Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
The Penitent Thief known as the Good Thief or the Thief on the Cross, is one of two unnamed persons mentioned in a version of the Crucifixion of Jesus in the New Testament. The Gospel of Luke describes one asking Jesus to "remember him" when Jesus will have "come into" his kingdom; the other, as the impenitent thief, challenges Jesus to save himself to prove that he is the Messiah. He is venerated in the Catholic Church; the Roman Martyrology places his commemoration on 25 March, together with the Feast of the Annunciation, because of the ancient Christian tradition that Christ were crucified and died on the anniversary of Christ's Incarnation. He is given the name Dismas in the Gospel of Nicodemus and is traditionally known in Catholicism as "Saint Dismas" . Other traditions have bestowed other names: In Coptic Orthodox tradition and the Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea, he is named Demas. In the Codex Colbertinus, he is named Zoatham. In Russian Orthodox tradition, he is named Rakh. Two men were crucified at the same time as Jesus, one on his right hand and one on his left, which the Gospel of Mark interprets as fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah 53:12.
According to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark both of the thieves mocked Jesus. Save yourself and us." 40 The other, rebuking him, said in reply, "Have you no fear of God, for you are subject to the same condemnation? 41 And indeed, we have been condemned justly, for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes, but this man has done nothing criminal." 42 Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom." 43 He replied to him, "Amen I say to you today you will be with me in Paradise." 23:39–43 The phrase translated "Amen I say to you today you will be in paradise" in Luke 23:43 is disputed in a minority of versions and commentaries. The Greek manuscripts are without punctuation, so attribution of the adverb "today" to the verb "be", as "Amen I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise", or the verb "say", as "Amen I say to you today, you will be with me in paradise", is dependent on analysis of word order conventions in Koine Greek; the majority of ancient Bible translations follow the majority view, with only the Aramaic language Curetonian Gospels offering significant testimony to the minority view.
As a result, some prayers recognize the good thief as the only person confirmed as a saint—that is, a person known to be in Paradise after death—by the Bible, indeed by Jesus himself. Thomas Aquinas wrote: The words of The Lord must therefore be understood not of an earthly or corporeal paradise, but of that spiritual paradise in which all may be, said to be, who are in the enjoyment of the divine glory. Hence to place, the thief went up with Christ to heaven, that he might be with Christ, as it was said to him: "Thou shalt be with Me in Paradise". Only the Gospel of Luke describes one of the thieves as penitent, that gospel does not name him. Augustine of Hippo does not name the thief, but wonders if he might not have been baptized at some point. According to tradition, the Good Thief was crucified to Jesus' right hand and the other thief was crucified to his left. For this reason, depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus show Jesus' head inclined to his right, showing his acceptance of the Good Thief.
In the Russian Orthodox Church, both crucifixes and crosses are made with three bars: the top one, representing the titulus. The footrest is slanted, pointing up towards the Good Thief, pointing down towards the other. According to John Chrysostom, the thief dwelt in the desert and robbed or murdered anyone unlucky enough to cross his path. According to Pope Gregory I, he "was guilty of blood his brother's blood; the thief's conversion is sometimes given as an example of the necessary steps one must take to arrive at salvation through Christ: awareness of personal sin, repentance of sin, acceptance of Christ and salvation's promise of eternal life. Further, the argument is presented that baptism is not necessary for salvation since the thief had no opportunity for it. However, in some church traditions he is regarded as having a "baptism of blood". Luke's unnamed penitent thief was assigned the name Dismas in the Gospel of Nicodemus, portions of which may be dated to the 4th century; the name "Dismas" was adapted from a Greek word meaning "sunset" or "death".
The other thief's name is given as Gestas. In Syriac Infancy Gospel's Life of the Good Thief, Augustine of Hippo said. Anne Catherine Emmerich saw the Holy Family "exhausted and helpless". Pope Theophilus of Alexandria wrote a Homily on the Crucifixion and the Good Thief, a classic of Coptic literature. In Coptic Orthodoxy, he is named Demas; this is the name given to
Timothy was an early Christian evangelist and the first Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97. Timothy was from the Lycaonian city of Lystra in Asia Minor, born of a Jewish mother who had become a Christian believer, a Greek father; the Apostle Paul met him during his second missionary journey and he became Paul’s companion and co-worker along with Silas. The New Testament indicates that Timothy traveled with Paul the Apostle, his mentor. Paul entrusted him with important assignments, he is addressed as the recipient of the Second Epistles to Timothy. Timothy was a native of Lystra in Lycaonia; when Paul and Barnabas first visited Lystra, Paul healed a person crippled from birth, leading many of the inhabitants to accept his teaching. When he returned a few years with Silas, Timothy was a respected member of the Christian congregation, as were his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice, both Jews. In 2 Timothy 1:5, his mother and grandmother are noted as eminent for their faith.
Timothy is said to have been acquainted with the Scriptures since childhood. In 1 Corinthians 16:10 there is a suggestion that he was by nature reserved and timid: "When Timothy comes, see that you put him at ease among you, for he is doing the work of the Lord". Timothy's father was a Greek Gentile, thus Timothy had not been circumcised and Paul now ensured that this was done, according to the text Acts 16:1–3, to ensure Timothy's acceptability to the Jews whom they would be evangelizing. According to McGarvey: "Yet we see him in the case before us, circumcising Timothy with his own hand, this'on account of certain Jews who were in those quarters'"; this did not compromise the decision made at the Council of Jerusalem, that gentile believers were not required to be circumcised. Timothy became St Paul’s disciple, his constant companion and co-worker in preaching. In the year 52, Paul and Silas took Timothy along with them on their journey to Macedonia. Augustine extols his zeal and disinterestedness in forsaking his country, his house, his parents, to follow the apostle, to share in his poverty and sufferings.
Timothy may have been subject to ill health or "frequent ailments", Paul encouraged him to "use a little wine for your stomach's sake". When Paul went on to Athens and Timothy stayed for some time at Beroea and Thessalonica before joining Paul at Corinth. Timothy next appears in Acts during Paul's stay in Ephesus, in late 56 or early 57 Paul sent him forth to Macedonia with the aim that he would arrive at Corinth. Timothy arrived at Corinth. Timothy was with Paul in Corinth during the winter of 57–58 when Paul dispatched his Letter to the Romans. According to Acts 20:3–6, Timothy was with Paul in Macedonia just before Passover in 58. "That is the last mention of Timothy in Acts", Raymond Brown notes. In the year 64, Paul left Timothy at Ephesus, his relationship with Paul was close and Paul entrusted him with missions of great importance. Timothy's name appears as the co-author on 2 Corinthians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, Philemon. Paul wrote to the Philippians about Timothy, "I have no one like him".
When Paul was in prison and awaiting martyrdom, he summoned his faithful friend Timothy for a last farewell. That Timothy was jailed at least once during the period of the writing of the New Testament is implied by the writer of Hebrews mentioning Timothy's release at the end of the epistle; the apocryphal Acts of Timothy states that in the year 97, the 80-year-old bishop tried to halt a procession in honor of the goddess Diana by preaching the gospel. The angry pagans beat him, dragged him through the streets, stoned him to death. Timothy is venerated as an apostle and martyr by the Eastern Orthodox Church, with his feast day on 22 January; the General Roman Calendar venerates Timothy together with Titus by a memorial on 26 January, the day after the Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul. From the 13th century until 1969 the feast of Timothy was on 24 January, the day before that of the Conversion of Saint Paul. Along with Titus and Silas, Timothy is commemorated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Episcopal Church on 26 January.
Timothy's feast is kept by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod on 24 January. In the 4th century, the relics of Timothy were transferred from Ephesus to Constantinople and placed in the Church of the Holy Apostles near the tombs of St Andrew and St Luke. On in the 13th century, the relics seem to have been taken to Italy by a count returning from the crusades, buried around 1239 in the Termoli Cathedral; the remains were re-discovered in 1945, during restoration works. Timothy is the patron invoked against intestinal disorders. Eunice Lois Acts of Timothy First Epistle to Timothy Second Epistle to Timothy Clement of Rome St. Timothy and Martyr Saints Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square
Philippi was a major city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos. Its original name was Crenides after its establishment by Thasian colonists in 360/359 BC; the city was renamed by Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. The present municipality, Filippoi, is located near the ruins of the ancient city and is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Kavala, Greece, it was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016. Thasian colonists established a settlement at Krenides in Thrace in 360/359 BC near the head of the Aegean Sea at the foot of Mt. Orbelos, now called Mt. Lekani, about 13 km north-west of Kavalla, on the northern border of the marsh that, in antiquity, covered the entire plain separating it from the Pangaion hills to the south. In 356 BC King Philip II of Macedon renamed it to Philippi; the Macedonian conquerors of the town aimed to take control of the neighbouring gold mines and to establish a garrison at a strategic passage: the site controlled the route between Amphipolis and Neapolis, part of the great royal route which runs east-west across Macedonia and which the Roman Republic reconstructed in the 2nd century BC as part of the Via Egnatia.
Philip II endowed the city with important fortifications, which blocked the passage between the swamp and Mt. Orbelos, sent colonists to occupy it. Philip had the marsh drained, as the writer Theophrastus attests. Philippi preserved its autonomy within the kingdom of Macedon and had its own political institutions; the discovery of new gold mines near the city, at Asyla, contributed to the wealth of the kingdom and Philip established a mint there. The city became integrated into the kingdom during the reign of Philip V of Macedon; the city contained 2,000 people. When the Romans destroyed the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon in the Third Macedonian War, they divided the kingdom into four separate states. Amphipolis became the capital of the eastern Macedonian state. Nothing is known about the city in this period, but archeological remains include walls, the Greek theatre, the foundations of a house under the Roman forum and a little temple dedicated to a hero cult; this monument covers the tomb of a certain Exekestos, is situated on the agora and is dedicated to the κτίστης, the foundation hero of the city.
The city reappears in the sources during the Liberators' civil war that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Caesar's heirs Mark Antony and Octavian confronted the forces of the assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Philippi on the plain to the west of the city during October in 42 BC. Antony and Octavian won this final battle against the partisans of the Republic, they released some of their veteran soldiers from Legion XXVIII, to colonize the city, refounded as Colonia Victrix Philippensium. From 30 BC Octavian established his control of the Roman state, becoming Roman emperor from 27 BC, he reorganized the colony and established more settlers there and other Italians. The city was renamed Colonia Iulia Philippensis, Colonia Augusta Iulia Philippensis after January, 27 BC, when Octavian received the title Augustus from the Roman Senate. Following this second renaming, after the first, the territory of Philippi was centuriated and distributed to the colonists.
The city kept its Macedonian walls, its general plan was modified only by the construction of a forum, a little to the east of the site of Greek agora. It was a "miniature Rome", under the municipal law of Rome, governed by two military officers, the duumviri, who were appointed directly from Rome; the colony recognized its dependence on the mines that brought it its privileged position on the Via Egnatia. Many monuments evidence its wealth - imposing considering the small size of the urban area: the forum, laid out in two terraces on both sides of the main road, was constructed in several phases between the reigns of the Emperors Claudius and Antoninus Pius, the theatre was enlarged and expanded in order to hold Roman games. An abundance of Latin inscriptions testifies to the prosperity of the city; the New Testament records a visit to the city by the apostle Paul during his second missionary journey. On the basis of the Acts of the Apostles and the letter to the Philippians, early Christians concluded that Paul had founded their community.
Accompanied by Silas, by Timothy and by Luke, Paul is believed to have preached for the first time on European soil in Philippi. According to the New Testament, Paul visited the city on two other occasions, in 56 and 57; the Epistle to the Philippians dates from around 61-62 and is believed to show the immediate effects of Paul's instruction. The development of Christianity in Philippi is indicated by a letter from Polycarp of Smyrna addressed to the community in Philippi around AD 160 and by funerary inscriptions; the first church described in the city is a small building, originally a small prayer-house. This Basilica of Paul, identified by a mosaic inscription on the pavement, is dated around 343 from a mention by the bishop Porphyrios, who attended the Council of Serdica that year. Despite Philippi having one of the oldest congregations in Europe, attestation of a bishopric dates only from the 4th century; the prosperity
Simeon (Gospel of Luke)
Simeon at the Temple is the "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who, according to Luke 2:25–35, met Mary and Jesus as they entered the Temple to fulfill the requirements of the Law of Moses on the 40th day from Jesus' birth at the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. According to the Biblical account, Simeon had been visited by the Holy Spirit and told that he would not die until he had seen the Lord's Christ. On taking Jesus into his arms he uttered a prayer, still used liturgically as the Latin Nunc dimittis in many Christian churches, gave a prophecy alluding to the crucifixion. In some Christian traditions, this meeting is commemorated on February 2 as Candlemas or more formally, the Presentation of the Lord, the Meeting of the Lord, or the Purification of the Virgin, his prophecy is used in the context of Our Lady of Sorrows. Simeon is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox traditions, his feast day is October 8 in the revised Martyrology of the Roman Catholic Church.
The sole mention in the New Testament of Simeon is as follows: Now there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon, this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ, and inspired by the Spirit he came into the temple. And his father and his mother marveled at. - Luke 2:25, RSV-2CE The text suggests. Some writers have identified this Simeon with Shimon ben Hillel. Holy Simeon is the usual term used in Catholic sources. Though St. Simeon the Prophet and St. Simeon the Elder are found. Simeon senex occurs in some Latin hagiographies. Aged Simeon in poetry and music, including the Candlemas anthem "When Mary to the Temple Went" by Johannes Eccard. Simeon is used by Protestants. Simeon Theodochos is used in Greek Orthodox tradition. In Russian Orthodox tradition this becomes Simeon Bogo-priimets. According to a tradition in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Simeon had been one of the seventy-two translators of the Septuagint.
As he hesitated over the translation of Isaiah 7:14 and was going to correct it to γυνή, an angel appeared to him and told him that he would not die until he had seen the Christ born of a virgin. This would make him well over two hundred years old at the time of the meeting described in Luke, therefore miraculously long-lived; the events in the life of Saint Simeon the Righteous are observed on both February 2 and 3. The observances of the first day center around memorializing the act of Mary undergoing an act of ritual purification, presenting Jesus, her child, to the Temple, a feast day known as the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. Since this day focuses more on Jesus and Mary, the observation on February 3 is specific to St. Simeon, allowed to die after seeing the Christ born of a virgin. In Christian tradition, the day of a saint's death is celebrated as the saint's feast day. Under Mosaic law, a mother who had given birth to a man-child was considered unclean for seven days; the Christian Feast of the Purification therefore corresponds to the day on which Mary, according to Jewish law, should have attended a ceremony of ritual purification.
The Gospel of Luke 2:22–39 relates that Mary was purified according to the religious law, followed by Jesus's presentation in the Jerusalem temple, this explains the formal names given to the festival. In the liturgy of Evening prayer in the Anglican communion, Anglicans recite the Nunc dimittis – or sing it in Evensong in the canticle known as the Song of Simeon – traditionally, every evening, it is used in the Roman Catholic Compline and Orthodox Vespers. The Nunc dimittis has been set to music by many notable composers, such as Rachmaninoff; the feast on February 2 is referred to as Candlemas, as in honor of the ritual purification of the Virgin Mary, candles which will be used for the entire year are brought into a church and blessed. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Presentation is the fourth Joyful Mystery of the Rosary. In the Church of England, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple is a Principal Feast. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, it is one of the twelve Great Feasts; this feast day has a number of different names: The Meeting of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ The Coming of the Son of God into the Temple Feast of the Purification of the Virgin The Presentation of the Lord Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary The P
Life of Jesus in the New Testament
The four canonical gospels of the New Testament are the primary sources of information for the narrative of the life of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament, such as the Pauline epistles which were written within 20–30 years of each other include references to key episodes in his life such as the Last Supper, and the Acts of the Apostles says more about the Ascension episode than the canonical gospels. The genealogy and Nativity of Jesus are described in two of the four canonical gospels: the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke. While Luke traces the genealogy upwards towards Adam and God, Matthew traces it downwards towards Jesus. Both gospels state that Jesus was begotten not by Joseph, but conceived miraculously in the womb of Mary, mother of Jesus by the Holy Spirit. Both accounts trace Joseph back from there to Abraham; these lists are identical between Abraham and David, but they differ completely between David and Joseph. Matthew gives Jacob as Joseph’s father and Luke says Joseph was the son of Heli.
Attempts at explaining the differences between the genealogies have varied in nature. Much of modern scholarship interprets them as literary inventions; the Luke and Matthew accounts of the birth of Jesus have a number of points in common. In the Luke account Joseph and Mary travel from their home in Nazareth for the census to Bethlehem, where Jesus is born and laid in a manger. Angels proclaim him a savior for all people, shepherds come to adore him. In Matthew, The Magi follow a star to Bethlehem, where the family are living, to bring gifts to Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod massacres all males under two years old in Bethlehem in order to kill Jesus, but Jesus's family flees to Egypt and settles in Nazareth. Over the centuries, biblical scholars have attempted to reconcile these contradictions, while modern scholarship views them as legendary, they consider the issue of historicity as secondary, given that gospels were written as theological documents rather than chronological timelines.
The five major milestones in the New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Crucifixion and Ascension. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus starts with his Baptism by John the Baptist, when he is about thirty years old. Jesus begins preaching in Galilee and gathers disciples. After the proclamation of Jesus as Christ, three of the disciples witness his Transfiguration. After the death of John the Baptist and the Transfiguration, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem, having predicted his own death there. Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem, there friction with the Pharisees increases and one of his disciples agrees to betray him for thirty pieces of silver. In the gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples; the Gospel of Luke states. A chronology of Jesus has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around 27–29 and the end in the range 30–36.
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and form the core of the early Church as it is believed that the Apostles dispersed from Jerusalem to found the Apostolic Sees; the Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem. In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea; as Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.
The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. In the gospel accounts, towards the end of the final week in Jerusalem, Jesus has the Last Supper with his disciples, the next day is betrayed and tried; the trial ends in his death. Three days after his burial, he is resurrected and appears to his disciples and a multitude of his followers over a 40-day period, after which he ascends to Heaven. In the New Testament accounts, the principle locations for the ministry of Jesus were Galilee and Judea, with activities taking place in surrounding areas such as Perea and Samaria; the gospel narrative of the ministry of Jesus is traditionally separated into sections that have a geographical nature. Galilean ministry: Jesus' ministry begins when after his baptism, he returns to Galilee, preaches in the synagogue of Capernaum; the first disciples of Jesus encounter him near the Sea of Galilee and his Galilean ministry includes key episodes such as Sermon on the Mount which form the core of his moral teachings.
Jesus' ministry in the Galilee area draws to an end with the death of John the Baptist. Journey to Jerusalem: After the death of the Baptist, about half way through the gospels two key events take place tha
Joseph ben Caiaphas known as Caiaphas in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who, according to the gospels, organized a plot to kill Jesus. He famously presided over the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus; the primary sources for Caiaphas' life are the writings of Josephus. Outside of his interactions with Jesus, little else is known about his tenure as high priest; the 1st-century Jewish historian Josephus is considered the most reliable extra-biblical literary source for Caiaphas. His works contain information on the dates for Caiaphas' tenure of the high priesthood, along with reports on other high priests, help to establish a coherent description of the responsibilities of the high-priestly office. Josephus relates, he states that the proconsul Vitellius deposed his father in law, Annas.. Josephus' account is based on an older source in which incumbents of the high priesthood were listed chronologically. According to Josephus, Caiaphas was appointed in AD 18 by the Roman prefect who preceded Pontius Pilate, Valerius Gratus.
Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas the son of Seth. Annas had five sons who served as high priest after him; the terms of Annas and the five brothers are: Ananus the son of Seth Eleazar the son of Ananus Caiaphas - properly called Joseph son of Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas Jonathan the son of Ananus Theophilus ben Ananus Matthias ben Ananus Ananus ben Ananus In November 1990, workers found an ornate limestone ossuary while paving a road in the Peace Forest south of the Abu Tor neighborhood of Jerusalem. This ossuary contained human remains. An Aramaic inscription on the side was thought to read "Joseph son of Caiaphas" and on the basis of this the bones of an elderly man were considered to belong to the High Priest Caiaphas. Since the original discovery this identification has been challenged by some scholars on various grounds, including the spelling of the inscription, the lack of any mention of Caiaphas' status as High Priest, the plainness of the tomb, other reasons.
In June 2011, archaeologists from Bar-Ilan University and Tel Aviv University announced the recovery of a stolen ossuary, plundered from a tomb in the Valley of Elah. The Israel Antiquities Authority declared it authentic, expressed regret that it could not be studied in situ, it is inscribed with the text: "Miriam, daughter of Yeshua, son of Caiaphas, Priest of Ma’aziah from Beth ‘Imri". Based on it, Caiaphas can be assigned to the priestly course of Ma’aziah, instituted by king David. Annas, father-in-law of Caiaphas, had been high-priest from A. D. 6 to 15, continued to exercise a significant influence over Jewish affairs. Annas and Caiaphas may have sympathized with the Sadducees, a religious movement in Judaea that found most of its members among the wealthy Jewish elite; the comparatively long eighteen-year tenure of Caiaphas suggests he had a good working relationship with the Roman authorities. In the Gospel of John 11, the high priests call a gathering of the Sanhedrin in reaction to the raising of Lazarus.
In the parable related in the Gospel of Luke 16:28-30 the reaction of the "five brothers" to the possibility of the return of the beggar Lazarus has given rise to the suggestion by Claude-Joseph Drioux and others that the "rich man" is itself an attack on Caiaphas, his father-in-law, his five brothers-in-law. Caiaphas considers, with "the Chief Priests and Pharisees", what to do about Jesus, whose influence was spreading, they worry that if they "let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, the Romans will come and destroy both our holy place and our nation." In John 18, Jesus is brought before Annas. Annas sent him on to Caiaphas. Caiaphas makes a political calculation, suggesting that it would be better for "one man" to die than for "the whole nation" to be destroyed. In this Caiaphas is stating a rabbinic quotation. Afterward, Jesus is taken to the Roman governor of Judea. Pilate tells the priests to judge Jesus themselves, to which they respond they lack authority to do so. Pilate questions Jesus, after which he states, "I find no basis for a charge against him."
Pilate offers the gathered crowd the choice of one prisoner to release — said to be a Passover tradition — and they choose a criminal named Barabbas instead of Jesus. In the Gospel of Matthew 26:57-67, Caiaphas and others of the Sanhedrin are depicted interrogating Jesus, they are unable to find any. Jesus remains silent throughout the proceedings until Caiaphas demands that Jesus say whether he is the Christ. Jesus replies "I am: and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of power, coming on the clouds of heaven." 14:62 Caiaphas and the other men charge him with order him beaten. Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas by marriage to his daughter and ruled longer than any high priest in New Testament times. For Jewish leaders of the time, there were serious concerns about Roman rule and an insurgent Zealot movement to eject the Romans from Israel; the Romans would not perform execution over violations of Halakha, therefore the charge of blasphemy would not have mattered to Pilate. Caiaphas' legal position, was to establish that Jesus was guilty not on