Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze was a German botanist. Otto Kuntze was born in Leipzig. An apothecary in his early career, he published an essay entitled Pocket Fauna of Leipzig. Between 1863 and 1866 he worked as tradesman in Berlin and traveled through central Europe and Italy. From 1868 to 1873 he had his own factory for essential oils and attained a comfortable standard of living. Between 1874 and 1876, he traveled around the world: the Caribbean, United States, China, South East Asia, Arabian peninsula and Egypt; the journal of these travels was published as "Around the World". From 1876 to 1878 he studied Natural Science in Berlin and Leipzig and gained his doctorate in Freiburg with a monography of the genus Cinchona, he edited the botanical collection from his world voyage encompassing 7,700 specimens in Berlin and Kew Gardens. The publication came as a shock to botany, since Kuntze had revised taxonomy, his three-volume treatise, Revisio Generum Plantarum was rejected or deliberately ignored. In 1886, Kuntze spent the 1887 -- 88 period on the Canary Islands.
The results of both journeys became part of the Revisio. At the beginning of the 1890s he left for South America, of which he managed to see nearly all countries. In 1894, he visited the Southern African countries as well as the German colonies. In the last years of his life, Kuntze moved permanently to Sanremo. Although he stated that he was diligently applying standard practice, his revolutionary ideas about botanic nomenclature created a schism between competing sets of Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, the precursors of the modern International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants; the conflict came to a head at the 2nd International Botanical Congress in 1905, two years before Kuntze's death. His uncompromising responses to differing views meant that the doors of much of the academic world in Europe, were closed to him. Kuntze's work cast a strong light on the inadequacy of previous approaches to botanical nomenclature. A group of American botanists developed an alternative set of rules, the Rochester Code, which they proposed in 1892 as an alternative to the International Rules.
This schism was not resolved until 1930. Barnhart, John Hendley. "Otto Kuntze". Bulletin of the Charleston Museum. 9. Pp. 65–68. Urban, Ignaz. "Symbolae Antillanae". Notae Biographicae: 70.. Hemsley, W. B.. "Dr. Otto Kuntze". Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Pp. 100–101. Stafleu, Frans A.. "Kuntze, Carl Ernst Otto". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 15. Pp. 268–69. Zanoni, TA, "Otto Kuntze, Botanist. I. Biography and Travels", Brittonia, 32: 551–571, doi:10.2307/2806169, JSTOR 2806169. Barnhart John Hendley W. B. Hemsley Revisio generum plantarum, Botanicus. Kuntze, Illustrated Garden. Comprehensive bibliography, WorldCat
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Monocotyledons referred to as monocots, are flowering plants whose seeds contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided, the rest of the flowering plants having two cotyledons and therefore classified as dicotyledons, or dicots. However, molecular phylogenetic research has shown that while the monocots form a monophyletic group or clade, the dicots do not. Monocots have always been recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks and under several different names; the APG III system of 2009 recognises a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank. The monocots include about 60,000 species; the largest family in this group by number of species are the orchids, with more than 20,000 species. About half as many species belong to the true grasses, which are economically the most important family of monocots. In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced; these include not only major grains, but forage grasses, sugar cane, the bamboos.
Other economically important monocot crops include various palms and plantains, gingers and their relatives and cardamom, pineapple, water chestnut, leeks and garlic. Many houseplants are monocot epiphytes. Additionally most of the horticultural bulbs, plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies, irises, cannas and tulips, are monocots; the monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single cotyledon, or embryonic leaf, in their seeds. This feature was used to contrast the monocots with the dicotyledons or dicots which have two cotyledons. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a useful characteristic, nor is it reliable; the single cotyledon is only one of a number of modifications of the body plan of the ancestral monocotyledons, whose adaptive advantages are poorly understood, but may have been related to adaption to aquatic habitats, prior to radiation to terrestrial habitats. Monocots are sufficiently distinctive that there has been disagreement as to membership of this group, despite considerable diversity in terms of external morphology.
However, morphological features that reliably characterise major clades are rare. Thus monocots are distinguishable from other angiosperms both in terms of their uniformity and diversity. On the one hand the organisation of the shoots, leaf structure and floral configuration are more uniform than in the remaining angiosperms, yet within these constraints a wealth of diversity exists, indicating a high degree of evolutionary success. Monocot diversity includes perennial geophytes such as ornamental flowers including and succulent epiphytes, all in the lilioid monocots, major cereal grains in the grass family and forage grasses as well as woody tree-like palm trees, bamboo and bromeliads, bananas and ginger in the commelinid monocots, as well as both emergent and aroids, as well as floating or submerged aquatic plants such as seagrass. Organisation and life formsThe most important distinction is their growth pattern, lacking a lateral meristem that allows for continual growth in diameter with height, therefore this characteristic is a basic limitation in shoot construction.
Although herbaceous, some arboraceous monocots reach great height and mass. The latter include agaves, palms and bamboos; this creates challenges in water transport. Some, such as species of Yucca, develop anomalous secondary growth, while palm trees utilise an anomalous primary growth form described as establishment growth; the axis undergoes primary thickening, that progresses from internode to internode, resulting in a typical inverted conical shape of the basal primary axis. The limited conductivity contributes to limited branching of the stems. Despite these limitations a wide variety of adaptive growth forms has resulted from epiphytic orchids and bromeliads to submarine Alismatales and mycotrophic Burmanniaceae and Triuridaceae. Other forms of adaptation include the climbing vines of Araceae which use negative phototropism to locate host trees, while some palms such as Calamus manan produce the longest shoots in the plant kingdom, up to 185 m long. Other monocots Poales, have adopted a therophyte life form.
LeavesThe cotyledon, the primordial Angiosperm leaf consists of a proximal leaf base or hypophyll and a distal hyperphyll. In monocots the hypophyll tends to be the dominant part in contrast to other angiosperms. From these, considerable diversity arises. Mature monocot leaves are narrow and linear, forming a sheath
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach
Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach was a botanist and the foremost German orchidologist of the 19th century. His father Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach was a well-known botanist, he assisted his father in the writing of Icones. He became a Doctor in Botany with his work on the pollen of orchids. Soon after his graduation, Reichenbach was appointed to the post of extraordinary professor of botany at the Leipzig in 1855, he became director of the botanical gardens at the Hamburg University. At that time, thousands of newly discovered orchids were being sent back to Europe, he was responsible for identifying, classifying. Reichenbach recorded many of these new discoveries, he was not the easiest of personalities, used to boast about his many descriptions, some of which were superficial, leading to a great deal of taxonomic confusion. H. G. Reichenbach became the world’s leading authority on orchids, after the death of his friend, the'father of orchidology' John Lindley in 1865. "Orchid specimens from all over the world were sent to him for identification, these, together with his copious notes and drawings, forms an immense herbarium which rivaled that of Lindley at Kew".
His immense herbarium and library were bequeathed to the'Naturhistorisches Museum' in Vienna, Austria, on the condition that it would not be consulted during the first 25 years after his death. Reichenbach acted this way out of resentment of the appointment of Robert Allen Rolfe, a self-taught orchid expert, as the top taxonomist at Kew; this resulted in a great number of double or multiple descriptions of orchid species, which had to be corrected afterwards. After Reichenbach’s death, his work was continued by Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Kraenzlin. In 1886, Frederick Sander commissioned Henry George Moon, a pure colourist, to paint 192 watercolour plates of orchids with descriptions by Reichenbach; these monthly publications became known as the Reichenbachia and are the richest reference sources on orchids produced. Reichenbachanthus Chondrorhyncha reichenbachiana Kefersteinia reichenbachiana Masdevallia reichenbachiana Microstylis reichenbachiana Nepeta reichenbachiana Phalaenopsis reichenbachiana Pinguicula longifolia subsp.
Reichenbachiana Restrepiopsis reichenbachiana Sievekingia reichenbachiana Stanhopea reichenbachiana Viola reichenbachiana Reichenbach, H. G.. De pollinis Orchidearum genesi ac structura et de Orchideis in artem ac systema redigendis. Commentatio quam ex auctoritate amplissimi philosophorum ordinis die mensis julii decimo hora decima MDCCCLII illustris ictorum ordinis concessu in auditorio juridico pro venia docendi impetranda publice defendet.. Leipzig: F. Hofmeister. Reichenbach, H. G.. Beiträge zu einer Orchideenkunde Central-Amerika's. Hamburg: T. G. Meissner. Reichenbach, H. G.. Xenia Orchidacea. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Orchideen. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus. Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica, an orchid first described by Reichenbach as a variety of P. lueddemanniana Reinikka, M. A. A History of the Orchid, p. 215, Timber Press, Oregon, 1995 Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie Books by H. G. Reichenbach at the Biodiversity Heritage Library List of plants described by H. G. Reichenbach on IPNI
The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean. They are located in Southeast Asia, 150 km north of Aceh on Sumatra, separated from Thailand to the east by the Andaman Sea. Located 1,300 km southeast of the Indian subcontinent, across the Bay of Bengal, they form part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. UNESCO has declared the Great Nicobar Island as one of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; the Nicobar Islands cover a land area of 1,841 km2 and had a population of 36,844 during the 2011 Census. They comprise three distinct groups: Northern Group: Car Nicobar BattimalyCentral Group: Chowra, Chaura or Sanenyo Teressa or Luroo Bompuka or Poahat Katchal Camorta Nancowry or Nancowrie Trinket Laouk or "Isle of Man" TillangchongSouthern Group: Great Nicobar Little Nicobar Kondul Island Pulo Milo or Pillomilo Meroe, Treis, Kabra and MegapodIndira Point is the southernmost point of Great Nicobar Island and of India itself, lying about 150 km north of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Nicobar Islands are part of a great island arc created by the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Eurasia. The collision lifted the Himalayas and most of the Indonesian islands, created a long arc of highlands and islands, which includes the Arakan Yoma range of Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar islands, the islands off the west coast of Sumatra, including the Banyak Islands and Mentawai Islands; the climate is warm and tropical, with temperatures ranging from 22 to 30 °C. Rainfall is heavy due to annual measures around 3000 to 3800 mm each year; the vegetation of the Nicobars is divided into the coastal mangrove forests and the interior evergreen and deciduous Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. Additionally, several islands contain extensive inland grasslands, though these are thought to result from human intervention; the Nicobar Islands are recognised as a distinct terrestrial ecoregion, the Nicobar Islands rain forests, with many endemic species. As a result of lower sea levels during the ice ages, the Andaman Islands were linked to the Southeast Asian mainland, but it is not believed that the Nicobar Islands had a land bridge to the continent.
Lower sea levels did link the islands to one another: Great Nicobar and Little Nicobar were linked to each other, Nancowry, Katchall, Trinka and the nearby smaller islands were linked to one another as well. The Nicobar Islands are believed to have been inhabited for thousands of years. Six indigenous Nicobarese languages are spoken on the islands, which are part of the Mon–Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family, which includes Mon and Vietnamese languages of Southeast Asia, the Munda languages of India. An indigenous tribe living at the southern tip of Great Nicobar, called the Shompen, may be of Mesolithic Southeast Asian origin; the earliest extant references to the name "Nicobar" is in the Sri Lankan Pali Buddhist chronicles, the Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa, which state that the children of the followers of the legendary founder of the Sri Lankan Kingdom, landed on Naggadipa. The modern name is derived from the Chola dynasty name for the islands, Nakkavaram or'Puup Pii', inscribed on the Thanjavur inscription of 1050 CE.
Marco Polo referred to this island as'Necuverann'. The history of organised European colonisation on the islands began with the Danish East India Company in 1754/56. During this time they were administrated from Tranquebar administrated under the name of Frederiksøerne. Between 1778 and 1783, William Bolts attempted to establish an Austrian colony on the islands on the mistaken assumption that Denmark–Norway had abandoned its claims to the islands. Italy made an attempt at buying the Nicobar Islands from Denmark between 1864 and 1868; the Italian Minister of Agriculture and Commerce Luigi Torelli started a negotiation that looked promising, but failed due to the unexpected end of his Office and the first La Marmora Cabinet. The negotiations were interrupted and never brought up again. Denmark's presence in the islands ended formally on 16 October 1868 when it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands to Britain, which in 1869 made them part of British India. During World War II, the islands were occupied by Japan between 1942 and 1945.
India occupied these islands as its Territory. Together with the Andaman Islands, they became a union territory of India in 1950. Andaman and Nicobar islands are known for the various types of water sports available. Water sports include snorkeling, scuba diving, under-sea walking and other thrilling sports. Water sports is one main cause of the huge tourist attraction to this place. People can prefer to relax or excite themselves. On 26 December 2004, the coast of the Nicobar Islands was devastated by a 10–15 m high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. At least 6,000 people were killed on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with reports putting the death toll on Katchal Island alone at 4,600. Several islands were damaged with initial reports of islands broken in two or three pieces and coral reefs moved above water
Robert Allen Rolfe
Robert Allen Rolfe was an English botanist specialising in the study of orchids. For a time he worked in the gardens at Welbeck Abbey, he became second assistant. He was the first curator of the orchid herbarium at the Royal Botanic Gardens, founded the magazine The Orchid Review, published many papers on hybrids of different species of orchids; the genus Allenrolfea of amaranths was named after him by Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze. Rolfe was buried in Richmond Cemetery. Rolfe, Robert Allen. "On the Selagineæ described by Linnæus, Linnæus, fil. and Thunberg." Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 338-358. Rolfe, Robert Allen. "On Hyalocalyx, a new Genus of Turneraceæ from Madagascar." Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 21: 256-258. Rolfe, Robert Allen. "On the Flora of the Philippine Islands, its probable Derivation." Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 21: 283-316. Rolfe, Robert Allen. On Bigeneric Orchid Hybrids. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 24: 156-170. Rolfe, Robert Allen.
A Morphological and Systematic Review of the Apostasieæ. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 25: 211-243. Rolfe, Robert Allen & Hurst, Charles Chamberlain; the Orchid Stud-Book: An Enumeration of Hybrid Orchids of Artificial Origin, with their parents, date of first flowering, references to descriptions and figures, synonymy. With an historical introduction and 120 figures and a chapter on hybridising and raising orchids from seed. Frank Leslie & Co