Gare de Lille Flandres
Lille Flandres is the main railway station of Lille, capital of French Flanders. It is a terminus for regional trains, it was renamed in 1993 when Lille Europe station opened. There is a 500m walking distance between the two stations, which are adjacent stops on one of the lines of the Lille Metro; the station was built by Sydney Dunnett for the CF du Nord. Construction began in 1869 and ended in 1892; the station front is the old front from Paris' Gare du Nord and was dismantled reassembled in Lille at the end of the 19th century. Dunnett added the Hôtel des Voyageurs in 1887, the rooftop in 1892; the station is served by the following services: High speed services Paris - Lille High speed services Paris - Lille - Tourcoing Intercity services Antwerp - Ghent - Kortrijk - Mouscron - Lille Intercity services Tournai - Lille Regional services Lille - Douai - Arras - Amiens Regional services Lille - Douai - Cambrai - St-Quentin SNCB/NMBS Belgian Railways trains run from here to: Courtrai/Kortrijk for example on Belgian railway line 75.
Gare de Lille Europe Euralille Media related to Gare de Lille-Flandres at Wikimedia Commons Gare de Lille Flandres at "Gares & Connexions", the official website of SNCF Timetables TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais Official website SNCB/NMBS
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Christian de Portzamparc
Christian de Portzamparc is a French architect and urbanist. He graduated from the École Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris in 1970 and has since been noted for his bold designs and artistic touch, he won the Pritzker Prize in 1994. De Portzamparc was born in Casablanca, Morocco in 1944, when that country was a French protectorate, to a family of Breton noble descent, he began studying architecture in 1962 at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris where he was influenced by professors Eugène Beaudouin, who "encouraged his taste for formal expressionism", George Candilis, who "emphasized systematic work on grids and networks." In 1966 he traveled to New York where he spent a few months during a nine-month academic hiatus, rooted in his hesitations about continuing in architecture—"Architecture seemed to me to be too bureaucratic, not free enough compared to art. I began to criticize my first influences like Le Corbusier", he returned to his studies in the 1967 academic year and would graduate from the Beaux-Arts in 1969.
He created his agency in 1980, supported by Marie-Élisabeth Nicoleau, Étienne Pierrès and Bertrand Beau, welcomed Bruno Durbecq, Céline Barda, Léa Xu, André Terzibachian and Clovis Cunha. Based in Paris, the agency has'satellite' offices near building sites, in addition to offices in New York and Rio de Janeiro, represents a team of 80 people, drawn from all corners of the globe. Both an architect and urban planner, Christian de Portzamparc is implicated in the research of form and meaning, as well as being a constructer, his work concerns the quality of life. Christian de Portzamparc focuses on all scales of construction, from simple buildings to urban re-think; the growth of Christian de Portzamparc's urban projects through competitions and studies led to an evolution of methods, a practical result of theoretical research and analysis. This renewed vision of urban structure, which he named the "open block" in the 80s, can be seen today through projects such as the Quartier Masséna - Seine Rive Gauche, an entire neighbourhood of Paris, at La Lironde, in the south of France, both of which illustrate his master-planning and coordination techniques.
Christian de Portzamparc's buildings create environments wherein the interior and exterior spaces interpenetrate, working as catalysts in cityscape dynamics. This method of functioning came into play in major cultural programmes dedicated to dance and music, the most recent examples of which include a 1500-seat philharmonic hall, 300 seat chamber hall and 120 seat electro-acoustic hall in Luxembourg, completed in 2005, plus a unique 1800 seat concert hall that transforms into a 1300-seat opera house, under construction, amongst other music halls, as part of the project Cidade da Música in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the towers created by Christian de Portzamparc have, since the beginning, been a result of his studies of the vertical and sculptural dimension, concentrating on the prismatic form, the most recognised example of, the LVMH Tower created in 1995 in New York, USA, for which Christian de Portzamparc received many accolades, soon to be accompanied by the residential tower at 400 Park avenue in Manhattan, whose construction commenced in 2010.
In 1994, Christian de Portzamparc became the first French architect to gain the prestigious "Pritzker Architectural Prize", at the age of 50. In 1999, he created the twenty-three story LVMH Tower on East 57th Street in New York City and the LVMH's corporate headquarters on Avenue Montaigne in Paris, France. In 2006, the Collège de France created a 53rd chair dedicated'artistic creation', called on Christian de Portzamparc to be its first occupant. Today, he continues his research work through projects that are under way around the world, expressing his freshness and passion through a perfectionism that has characterised his work from the beginning. 1971-1974 Château d'eau, Marne la Vallée 1975-1979 Les Hautes-Formes housing project, Paris 1983-1987 Paris Opera Ballet School, Nanterre 1985-1987 Beaubourg Cafe, Paris 1988-1990 Musée Bourdelle, Paris 1989-1991 Nexus II, Japan 1984-1995 The City of Music, Paris 1991-1995 Crédit Lyonnais tower, Lille 1993-1999 Law courts, Courts of Justice, Grasse 1993-2006 Centre of science and museum "Les Champs Libres", Rennes 1994-1999 Extension of the Palais des Congrès Porte Maillot, Paris 1995-1999 LVMH Tower, New York 1997-2003 Embassy of France, Berlin 2001-2004 Headquarters for the press group Le Monde, Paris 1997-2005 Philharmonie Luxembourg 2000-2006 "De Citadel", housing and commercial centre Almere 2003-2013 Concert halls, school of music Cidade da Musica, Rio de Janeiro 2007-2009 Musée Hergé, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium 2011–2013 One57, a 75-story hotel/condominium tower in New York City 2013–2017 Paris La Défense Arena, new home to the Racing 92 rugby team in Nanterre 1991-2009 Development of the Lironde Gardens and construction of two Montpellier blocks 1995-2009 Urban development of the Masséna district, Paris 1998-2009 Croix Rousse Hospital, Lyon 2001-2008 Société Générale tower, La Défense, Paris 2002-2009 "400 Park Avenue South" residential tower in Manhattan, New York
Jean Nouvel is a French architect. Nouvel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was a founding member of Mars 1976 and Syndicat de l'Architecture, he has obtained a number of prestigious distinctions over the course of his career, including the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2005 and the Pritzker Prize in 2008. A number of museums and architectural centres have presented retrospectives of his work. Nouvel was born on 12 August 1945 in France, he is the son of Roger Nouvel who were teachers. His family moved when his father became the county's chief school superintendent, his parents encouraged Nouvel to study mathematics and language, but when he was 16 years old he was captivated by art when a teacher taught him drawing. Although he said he thought that his parents were guiding him to pursue a career in education or engineering, the family reached a compromise that he could study architecture which they thought was less risky than art; when Nouvel failed an entrance examination at the École des Beaux-Arts of Bordeaux, he moved to Paris where he won first prize in a national competition to attend the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts.
From 1967 to 1970, Nouvel earned his income as an assistant to architects Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, who after only one year, made him a project manager in charge of building a large apartment complex. Nouvel and filmmaker Odile Fillion married and have two sons, a post-doctorate computer scientist working at Mindstorm Multitouch in London, Pierre, a theater producer and designer at his company, Factoid. With his second wife Catherine Richard, Nouvel has Sarah, he lives now with Mia Hägg, a Swedish architect working at her practice Habiter Autrement in Paris. By age 25, Nouvel entered into his own partnership with François Seigneur. Parents sent them work, gave Nouvel a valuable recommendation to the chairperson of the seventh edition of the Biennale de Paris where for fifteen years, Nouvel designed exhibits and made contacts in the arts and theater. Early on in his career, Nouvel became a key participant in intellectual debates about architecture in France: he co-founded the Mars 1976 movement in 1976 and, a year the Syndicat de l'Architecture.
Nouvel was one of the organizers of the competition for the rejuvenation of the Les Halles district and he founded the first Paris architecture biennale in 1980. In 1981, together with Architecture-Studio, won the design competition for the Institut du Monde Arabe building in Paris, whose construction was completed in 1987 and brought Nouvel international fame. Mechanical lenses reminiscent of Arabic latticework in its south wall open and shut automatically, controlling interior lighting as the lenses' photoelectric cells respond to exterior light levels. Nouvel had three different partners between 1972 and 1984: Gilbert Lezenes, Jean-François Guyot, Pierre Soria. In 1985, with his junior architects Emmanuel Blamont, Jean-Marc Ibos and Mirto Vitart, he founded Jean Nouvel et Associés. With Emmanuel Gattani, he formed JNEC in 1988. Ateliers Jean Nouvel, his present practice, was formed in 1994 with Michel Pélissié and is one of the largest in France, with 140 people in the main office in Paris.
Ateliers Jean Nouvel site offices are Rome, Geneva and Barcelona. They are working on 30 active projects in 13 countries. Nouvel designed a flacon for L'Homme, an Yves Saint Laurent fragrance, in a limited edition launched in 2008. Nouvel was awarded the Pritzker Prize, architecture's highest honour, in 2008, for his work on more than 200 projects, among them, in the words of The New York Times, the "exotically louvered" Arab World Institute, the bullet-shaped and "candy-colored" Torre Agbar in Barcelona, the "muscular" Guthrie Theater with its cantilevered bridge in Minneapolis, in Paris, the "defiant and wildly eccentric" Musée du quai Branly and the Philharmonie de Paris. Pritzker points to several more major works: in Europe, the Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art, the Culture and Convention Center in Lucerne, the Opéra Nouvel in Lyon, Expo 2002 in Switzerland and, under construction, the Copenhagen Concert Hall and the courthouse in Nantes; the jury acknowledged the'persistence, exuberance, above all, an insatiable urge for creative experimentation' as qualities abundant in Nouvel's work.
Nouvel has designed a number of notable buildings across the world, the most significant of which are listed below. As part of the announcement of Nouvel's Pritzker Prize, the Hyatt Foundation, which awards the prize, published a full illustrated list of Nouvel's architectural work, including projects which were never built, projects in construction and designs for which construction has yet to start. In 2001 director Beat Kuert filmed a documentary about five of Nouvel's projects titled Jean Nouvel. 1987 – Nemausus 1, Nîmes, France 1987 – Arab World Institute, France 1994 – Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain, France 1995 – Euralille, (Retail / Office
Gilles Clément, is a French gardener, garden designer, botanist and writer. He has gained attention for his design of public parks such as Parc André-Citroën. In 1998, he was the recipient of France's National Landscape Prize. Since 1977 he has developed his "moving garden" at Creuse. André-Citroën Park in Paris, with Allain Provost and Patrick Berger Jardins de l'Arche in Paris la Défense, Matisse Park in Euralille with Éric Berlin and Sylvain Flipo Valloires Garden in Argoules Garden of the Château de Blois Garden of the domaine du Rayol Garden of the Quai Branly museum in Paris, with Jean Nouvel Garden of the École normale supérieure de Lyon Garden of the Château de Châtenay-en-France Garden of the Château de Beauregard, Loire Valley Parc paysager du Château de Beauregard, Loire Valley
Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, the main city of the European Metropolis of Lille; as of 2015, Lille had a population of 232,741 within its administrative limits. Lille is the first city of the Métropole Européenne de Lille with a population of 1,182,127, making it the fourth largest urban area in France after Paris and Marseille. Archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC, most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives and Vieux Lille; the original inhabitants of this region were the Gauls, such as the Menapians, the Morins, the Atrebates, the Nervians, who were followed by Germanic peoples: the Saxons, the Frisians and the Franks. The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of Lille at 640. In the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research.
Lille's Dutch name is Rijsel. The French equivalent has the same meaning: Lille comes from l'île. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes; the first mention of the town dates from 1066: apud Insulam. At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders; the County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe. A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs. There was an important Battle of Lille in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur; the counts of Flanders and Hainaut came together with England and East Frankia and tried to regain territory taken by Philip II of France following Henry II of England's death, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines in 1214.
Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople, who ruled the city. She was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. In 1225, the street performer and juggler Bertrand Cordel, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople, who had disappeared at the battle of Adrianople, he pushed the counties of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. She called her cousin, Louis VIII, he unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne had hanged. In 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, his daughter Marie soon after. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler. On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital, which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille.
It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century. The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette; the rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders to Margaret's son, Guy of Dampierre. Lille fell under the rule of France after the Franco-Flemish War; the county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said along with Brussels and Dijon. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was more powerful than the King of France, made Lille an administrative and financial capital. On 17 February 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, Philip the Good organised a Pantagruelian banquet at his Lille palace, the still-celebrated "Feast of the Pheasant". There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity.
In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders. The 16th and 17th centuries were marked by a boom in the regional textile industry, the Protestant revolts, outbreaks of the Plague. Lille came under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519; the Low Countries fell to his eldest son Philip II of Spain in 1555. The city remained under Spanish Habsburg rule until 1668. Calvinism first appeared in the area in 1542. In 1566 the countryside around Lille was affected by the Iconoclastic Fury. In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron, they were removed four months by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time, at the call of Elizabeth I of England, the north of the Seventeen Provinces, having gained a Protestant majority, su
Remment Lucas "Rem" Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist and Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. Koolhaas studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London and at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Koolhaas is the founding partner of OMA, of its research-oriented counterpart AMO based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In 2005, he co-founded Volume Magazine together with Ole Bouman, he is regarded as one of the most important architectural thinkers and urbanists of his generation. In 2000, Rem Koolhaas won the Pritzker Prize. In 2008, Time put him in their top 100 of The World's Most Influential People. Remment Koolhaas abbreviated to Rem Koolhaas, was born on 17 November 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands, to Anton Koolhaas and Selinde Pietertje Roosenburg, his father was a novelist and screenwriter. Two documentary films by Bert Haanstra for which his father wrote the scenarios were nominated for an Academy Award for Documentary Feature, one won a Golden Bear for Short Film.
His maternal grandfather, Dirk Roosenburg, was a modernist architect who worked for Hendrik Petrus Berlage, before opening his own practice. Rem Koolhaas has a brother, a sister, Annabel, his paternal cousin was urban planner Teun Koolhaas. The family lived consecutively in Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Amsterdam, his father supported the Indonesian cause for autonomy from the colonial Dutch in his writing. When the war of independence was won, he was invited over to run a cultural programme for three years and the family moved to Jakarta in 1952. "It was a important age for me," Koolhaas recalls "and I lived as an Asian."In 1969, Koolhaas co-wrote The White Slave, a Dutch film noir, wrote an unproduced script for American soft-porn king Russ Meyer. He was a journalist for the Haagse Post before starting studies, in 1968, in architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, followed, in 1972, by further studies with Oswald Mathias Ungers at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, followed by studies at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City.
Koolhaas first came to public and critical attention with OMA, the office he founded in 1975 together with architects Elia Zenghelis, Zoe Zenghelis and Madelon Vriesendorp in London. They were joined by one of Koolhaas's students, Zaha Hadid – who would soon go on to achieve success in her own right. An early work which would mark their difference from the dominant postmodern classicism of the late 1970s, was their contribution to the Venice Biennale of 1980, curated by Italian architect Paolo Portoghesi, titled "Presence of the Past"; each architect had to design a stage-like "frontage" to a Potemkin-type internal street. Other early critically received projects included the Parc de la Villette and the residence for the Prime Minister of Ireland, as well as the Kunsthal in Rotterdam; these schemes would attempt to put into practice many of the findings Koolhaas made in his book Delirious New York, written while he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York, directed by Peter Eisenman.
In September 2006, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to develop 111 First Street in Jersey City across the Hudson River from Manhattan, working with real estate developer Louis Dubin. In October 2008, Rem Koolhaas was invited for a European "group of the wise" under the chairmanship of former Spanish prime minister Felipe González to help'design' the future European Union. Other members include Nokia chairman Jorma Ollila, former European Commissioner Mario Monti and former president of Poland Lech Wałęsa. Koolhaas's book Delirious. Koolhaas celebrates the "chance-like" nature of city life: "The City is an addictive machine from which there is no escape" "Rem Koolhaas...defined the city as a collection of “red hot spots.”. As Koolhaas himself has acknowledged, this approach had been evident in the Japanese Metabolist Movement in the 1960s and early 1970s. A key aspect of architecture that Koolhaas interrogates is the "Program": with the rise of modernism in the 20th century the "Program" became the key theme of architectural design.
The notion of the Program involves "an act to edit function and human activities" as the pretext of architectural design: epitomised in the maxim Form follows function, first popularised by architect Louis Sullivan at the beginning of the 20th century. The notion was first questioned in Delirious New York, in his analysis of high-rise architecture in Manhattan. An early design method derived from such thinking was "cross-programming", introducing unexpected functions in room programmes, such as running tracks in skyscrapers. More Koolhaas unsuccessfully proposed the inclusion of hospital units for the homeless into the Seattle Public Library project; the next landmark publication by Koolhaas was S,M,L,XL, together with Bruce Mau, Jennifer Sigler, Hans Werlemann, a 1376-page tome combining essays, diaries, fiction and meditations on the contemporary city. The layout of the huge book transformed architectural publishing, such books—full-colour graphics and dense texts—have since become common.