brought rapid growth, increasing the population to 150,000 by 1920. In the 2010 United States Census, the neighborhood's population was 92,115.
The Dorchester neighborhood has a diverse population, which includes a large concentration of African Americans, White Americans, Caribbean Americans and East and Southeast Asian Americans. Dorchester has a significant LGBT population, with active political groups and the largest concentration of same-sex couples in Boston after the South End and Jamaica Plain. Most of the people over the age of 25 have completed high school or obtained a GED. Dorchester was inhabited by the Neponset/Neponsett tribe of the Massachusett nation. For generations, they made their home along the Neponset River estuary, a plentiful source of food due to the freshwater meeting the salt water; the Neponsett "concept of land ownership differed from the European. The Massachusett did not own the land; the Neponsett owned the shellfish beds and trout from the marsh and river. The Massachusett leader, negotiated with the first settlers, but he died of smallpox in 1633, his brother, Cutshamekin deeded further land to the settlers.
Despite several centuries of struggle due to European settlement, members of the Neponsett/Ponkapoag tribe continue to live in the Boston area and have established a tribal council. In 1626 David Thompson settled his family on Thompson Island in what is now Dorchester before Boston's Puritan migration wave began in 1630. May 30, 1630, Captain Squib of the ship Mary and John entered Boston Harbor and on June 17, 1630, landed a boat with eight men on the Dorchester shore, at what was a narrow peninsula known as Mattapan or Mattaponnock, today is known as Columbia Point; those aboard the ship who founded the town included William Phelps, Roger Ludlowe, John Mason, John Maverick, Nicholas Upsall, Capt. Roger Fyler, William Gaylord, Henry Wolcott and other men who would become prominent in the founding of a new nation; the original settlement founded in 1630 was at what is now the intersection of Columbia Road and Massachusetts Avenue.. Most of the early Dorchester settlers came from the West Country of England, some from Dorchester, where the Rev. John White was chief proponent of a Puritan settlement in the New World.
The town, founded was centered on the First Parish Church of Dorchester, which still exists as the Unitarian-Universalist church on Meeting House Hill and is the oldest religious organization in present-day Boston. On October 8, 1633, the first Town Meeting in America was held in Dorchester. Today, each October 8 is celebrated as Town Meeting Day in Massachusetts. Dorchester is the birthplace of the first public elementary school in America, the Mather School, established in 1639; the school still stands as the oldest elementary school in America. In 1634 Israel Stoughton built one of the earliest grist mills in America on the Neponset River, Richard Callicott founded a trading post nearby. In 1649, Puritan missionaries, including John Eliot, began a campaign to convert the Indigenous people in Dorchester to Christianity with the help of Cockenoe and John Sassamon, two Indian servants in Dorchester. Eliot was given land by the town of Dorchester for his mission, where he established a church and school.
The oldest surviving home in the city of Boston, the James Blake House, is located at Edward Everett Square, the historic intersection of Columbia Road, Boston Street, Massachusetts Avenue, a few blocks from the Dorchester Historical Society. The Blake House was constructed in 1661, as was confirmed by dendrochronology in 2007. In 1695, a party was dispatched to found the town of Dorchester, South Carolina, which lasted a half-century before being abandoned. In 1765, chocolate was first introduced in the American colonies when Irish chocolate maker John Hannon imported beans from the West Indies and refined th