Ryōichi Sasakawa was a Japanese businessman and philanthropist. He was born in Osaka. In the 1930s and during the Second World War he was active both in finance and in politics supporting the Japanese war effort including raising his own paramilitary units, he was elected to the Japanese parliament during the war. After Japan's defeat he was imprisoned for a time as a suspected war criminal, found financial success in various business ventures including motorboat racing and ship building, he supported anticommunist activities, including the World Anti-Communist League. In 1951 he helped became its first president; the foundation has done charitable work around the world, for which it and Sasakawa have received many official honors. In the 1930s, during the Sino-Japanese War, Sasakawa rose to prominence by using wealth gained in rice speculation to build a voluntary flying squad within Japan for the purpose of providing trained pilots in case of a national emergency, he built an air defense field, donating it to the army.
Once Japan began to coordinate its air power in 1941, Sasakawa dissolved his voluntary flying group and gave all of its facilities and aircraft to the nation. In addition, he used the various mining interests that he had accumulated to support the army in a more concrete fashion. Sasaka was more interested in supporting the war effort than making a profit, with one biographer noting that "his family records show... that his mining ventures were not as profitable in wartime as they could have been". In addition, the 1930s saw Sasakawa take the helm of the Kokusui Taishu-to, or Patriotic People's Party; this small organization was one of the many right-wing groups that sprang up in Japan in the lead-up to World War II. It was in this connection that he first met Yoshio Kodama, at that time a member. In 1935, Sasakawa and twelve other leading members of the PPP were arrested and held for three years on suspicion of having ordered the blackmail of several leading companies, such as Takashimaya, the Hankyu Railway, Tokyo Life Insurance.
Though he was acquitted, the jail time and the subsequent appeals process took a total of 6 years, leading up the opening year of World War II. In the end, the prosecution itself revealed that the charges against him had been based more on perception of the PPP as "dangerous", than on actual evidence of blackmail. Sasakawa's trials ended in August 1941. In December that year, World War II broke out in the Pacific, in April 1942, Sasakawa won a seat in the Japanese Diet, taking one of only 85 out of 466 seats that were captured by non-government-backed candidates; the reason that such candidates were so few was that it was wartime, those in power were doing all they could to control policy while maintaining a mask of parliamentary democracy. Sasakawa joined the Diet nearly a half year after the war began, as a member of the "opposition". In the Diet, he stood against the government's suppression of the freedom of speech and its pressure for the conformity of all parliamentarians. However, his efforts in this vein were unsuccessful, he spent much of the war outside of the Diet, touring Manchuria and China, visiting prisons around the country, cheering those on the home front.
He advocated war extension. During the war he met Mussolini. At the end of the war, Sasakawa entered the occupation-run Sugamo prison. While until a short time before his arrest, there was little possibility of his detainment, much less as a Class A war crimes suspect, from October to November, 1945, he launched a campaign of twenty or so speeches in Osaka, decrying victor's justice and demanding to be taken as a prisoner so that he could help defend Japan in the Tokyo war crimes trials, he was "motivated by a desire to speak out in defense of the emperor and in the interests of Japan at the Tokyo Trials". The US summary for his arrest, dated December 4, 1945 reads as follows: Sasakawa should be arrested for the following reasons: first, for leading campaigns instigating aggression and hostility against the United States, and second, for his continued vigorous activities in an organization that impedes the development of democracy in Japan. While in prison, Sasakawa was able to establish connections with many of the men who had led Japan during the war, who would go on to reassume these roles after their release.
He came into further contact with Yoshio Kodama, though the exact nature of their prison relationship does not seem to have been as positive as it had been when they were both members of the PPP. On December 23, 1948, Hideki Tōjō and six other Class A war criminals were hanged; the next day, all Class A suspects who had not been indicted were released Sasakawa and Kodama were among those who were released. There is much speculation surrounding Sasakawa's release. While some suggest that there was not enough evidence to indict him of Class A war crimes, others believe it was due to a lack of resources available to carry out trials of all suspected war criminals; the two men subsequently chose different paths in life, but maintained their friendship until the death of Kodama in 1984. Sasakawa became involved in the post-war reconstruction.
John Merle Coulter
John Merle Coulter, Ph. D. was an American botanist and educator. In his career in education administration, Coulter is notable for serving as the president of Indiana University and Lake Forest College and the head of the Department of Botany at the University of Chicago. John Merle Coulter was born in Ningpo, China to missionary parents Caroline Elvira Crowe and Moses Stanley Coulter, his brother was the botanist Stanley Coulter. He graduated from Hanover College in Indiana receiving the degree A. B. in 1870, followed by an A. M. in 1873 and Ph. D. in 1883 from the University of Indiana. Indiana University conferred a pro merito Ph. D. to Coulter in 1884 while he was serving as Professor of Botany at Wabash College. He married Georgie M. Gaylord of Delphi, Indiana on January 1, 1874. John Merle Coulter held the following positions: 1871–1879 Professor of Natural Sciences at Hanover College 1872–1875 Botanist to the United States Geological Survey in the Rocky Mountains 1879–1891 Professor of Botany at Wabash College 1891–1893 President and Professor of Botany of Indiana University, succeeding David Starr Jordan as president 1893–1896 President of Lake Forest College 1896–1925 Professor and head of the department of Botany at the University of Chicago.
1925–1928 Dean and adviser of the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research in Yonkers, New York, a position he held until his death. In 1901, Coulter was the general secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and in 1918 served as the Association's president. From 1897 to 1898, he was the president of the Botanical Society of America. In 1909, Coulter and his wife, along with their children Grace and Merle, survived the sinking of the White Star liner Republic in which six were killed. While employed at the Boyce Thompson Institute, Coulter died from heart disease at his home in Yonkers, New York, on December 23, 1928 at the age of 77. John Merle Coulter's published works include: Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado, with Thomas Porter and Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany Manual of Texan Botany Plant Relations Plant Structures Morphology of Spermatophytes Morphology of Angiosperms, with C. J. Chamberlain Plant Studies A Text-Book of Botany for Colleges and Universities Elementary Studies in Botany Plant Breeding Evolution and Eugenics Religion and Science In 1875, Coulter founded the Botanical Gazette and thereafter continued to be its editor.
Coulter's student, Henry Chandler Cowles played a significant role in documenting the ecological importance of the Indiana Dunes. Many conservationists attempted to preserve parts of the Indiana Dunes. IMA Living Rocks of New Mexico Works by John Merle Coulter at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Merle Coulter at Internet Archive Indiana University President's Office records, 1891–1893 National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Charles Benedict Davenport was a prominent American eugenicist and biologist. He was one of the leaders of the American eugenics movement. Davenport was born in Stamford, Connecticut, to Amzi Benedict Davenport, an abolitionist of Puritan stock, his wife Jane Joralemon Dimon, his mother’s strong beliefs tended to rub off onto Charles and he followed the example of his mother. During the summer months and his family lived in Brooklyn due to his father’s job. Due to Davenport's father's strong belief in Protestantism, as a young boy Charles was tutored at home; this came about in order for Charles to learn the values of hard education. When he was not studying, Charles worked as a errand boy for his father's business, he attended Harvard University, earning a Ph. D in biology in 1892 and married Gertrude Crotty, a zoology graduate, in 1894. Charles Davenport's quote was'This is clever they've created a system to cheat.' On, Davenport became a professor of zoology at Harvard. He became one of the most prominent American biologists of his time, pioneering new quantitative standards of taxonomy.
Davenport had a tremendous respect for the biometric approach to evolution pioneered by Francis Galton and Karl Pearson, was involved in Pearson's journal, Biometrika. However, after the re-discovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of heredity, he moved on to become a prominent supporter of Mendelian inheritance. In 1904, Davenport became director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he founded the Eugenics Record Office in 1910. During his time at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Davenport began a series of investigations into aspects of the inheritance of human personality and mental traits, over the years he generated hundreds of papers and several books on the genetics of alcoholism, criminality, seafaringness, bad temper, manic depression, the biological effects of race crossing. Before Charles Davenport came across eugenics, he studied math, he came to know these subjects through Professors Karl Pearson and gentleman amateur Francis Galton. He met them in London. Upon meeting them, he fell in love with the subject matter.
In 1901, Biometrika, a journal, which Charles Davenport was a co editor of, gave him the opportunity to use the skills that he has learned. Davenport became an advocate of the biometrical approach for the rest of his life, he began to study human heredity, much of his effort was turned to promoting eugenics. His 1911 book, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, was used as a college textbook for many years; the year after it was published Davenport was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Davenport's work with eugenics caused much controversy among scientists. Although his writings were about eugenics, their findings were simplistic and out of touch with the findings from genetics; this caused class bias. Only his most ardent admirers regarded it as scientific work. During Davenport's tenure at Cold Spring Harbor, several reorganizations took place there. In 1918 the Carnegie Institution of Washington took over funding of the ERO with an additional handsome endowment from Mary Harriman. In 1921 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association.
Davenport founded the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations in 1925, with Eugen Fischer as chairman of the Commission on Bastardization and Miscegenation. Davenport aspired to found a World Institute for Miscegenations, "was working on a'world map' of the'mixed-race areas, which he introduced for the first time at a meeting of the IFEO in Munich in 1928."Together with his assistant Morris Steggerda, Davenport attempted to develop a comprehensive quantitative approach to human miscegenation. The results of their research was presented in the book Race Crossing in Jamaica, which attempted to provide statistical evidence for biological and cultural degradation following interbreeding between white and black populations. Today it is considered a work of scientific racism, was criticized in its time for drawing conclusions which stretched far beyond the data it presented. Caustic was the review of the book published by Karl Pearson at Nature, where he considered that "the only thing, apparent in the whole of this lengthy treatise is that the samples are too small and drawn from too heterogeneous a population to provide any trustworthy conclusions at all".
The entire eugenics movement was criticized for being based on racist and classist assumptions set out to prove the unfitness of wide sections of the American population which Davenport and his followers considered "degenerate", using methods criticized by British eugenicists as unscientific. In 1907 and 1910 Charles Davenport and his wife wrote four essays that pertained to human hereditary genes; these essays included hair color, eye color, skin pigmentation. These essays helped pave the way for eugenics to be taught in class. Many of the topics and discussions belonged to Dr. and Mrs. Charles Davenport but the information for one essay in particular came from friends of theirs involved in the same topic. Many problems occurred; as Davenport and other eugenicist professors and experts began to and continued to study more in-depth eugenics, they had to start to come up with original idea so as not to conflict with past ideas. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany, Davenport maintained connections with various Nazi institutions and publications, both before and during World War II.
He held editorial positions at two influential German journ
The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early 20th century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany. It was marked by efforts to avoid miscegenation, analogous to an animal breeder seeking purebred animals; this was motivated by belief in a racial hierarchy and the related fear that lower races would "contaminate" a higher one. As with most eugenicists at the time, racial hygienists believed that lack of eugenics would lead to rapid social degeneration, the decline of civilisation by the spread of inferior characteristics; the German eugenicist Alfred Ploetz introduced the term Rassenhygiene in his "Racial hygiene basics" in 1895. He discussed the importance of avoiding "counterselective forces" such as war, free healthcare for the poor and venereal disease. In its earliest incarnation it was concerned more with the declining birthrate of the German state and the increasing number of mentally-ill and disabled people in state-run institutions than with the "Jewish question" and "degeneration of the Nordic race" which would come to dominate its philosophy in Germany from the 1920s to the Second World War.
During the end of the 19th century, German racial hygienists Alfred Ploetz and Wilhelm Schallmayer regarded certain people as inferior, opposed their ability to procreate. These theorists believed that all human behaviors, including crime and divorce, were caused by genetics. Institutes in Nazi Germany during the 1930s and 1940s studied genetics, created genetic registries and researched twins. Nazi scientists studied blood, developed theories on the supposed racial specificity of blood types, with the goal of distinguishing an "Aryan" from a Jew by examining their blood. In the 1930s, Josef Mengele, a doctor in the Schutzstaffel, provided human remains taken from Auschwitz – blood and other body parts – to be studied at the institutes. Harnessing racial hygiene as justification, the scientists used prisoners from Auschwitz and other concentration camps as test subjects for their human experiments. In Nazi propaganda, the term "race" was interchangeably used to mean the "Aryan" or Germanic "Übermenschen", said to represent an ideal and pure master race, biologically superior to all other races.
In the 1930s, under eugenicist Ernst Rüdin, National Socialist ideology embraced this latter use of "racial hygiene", which demanded Aryan racial purity and condemned miscegenation. That belief in the importance of German racial purity served as the theoretical backbone of Nazi policies of racial superiority and genocide; the policies began in 1935, when the National Socialists enacted the Nuremberg Laws, which legislated racial purity by forbidding sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and non-Aryans as Rassenschande. Theories on racial hygiene led to an elaborate sterilization program, with the goal of eliminating what the Nazis regarded as diseases harmful to the human race. Sterilized individuals, reasoned the Nazis, would not pass on their diseases to their children; the Sterilization Law, passed on July 14, 1933 known as the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, called for the sterilization of any person who had a genetically determined illness. The Sterilization Law was created by some of Germany's top racial hygienists, including: Fritz Lenz, Alfred Ploetz, Ernst Rudin, Heinrich Himmler, Gerhard Wagner and Fritz Thyssen.
Robert N. Proctor has shown that the list of illnesses targeted included "feeblemindedness, manic depression, Huntington's chorea, genetic blindness, "severe alcoholism."" The estimated number of citizens who were sterilized in Nazi Germany ranges from 350,00 to 400,000. As a result of the Sterilization Law, sterilization medicine and research soon became one of the largest medical industries. Racial hygienists played key roles in the Holocaust, the German National Socialist effort to purge Europe of Jews, Romani people, Serbs, mixed race people, physically or intellectually disabled people. In the Aktion T4 program, Hitler ordered the execution of mentally-ill patients by euthanasia under the cover of deaths from strokes and illnesses; the methods and equipment, used in the murder of thousands of mentally ill were transferred to concentration camps because the materials and resources needed to efficiently kill large numbers of people existed and had been proven successful. The nurses and the staff who had assisted and performed the killings were moved along with the gas chambers to the concentration camps, which were being built in order to be able to replicate the mass murders repeatedly.
The doctors who carried out experiments on the prisoners in concentration camps specialised in racial hygiene and used the supposed science to back their medical experiments. Some of the experiments were used for general medical research, for example by injecting prisoners with known diseases to test vaccines or possible cures. Other experiments were used to further the Germans' war strategy by putting prisoners in vacuum chambers to see what could happen to pilots' bodies if they were ejected at a high altitude or immerse prisoners in ice water to see how long they would survive and what materials could be used to prolong life if worn by German pilots shot down over the English Channel; the precursors of this notion were earlier performing medical experiments on African prisoners of war in concentration camps in Namibia during the Herero and Namaqua Genocide. A key part of National Socialism was the concept of racial hygiene and the field was elevated to the primary philosophy of the Ger
Morihiro Higashikuni Prince Morihiro was an Imperial Japanese Army officer, a member of a cadet line of the Japanese imperial family and husband of the Emperor Hirohito's eldest daughter. The eldest son and heir of Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni, Prince Morihiro had the distinction of being a grandson of Emperor Meiji and both a first cousin and a son-in-law of Emperor Hirohito, he was born in Tokyo, like most male members of the imperial family during the Empire of Japan, was groomed to pursue a career in the military from an early age. After graduation from the Gakushuin Peers’ School and the Central Military Preparatory School, Prince Higashikuni served for a session in the House of Peers, he graduated from the 49th class of Imperial Japanese Army Academy in June 1937, was commissioned as a second lieutenant of field artillery in August. The following March, he was promoted to lieutenant in the IJA First Artillery Regiment, was stationed in Manchukuo. During the Nomonhan Incident in summer 1939, he commanded the First Battery, 1st Heavy Field Artillery Regiment of the Kwantung Army.
He withdrew in face of the Soviet counter-offensive without orders during the heat of battle, was transferred back to Japan on 2 August 1939. The incident was suppressed by Japanese military censors, but provided much propaganda for the Soviet Army. Despite this apparent blot on his service record, he was promoted to captain of the artillery in March 1941, he attended the Army War College from December 1942 to December 1943, on graduation was promoted to major and placed on the reserve list. On 10 October 1943, Prince Higashikuni married eighteen-year-old Princess Shigeko, the eldest daughter of Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun, known by her childhood appellation Teru-no-miya; the bride and groom were related several times over through their common descent from Emperor Meiji and Prince Kuni Asahiko. The couple had five children, the last three of whom were born after the Higashikuni family was removed from the Imperial Household register: Prince Nobuhiko Higashikuni. Hidehiko Higashikuni: adopted by the Mibu family as "Motohiro Mibu" Naohiko Higashikuni.
His first wife, former Princess Shigeko, died of cancer in July 1961. In 1964, Morihiro Higashikuni married Miss Yoshiko Terao; the second marriage produced two children: Atsuhiko Higashikuni Morihiko Higashikuni In October 1947, the Higashikuni and other branches of the Japanese Imperial Family were divested of their titles and privileges during the American occupation of Japan and became commoners. As a commoner, he attempted several unsuccessful business ventures before becoming the chief of the research division of the Hokkaido Mining and Steamship Company, he died of lung cancer at St. Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo in 1969. Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1835-0 Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32027-8 The former Higashikuni summer villa in Yokohama
Ritsumeikan University is a private university in Kyoto, that traces its origin to 1869. With the Kinugasa Campus in Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, the university has a satellite called Biwako-Kusatsu Campus and Osaka-Ibaraki Campus. Today, Ritsumeikan university is known as one of western Japan's four leading private universities. "KAN-KAN-DO-RITS" 関関同立 is the abbreviation that refers to the four leading private universities in the region. Ritsumeikan University is well-known for its International Relations and Science & Engineering departments. Ritsumeikan University has exchange programmes with schools throughout the world, including The University of British Columbia, The University of Melbourne, The University of Sydney, University of Hong Kong and King's College London. Ritsumeikan currently offers a dual bachelor's degree program and dual master's degree programme in collaboration with American University, offers a dual bachelor's degree in collaboration with The University of British Columbia.
It has an strong alumni network in the Kansai region and has produced a number of CEOs in Japanese companies as well as politicians. Ritsumeikan University Panthers is a top-ranked American-style collegiate football team in Japan and has won three national championships, seven collegiate championships, nine conference championships. Ritsumeikan was first founded as a private academy in 1869 by Prince Saionji Kinmochi. In 1900, Kojuro Nakagawa established the Kyoto Hosei School, a law school that adopted the Ritsumeikan name and was awarded full university status in 1922; the school was seen as a liberal alternative to the state-run Kyoto University. The name "Ritsumeikan" comes from a Mencius quotation: Some die young, as some live long lives; this is decided by fate. Therefore, one's duty consists of cultivating one's mind during this mortal span and thereby "establishing one's destiny"; the "kan" addition to "ritsumei" signifies a place. In Kita-ku, this liberal arts-oriented campus is a five-minute walk from Ryōan-ji and Kinkaku-ji temples.
The campus has 17,000 undergraduate and 1,100 graduate students. Colleges College of Law College of Social Sciences College of International Relations College of Policy Science College of Letters College of Image Arts and Sciences Graduate Schools Graduate school of Law Graduate school of Sociology Graduate school of International Relations Graduate school of Policy Science Graduate school of Letters Graduate school of Science for Human Services Graduate school of Language Education and Information Science Graduate school of CoreEthics and Frontier Sciences Institute at Kinugasa Campus Inter-faculty Institute for International Studies International Law & Business Program International Civil Service Program International Community Program International Welfare Program In Nakagyō-ku, Kyoto; this campus houses the School of Law, Graduate School of Management, Graduate School of Public Policy, in addition to the Ritsumeikan Academy headquarters. Graduate Schools Graduate School of Management Graduate School of Public Policy Schools School of Law Biwako-Kusatsu Campus is in Kusatsu, Shiga.
This technology-oriented campus is southeast of Lake Biwa, the largest freshwater lake in Japan, is a 30-minute train ride from Kyōto Station. The campus has four undergraduate colleges, four graduate schools, 16,000 undergraduates and 1,600 graduate students. Colleges College of Economics The College of Economics offers three programs pertaining to Economic Strategy, Economic Cooperation and International Economics, Human Welfare and Economic Conditions; the curriculum integrates theory and knowledge of the current state of affairs in a structured approach on a domestic and foreign scale. College of Business Administration College of Science and Engineering College of Information Science & Engineering Integrated Institute of Arts & Science College of Life Sciences College of Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate schools Graduate School of Economics Graduate School of Business Administration Graduate School of Science and Engineering Graduate School of Technology Management Institute at BKC Integrated Institute for Arts and Science Environment & Design Institute Finance Institute Service Management Institute The Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University is a private institution inaugurated April 2000 in Beppu, Ōita Prefecture, Japan.
Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University was made possible through the collaboration of three parties from the public and private sectors: Oita Prefecture, Beppu City and the Ritsumeikan University. APU has an enrollment of just under 6,000 students. Half of the students and faculty members come from overseas; the university has supported an American football rules team since 1953. The team has won three national championships, seven collegiate championships, nine conference championships. Established in April 2005 on the Biwako-Kusatsu Campus, work at this center focuses on disaster mitigation using sensor systems and computer networks. L
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in